Abstract in English:Systematics, phylogeny and geographical distribution of the South American species of Centris (Paracentris) Cameron, 1903, and Centris (Penthemisia) Moure, 1950, including a phylogenetic analysis of the "Centris group" sensu Ayala, 1998 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Centridini). A cladistic analysis with the objective of testing the hypothesis of monophily of Centris (Paracentris) Cameron, 1903, and of studying its phylogenetic relationships with the other subgenera that belong to the Centris group, sensu Ayala, 1998, and the relationships among the species that occur in South America, is presented. Centris (Paracentris) is a group of New World bees of amphitropical distribution, especially diversified in the Andes and in the xeric areas of South and North America. Thirty-one species were included in the analysis, four considered as outgroup, and 49 characters, all from external morphology and genitalia of adult specimens. Parsimony analyses with equal weights for the characters and successive weighting were performed with the programs NONA and PAUP, and analyses of implied weighting with the program PeeWee. The strict consensus among the trees obtained in all the analyses indicates that C. (Paracentris), as previously recognized, is a paraphyletic group. In order to eliminate that condition, the subgenera C. (Acritocentris), C. (Exallocentris) and C. (Xerocentris), all described by SNELLING (1974) are synonymized under C. (Paracentris). The subgenus C. (Penthemisia) Moure, 1950, previously considered a synonym of C. (Paracentris), is reinstated, but in a more restricted sense than originally proposed and with the following species: Centris brethesi Schrottky, 1902; C. buchholzi Herbst, 1918; C. chilensis (Spinola, 1851), C. mixta mixta Friese, 1904, and C. mixta tamarugalis Toro & Chiappa, 1989. Centris mixta, previously recognized as the only South American species of the subgenus C. (Xerocentris), a group supposedly amphitropical, came out as the sister-species of C. buchholzi. The following South American species were recognized under Centris (Paracentris): Centris burgdorfi Friese, 1901; C. caelebs Friese, 1900; C. cordillerana Roig-Alsina, 2000; C. euphenax Cockerell, 1913; C. flavohirta Friese, 1900; C. garleppi (Schrottky, 1913); C. klugii Friese, 1900; C. lyngbyei Jensen-Haarup, 1908; C. mourei Roig-Alsina, 2000; C. neffi Moure, 2000; C. nigerrima (Spinola, 1851); C. toroi sp. nov.; C. tricolor Friese, 1900; C. unifasciata (Schrottky, 1913), and C. vogeli Roig-Alsina, 2000. The relationships among the subgenera of the "Centris group" were: (Xanthemisia (Penthemisia (Centris s. str. - Paracentris))). Centris xanthomelaena Moure & Castro 2001, an endemic species of the Caatinga and previously considered a C. (Paracentris), came out as the sister group of C. (Centris) s. str. A new species of C. (Paracentris) from Chile is described: Centris toroi sp. nov. Lectotypus designations and redescriptions are presented for Centris burgdorfi, C. caelebs, C. lyngbyei, C. tricolor, C. autrani Vachal, 1904 and C. smithii Friese, 1900. New synonyms proposed: C. buchholzi Herbst, 1918 = Centris wilmattae Cockerell, 1926 syn. nov.; C. caelebs Friese, 1900 = Paracentris fulvohirta Cameron, 1903. The female of C. vogeli Roig-Alsina, 2000 and the male of C. xanthomelaena are described.
Abstract in English:The subgenus Centris (Schisthemisia) Ayala: complementary notes and description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Centris (Schisthemisia)Ayala, 2002 is redescribed, pointing out some other important distinctive characters. It includes: Centris (Schisthemisia) flavilabris Mocsáry, 1899 (type species), Centris (Schisthemisia) boliviensis Mocsáry, 1899 stat. nov., Centris (Schisthemisia) fulva Friese, 1924 stat. nov., and Centris (Schisthemisia) restrepoi sp. nov. from Colombia, Villa Vicencio. A key to the species and illustrations are added.
