Abstract in English:The genus Anisocerus and the two species, A. scopifer (Germar, 1824) and A. stellatus Guérin-Ménéville, 1855, are redescribed and illustrated. A new synonym is proposed: A. stellatus Guérin-Méneville, 1855 = A. onca White, 1855 syn. nov. The two species are redescribed and illustrated.
Abstract in English:The Neotropical genus Xanthandrus Verral, 1901 is revised. Six species are redescribed: X. bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830), X. cubanus Fluke, 1936, X. mellinoides (Macquart, 1846), X. mexicanus Curran, 1930, X. nitidulus Fluke, 1937, and X. plaumanni Fluke, 1937. Three species are included based on original descriptions: X. flavomaculatus Shannon, 1927, X. palliatus (Fluke, 1945), and X. simplex (Loew, 1861). New synonyms proposed: Argentinomyia longicornis (Walker, 1837) = Xanthandrus biguttatus Hull, 1945 syn. nov., and Xanthandrus bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830) = Melanostoma quadrinotata Bigot, 1884 syn. nov. Description of terminalia, a key for Neotropical species, and illustrations are also presented.
Abstract in English:Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others) was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.
Abstract in English:New records for Colombian Cerambycidae - Achrysonini: Achryson immaculipenne Gounelle, 1909, A. lineolatum Erichson, 1847, A. quadrimaculatum (Fabricius, 1792); Ectenessini: Ectenessa lurida Martins, 1973; Cerambycini: Jupoata rufipennnis (Gory, 1831), Poeciloxestia carlyslei Fragoso, 1978, P. paraensis Lane, 1965; Elaphidionini: Ambonus electus (Gahan & Arrow, 1903), Paramallocera cribripennis (Bates, 1885), Periboeum pubescens (Olivier, 1790), Stizocera plicicollis (Germar, 1824), S. poeyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1838), Pantonyssus glabricollis Fuchs, 1961; Piezocerini: Haruspex lineolatus Bates, 1870; Eligmodermini: Eligmoderma spinicolle Aurivillius, 1923, E. ziczac Nonfried, 1895. New species described: Pantonyssus suturale sp. nov. (Santander); Anelaphus colombianus sp. nov. (Santander); A. sparsus sp. nov. (Magdalena).
Abstract in English:This paper presents a five years survey of endoparasitoids obtained from the larvae of frugivorous Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae flies. The insects were reared from cultivated and wild fruits collected in areas of the cerrado in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The flies obtained from 14 host fruit species were eight Anastrepha species, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Tephritidae); Dasiops sp. and Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae). Eleven parasitoid species were collected: Braconidae - Asobara anastrephae (Muesebek, 1958), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911), D. fluminensis (Costa Lima, 1938), Opius bellus Gahan, 1930 and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913); Figitidae - Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998, Lopheucoila anastrephae (Rhower, 1919), Odontosema anastrephae (Borgmeier, 1935) and Trybliographa infuscata Gallardo, Díaz & Uchôa-Fernandes, 2000 and, Pteromalidae - Spalangia gemina Boucek, 1963 and S. endius Walker, 1839. In all cases only one parasitoid emerged per puparium. D. areolatus was the most abundant and frequent parasitoid of fruit fly species, as was L. anastrephae in Neosilba spp. larvae. This is the first record of A. nordlanderi in the midwestern Brazilian region.
Abstract in English:The material studied comes from three of the several natural environments which still occur in Paraná State. The samples were collected during the project PROFAUPAR, developed by Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. The selected sites were: Antonina (in the coastal plain), São José dos Pinhais (in the coastal mountain range) and Telêmaco Borba (in the second plateau). During one year of the project, 2,106 specimens of Braconidae were collected with light trap. These wasps represented 21 subfamilies and 1,966 specimens were identified in 85 genera. Hormiinae, Rogadinae, Microgastrinae, Alysiinae, Doryctinae and Meteorinae were the most frequent subfamilies. Indices of diversity and evenness were used to discuss richness and dominance of genera in each locality. Statistical analyses indicated that the asymptote of actual genera richness have been approached only to Antonina and Telêmaco Borba.
Abstract in English:Alphomelon brasiliensis sp. nov. (from São Paulo) and A. rugosus sp. nov. (from Rio Grande do Sul) are described and a key to species is presented.
Abstract in English:Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner is an egg parasitoid of the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), and has recently been collected from eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner on soybeans. In order to evaluate the suitability of A. gemmatalis eggs as hosts of T. atopovirilia, field surveys were conducted in 1999 and 2000 on corn and soybeans, and a colony of the parasitoid was established in laboratory. At 25 ºC, development from oviposition to emergence lasted nine days and a sex-ratio of 0.58 (females:males) was obtained. Females lived significantly longer (11.4 days) when kept in ovipositional activity, than in the absence of host eggs (6.6 days). Total fecundity averaged 104.5 parasitized eggs, resulting in the emergence of 138.3 descendents. Mean daily fecundity was highest (30 eggs/female) on the first day. Oviposition continued until one day before the death of the females, however 70% of the eggs were laid during the first four days after emergence. A female-biased progeny was produced during the first three days of oviposition, whereas further ovipositions were male-biased. Females lived significantly longer when exposed to host eggs in comparison to females deprived of eggs. The results show that eggs of A. gemmatalis are suitable for the development of T. atopovirilia, and this parasitoid should be considered in future programs of biological control of the velvetbean caterpillar.