Abstract in English:The genus Anthidium Fabricius in the South America: key for the species, descriptive notes, and geographical distribution (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Anthidiini). The Anthidiini, in South America, is represented by a single genus Anthidium Fabricius, 1804 (type-species: Apis manicata Linnaeus, 1758). Thirty nine species are treated in this paper, as follows: Anthidium alsinai Urban, 2001; A. andinum Joergensen, 1912; A. anurospilum Moure, 1957 nom. reval. (formerly = A. espinosai Ruiz, 1938); A. atricaudum Cockerell, 1926; A. aymara Toro & Rodríguez, 1998; A. chilense Spinola, 1851; A. chubuti Cockerell, 1910; A. colliguayanum Toro & Rojas, 1970; A. cuzcoense Schrottky, 1910; A. danieli Urban, 2001; A. decaspilum Moure, 1957; A. deceptum Smith, 1879; A. edwini Ruiz, 1935; A. espinosai Ruiz, 1938; A. falsificum Moure, 1957; A. friesei Cockerell, 1911; A. funereum Schletterer, 1890; A. garleppi Schrottky, 1910 = A. matucanense Cockerell, 1914 syn. nov.; A. gayi Spinola, 1851; A. igori Urban, 2001; A. larocai Urban, 1997; A. latum Schrottky, 1902; A. luizae Urban, 2001; A. manicatum (Linnaeus, 1758); A. masunariae Urban, 2001; A. nigerrimum Schrottky, 1910; A. paitense Cockerell, 1926; A. penai Moure, 1957; A. peruvianum Schrottky, 1910; A. rafaeli Urban, 2001; A. rozeni Urban, 2001; A. rubripes Friese, 1908 = A. boliviense Friese, 1920 syn. nov. = A. adriani Ruiz, 1935 syn. nov. = A. kuscheli Moure, 1957 syn. nov.; A. sanguinicaudum Schwarz, 1933; A. sertanicola Moure & Urban, 1964; A. tarsoi Urban, 2001; A. toro Urban. 2001; A. vigintiduopunctatum Friese, 1904; A. vigintipunctatum Friese, 1908, and A. weyrauchi Schwarz, 1943. Some taxonomic comments are made for each species, and new data on geographic distribution are also given. The females of A. andinum, A. igori, A. rozeni and the male of A. anurospilum are described for the first time. Identification keys (for males and females), as well as illustrations for almost all species, are provided.
Abstract in English:Traditionally, the Drosophila guarani species group has been divided into two subgroups: the guarani and the guaramunu subgroups. Two, out of the four species included in this research, are members of the guarani subgroup (D. ornatifrons Duda, 1927 and D. subbadia Paterson & Mainland, 1943) and two are included in the guaramunu subgroup (D. maculifrons Duda, 1927 and D. griseolineata Duda, 1927). However, some authors have suggested that D. maculifrons and D. griseolineata are much closer to some species of the Drosophila tripunctata group than to some of the species of the guarani group. To add new data to the matter under dispute, Polyacrylamide Gel Eletrophoresis (PAGE-SDS) was used for the analysis and comparison of protein composition and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to find differences in genomic DNA, in addition to the analysis of quantitative morphological characters previously described. Analysis of PAGE-SDS results in a dendrogram that pointed out D. subbadia as being the most distant within the Drosophila guarani group. However, these results were not supported either by RAPD analysis or by the analysis of continuous morphological characters, which supplied the clustering of D. subbadia with D. ornatifrons. Although our data give strong support to the clustering of D. subbadia and D. ornatifrons, none of the dendrograms provided a clade comprising D. maculifrons and D. griseolineata. Thus, this research does not support the traditional subdivision of the D. guarani group into those two subgroups.
Abstract in English:Morphologic characterization of adult of Nusalala tessellata (Gerstaecker, 1888) (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae). Adult of N. tessellata is redescribed based on morphological characters. 533 specimens were collected in São Paulo state in plantations of citrus (Santa Rosa de Viterbo), soybean (Nuporanga), cotton (Ribeirão Preto) and corn (Ribeirão Preto and Jaboticabal). Some other additional specimens collected on Sorghum bicolor (Lavras-MG) and Ilex paraguariensis (São Mateus do Sul, Cascavel-PR) were also studied. Illustrations obtained by SEM are given by first time.
Abstract in English:Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki, 1911 (Diptera, Muscidae) is a New World genus of Muscini, which comprises 18 species. The male of P. major Albuquerque, 1956 and the female of P. wulpi Couri & Carvalho, 1997 are herein described and illustrated for the first time. New geographical localities are recorded for both species.
Abstract in English:Searching and handling time of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) larvae fed on Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878) (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The objective of this research was to determine the searching and handling times of three larval instars of C. externa fed on U. ambrosiae at densities of 30, 40 and 50 per vial, with the feeding of the larvae at the preceding instars being U. ambrosiae nymphs or Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819) eggs. The larvae were maintained at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14-h photophase. A completely randomized design in a 6 x 3 factorial scheme with 12 replicates was adopted. The shortest searching time was found for the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of C. externa, and this parameter was variable depending on the feeding given to the larvae previously. The handling time was similar for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The longest searching time was found at an aphid density of 30, as compared to densities of 40 and 50 prey, with which there were no significant differences. Prey density did not have any influence on handling time.
Abstract in English:Community of Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from the coastal sand dunes of Abaeté, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The Euglossini community structure was analyzed by attracting males with the scents eucalyptol, eugenol, vanillin, benzyl benzoate and methyl salicylate, and by netting bees on flowers. The samplings took place three times a month along one year from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. The scent baits attracted 670 individuals belonging to seven species of three genus. The predominant species were Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758) (76.6%) and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (21.8%). Euglossini males visited the scents along the whole year, being more abundant in May and in August. The most efficient fragrance was eucalyptol, attracting 624 individuals of five species. The males abundance fluctuated along the day, being the highest frequency observed between 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. Forty eigth Euglossini females of four species were netted visiting flowers of 14 plant species belonging to 13 families. Solanaceae and Caesalpiniaceae were the most visited. The species catched on flowers were Euglossa cordata, Eulaema nigrita, Euplusia mussitans (Fabricius, 1787) and Eulaema meriana flavescens Friese 1899. Euglossa cordata was the predominant species on flowers (64.6%), being collected during almost the whole year. Euplusia mussitans was the only species netted on flowers which males were not sampled on the scents.
Abstract in English:Thermal requirements of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse, 1894 (Diptera, Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Allochtonous species of Ae. albopictus in the American continent can be found in fourteen Brazilian states - about fifteen years had been elapsed since the first report of the presence of this species in Brazilian territory. Considering its potential epidemiological importance and its adaptation to several habitats, it was determined, for this species, the threshold temperature and the thermal constant for egg, larval and pupal stages under laboratory conditions under four constant temperatures and 12:12 hours light-dark photoperiod. The threshold temperature for the egg phase and for the first instar were quite similar: 9.07 ºC (K=214.46 degree days) and 9.23 ºC (K= 36.64 degree days), respectively. For 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar, the basal-temperature was higher, oscilating between 12.26 ºC and 13.95 ºC. The threshold temperature for the complete larval stage and for the pupal stage were 12.03 ºC (K= 99.48 degree days) and 11.87 ºC (K=32.40 degree days) for males and 11.95 ºC (K=110.11 degree days) and 11.60 ºC (K=35.30 degree days) for females, respectively.
Abstract in English:Redescription and transference of the genus Fregolia Gounelle, 1911 to Callidiopini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). The genus Fregolia is transferred from Cleomenini Lacordaire, 1869 to Callidiopini Lacordaire, 1869. The genus and its type species, Fregolia listropteroides Gounelle, 1911, the only known species to the genus, are redescribed including characters of the mouth pieces, endosternites, wing venation, and male and female terminalia.
Abstract in English:Asphondylia canastrae sp. nov. (Minas Gerais, Delfinópolis), A. sanctipetri sp. nov. (São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto), and Schizomyia tuiuiu sp. nov. (Mato Grosso, Cuiabá) are described. A. canastrae sp. nov. is associated with Hyptis sp. (Lamiaceae), A. sanctipetri sp. nov. with Didymopanax morototoni (Araliaceae), and S. tuiuiu sp. nov. with Bauhinia rufa (Fabaceae). Illustrations of the new species and comments about their systematic position are presented.