Abstract in English:The parasitism behavior of Trichogramma atopovirilia and T. pretiosum in Spodoptera frugiperda eggs was evaluated focusing on the features related to the associative learning (alpha conditioning) and recognition of the egg parasitized by the female after the first oviposition experience. Females of both species were observed to recognize the parasitized egg, which takes place after the female drills into the host egg. Following oviposition, 43.59% and 67.53 of females began to feed with an average feeding time of 73.26 ± 11.57 and 64.04 ± 7.05 seconds for T. atopovirilia and T. pretiosum, respectively. The time elapsed in each step of the parasitism behavior significantly decreased after the first oviposition experience, with a trend to stabilize after the 2nd or 3rd egg parasitized, indicating associative learning in these Trichogramma species.
Abstract in English:Six individuals of the palm A. phalerata, in Poconé floodplains of Mato Grosso, were sprayed with a synthetic pyrethroid (0.25% concentration) in order to study the biomass, diversity, and richness of the canopy arthropods. A total of 17,188 (238.7±80.6 ind./m²) arthropods belonging to 22 Orders, was collected in a 72 m² funnel area. Two hours after spraying, 58.9% of the total number fell into the funnels, 37.6% was obtained by shaking the trees, and finally, 3.5% after cutting and washing all the palm leaves. The Coleoptera (27.4%), Hymenoptera-Formicidae (19.0%), Collembola (13.6%), Psocoptera (10.7%), Diptera (9.0%) and Araneae (6.4%) were the predominant. The total biomass was 15.1 g dry weight (0.4mg/m²; 0.13+0.04/tree). A total of 4,715 beetles representing 48 families and 326 morphospecies were obtained. Tenebrionidae (22.9%), Curculionidae (22.0%), Carabidae (10.9%) and Staphylinidae (7.9%) were the most abundant, while Curculionidae (44 spp.), Staphylinidae (40 spp.) and Chrysomelidae (34 spp.) presented the largest number of morphospecies. Herbivores (37.5%) were the dominant in the trophic guilds of adult Coleoptera, followed by predators (35.4%), fungivores (14.6%), and saprophages (12.5%). Although most arthropod Orders were represented in all the palms sampled, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in their composition, however there was a significant difference in their frequency of occurrence.
Abstract in English:New taxa described: Piezocerini - Piezosecus gen. nov., type species, P. tymaiuba sp. nov. (Brazil, São Paulo); Ibidionini - Gnomibidion variabile sp. nov. (Brazil, Mato Grosso), and Palpibidion gen. nov., type species, P. minimum sp. nov. (Brazil, Rondônia).
Abstract in English:Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for sites to pupate or to additional food source, process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some of the most important aspects of this process were investigated in Chrysomya megacephala, utilizing a circular arena to permit the radial dispersion of larvae from the center. To determinate the localization of each pupa, the arena was split in 72 equal sectors from the center. For each pupa, distance from the center of arena, weight and depth were determined. Statistical tests were performed to verify the relation among weight, depth and distance of burying for pupation. It was verified that the larvae that disperse farther are those with higher weights. The majority of individuals reached the depth of burying for pupation between 7 and 18 cm. The study of this process of dispersion can be utilized in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) for human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.
Abstract in English:Agalliana goianensis sp. nov., Agalliana alutacea sp. nov., Agalliana truncata sp. nov., all from Brazil, are described.
Abstract in English:Unanthribus gen. nov. is proposed to include Unanthribus maximus sp. nov. (type species) described from Brazil (Pará), and U. grandis (Jordan, 1911) comb. nov., which is redescribed. The species are illustrated and keyed.
Abstract in English:The genus Physopleurus Lacordaire, 1869 = Basitoxus (Parabasitoxus) Fragoso & Monné, 1995 syn. nov. is revised and redefined based on new characters. The following species are treated (in sequence that appear in the presented key): Physopleurus exiguus sp. nov. (Bolivia and Brazil), P. crassidens (Bates, 1869), P. longiscapus Lameere, 1912, P. rugosus (Gahan, 1894), P. tritomicros Lameere, 1912, P. seripierriae sp. nov. (Brazil, Mato Grosso), P. dohrnii Lacordaire, 1869, P. villardi (Lameere, 1902) = Aplagiognathus guatemalensis Casey, 1912 syn. nov., P. amazonicus (Fragoso & Monné, 1995) comb. nov., and. P. maillei (Audinet-Serville, 1832) comb. nov. The latter two species formerly in Basitoxus (Parabasitoxus) Fragoso & Monné, 1995. Illustrations of Basitoxus megacephalus (Germar, 1824) are included to allow comparisons with Physopleurus species. Key to species of Physopleurus is added.