Abstract in English:Highly eusocial bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae) flower visitors in a continental sand dune ecosystem from the medium São Francisco River, Bahia, Brazil. A community of highly eusocial bees in sand dunes, covered with caatinga vegetation, in the medium São Francisco River, Bahia (10º47' 37"S and 42º49' 25"W) was studied. The local climate is semi arid and hot, with mean temperature of 25.7 ºC and annual precipitation of 653.8 mm. Censuses took place every two months, from February to December of 2000. The bees were sampled on flowers with entomological nets, from 6:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. A total of 2,147 individuals of eight species of Apinae were found, of which Apis mellifera Linnaeus (40.2%), Trigona spinipes (Fabricius) (28.7%) and Frieseomelitta silvestri languida Moure (14.7%) were the predominant species. The diversity was H' = 1.53 and the evenness E' = 0.73. The bees were active during the whole year, but there was a significant variation in the monthly abundance of individuals (c2= 799.55; df= 35; p<0.0001). The daily activity was greater between 6:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. The low bee diversity observed is a consequence of the low richness of botanical species and of the small amount of sites for the bees' nests. The community of highly eusocial bees from the dunes presents organization patterns similar to those observed in other caatinga areas, albeit with some particularities.
Abstract in English:Systaltocerus platyrhinus Labram & Imhoff, 1840: redescriptions and considerations about the synonymy with Homalorhamphus vestitus Haedo Rossi & Viana, 1957 (Coleoptera, Anthribidae, Anthribinae). The genus Systaltocerus Labram & Imhoff, 1840 and the species S. platyrhinus Labram & Imhoff, 1840 (type species), are redescribed. Illustrations of the mouth pieces, endosternites, wing venation, male and female terminalia, and rectal plates, are given for the first time. New data on geographic distribution are also presented. Nomenclatural changes introduced: Systaltocerus Labram & Imhoff, 1840 = Homalorhamphus Haedo Rossi & Viana, 1957 syn. nov.; Systaltocerus platyrhinus Labram & Imhoff, 1840 = Homalorhamphus vestitus Haedo Rossi & Viana, 1957 syn. nov.
Abstract in English:Heterozygosity and hammuli number asymmetry in adult workers of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Relationship between individual heterozygosity at particular loci (Mdh-1, Hk-1 ou Pgm-1) or average heterozygosity of the colony and asymmetry of the hammuli number of right and left wings was verified on adult workers of five Africanized and five European colonies of Apis mellifera. Our results demonstrated the importance of statistical tests to verify the type of asymmetry of the character studied and they did not validate the assumption that uni or multiloci heterozygosity has a positive effect on developmental stability.
Abstract in English:In the present study 387 dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were surveyed at the Serra do Japi, in the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, with four baited pitfall traps during the months of December, 1998, and January, 1999 during eight 24 hour cycles. A total of 30 species were identified and temporal variation in activity patterns among the species shows a specialization in the use of food resources: 9 species were classified as nocturnal and 13 as diurnal. The daily activity pattern of dung beetles does not necessarily correspond to the taxonomic classification, but is strongly related to the colouring of species, determined by predominant elytra colour: nocturnal species have 89 % more chances of being black as opposed to colourful. Black nocturnal species might have evolved as an interspecific adaptation to avoid predation (cryptic colouring). Among the colourful diurnal dung beetles, measure of body length of each species shows that development of bright colouring was more often found in medium to large species, which suggests that colouring evolved as a response to intraspecific pressures, important in agonistic encounters among males.
Abstract in English:External morphology of the immature stages of neotropical heliconians: I. Eueides isabella dianasa (Hübner, 1806). The external features of egg, larva and pupa of Eueides isabella dianasa (Hübner, 1806) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) are described and illustrated, based upon light and scanning electron microscopy.