Abstract in English:Seven genera are treated: Acaulona Wulp, 1888 = Forcipophasia Townsend, 1935 syn. nov., Euacaulona Townsend, 1908, Itaxanthomelana Townsend, 1927, Melanorophasia Townsend, 1934, Urucurymyia Townsend, 1934, Xanthomelanopsis Townsend, 1917, and Mahauiella gen. nov. Two new species are described: Mahauiella nayrae sp. nov. (Brasil, Santa Catarina) and Mahauiella sforcini sp. nov. (Brasil, Santa Catarina). New synonyms proposed: Acaulona costata Wulp, 1888 = Forcipophasia fusca Townsend, 1935 syn. nov. = Acaulona brasiliana Townsend, 1937 syn. nov.
Abstract in English:The present paper deals with the phlebotomine species captured during the period from January 1998 to June 2000 in 12 caves located in the Serra da Bodoquena, situated in the south central region of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Three of the caves are situated further north (in Bodoquena county), seven in the central area (Bonito county) and two in the south (Jardim county). These last two caves and three of those in Bonito are located at the west side of the ridge. Eighteen species of phlebotomines were captured within the caves: Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932), Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920), Brumptomyia cunhai (Mangabeira, 1942), Brumptomyia galindoi (Fairchild & Hertig, 1947), Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989), Lutzomyia almerioi Galati & Nunes, 1999, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912), Martinsmyia oliveirai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1970), Micropygomyia acanthopharynx (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1962), Micropygomyia peresi (Mangabeira, 1942), Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar, 1929), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939), Psathyromyia campograndensis (Oliveira, Andrade-Filho, Falcão & Brazil, 2001), Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944), Psathyromyia shannoni (Dyar, 1929), Pintomyia kuscheli (Le Pont, Martinez, Torrez-Espejo & Dujardin, 1998), Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927) and Sciopemyia sp. A total of 29,599 phlebotomine sandflies was obtained. Lutzomyia almerioi was absolutely predominant (91.5%) over the other species on both sides of the Bodoquena ridge, with the exception of the southern caves in which it was absent. It presents summer predominance, with nocturnal and diurnal activities. The species breeds in the caves and was captured during daytime both in the dark area and in the mouth of the caves. Martinsmyia oliveirai, the second most frequent sandfly, also presents a summer peak and only predominated over the other species in one cave, in which there were human residues.0
Abstract in English:Twenty-two nests of Trypoxylon asuncicola were sampled in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in January 2000 and the occupants' behavior of three nests was registered in 2h of direct observation. 528 brood cells were excavated (24±13.84 SD cells per nest), 129 were reused cells, some of them for seven times (meconium deposit count). The mean number of total cells, mean number of open and closed cells, parasitism rate and mean number of reused cells per nest were similar between old and new nests. Parasitism rate and cell reuse were associated with the number of building cells in the nest, but nest aggregate in the sampled area may play some role in the parasitism rate. Brachymeria sp. (Chalcididae) was the most important agent of brood mortality (80%). Other parasites were Melittobia sp. (Eulophidae) (17%) and a species of Icheumonidae (3%). The number of closed cells with immature individuals per nest was 4±4.2SD (N=17) and the mean reproductivity per female was 3±2.4SD (N=5). New nests produced more offspring (0 a 35%) than old nests (0 to 11%). Females and males can be found resting in the nest but copula or guarding behavior by the male was not observed. There is some evidence that in the sampled area the switch of nests by females is great and agonistic behavior between a nest owner and a visitor was not evident. Females were larger (3.9±0.4SD mm) than males (3.1±0.3SD mm) (measured as forewing length). The secondary sex ratio was 1.26 (±0.07 SE) in favor of females, which was not different from 1:1 ratio. The majority (97%) of the sampled larvae of T. asuncicola showed diapause. Some (5.1%) 'anomalous cells' were found.
Abstract in English:The genus Orius Wolff, 1811 comprises predatory species, with approximately 70 known species. Informations about the genus in Brazil are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to identify Orius species present in four localities in the southeastern Brazil. Samples were taken from several plants, and the material screened in laboratory. The genitalia of both sexes were studied and illustrated. Two species were identified, Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) and Orius thyestes Herring, 1966. O. insidiosus, the most common species, was collected in all of the localities sampled [Lavras (MG), Holambra, Pindorama and Campinas (SP)]. O. thyestes, registered for the first time in Brazil, occurred only in Lavras (MG) and Pindorama (SP). Some morphologic aspects of these two species are also presented.
Abstract in English:The females of Gypona gilba and Reticana vittata are described and illustrated based on specimens from Rio Grandedo Sul, Brazil.