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Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, Volume: 47, Issue: 4, Published: 2003
  • Effects of gender, vigor and size of the host plant Baccharis pseudomyriocephala Teodoro (Asteraceae) on gall-inducing insect distribution

    Araújo, Ana Paula A.; Carneiro, Marco Antonio A.; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    Abstract in English:

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the patterns of host plant utilization by herbivorous insects in natural communities. We tested four hypotheses aiming to understand the pattern of attack by gall-inducing insects on the dioecious shrub, Baccharis pseudomyriocephala (Asteraceae). The shrub occurs in the Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, Southeastern Brazil, and supports ten species of galling insects. The following hypotheses were tested: i) male plants are more attacked by galling insects than female plants; ii) larger plant modules are preferentially attacked by galling insects; iii) galling insects perform better on larger modules than on smaller modules; iv) galling insects increase in abundance with meristematic availability. To address these questions, 240 plants (120 of each sex) were sampled in both reproductive and vegetative periods. We recorded the growth rate (4 cm), inflorescence and fruit production, attack rates of the galling insects, and their survivorship and mortality per shoot (module). Modules were separated into size classes (cm) and analyzed by regressions and ANCOVAs. Module size and reproductive effort were positively correlated with host plant size. We did not observe any effect of host plant gender on either variables. In the same way, host plant sex did not show any influence on the abundance and richness of galling insects. Although the abundance of galling insects showed a positive correlation with shoot size, the trend disappeared when the analyses were performed taking into consideration the number of galls per unit of growth (number of galls/cm of shoot) or biomass (number of galls/dry weight). Larval survivorship was not influenced by shoot size. Also, we observed that the abundance of one species of hemipteran galling insect showed a positive relation with leaf biomass. Therefore, we conclude that gender and vigor of this plant species do not influence the community structure of its galling herbivores.
  • Cladistic analysis of the tribe Rhopalophorini Blanchard, 1845 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    Marques, Marinêz Isaac; Napp, Dilma Solange

    Abstract in English:

    Rhopalophorini is primarily a New World group. Of the 23 known genera, 19 were described from the Neotropical region. A cladistic analysis of the American genera was carried out with 91 morphological characters. The genera Ozodes Audinet-Serville and Lissozodes Bates, recently transferred to Necydalopsini, were included in the analysis in order to investigate their relationships with the Rhopalophorini. The results suggested that their shared similarities with the Rhopalophorini are symplesiomorphies at the level considered in the analysis, so they are maintained in Necydalopsini, and Neozodes Zajciw, indicated as the sister group of Ozodes, is herein transferred to this tribe. In the same way, Elaphopsis Audinet-Serville is transferred to Ibidionini. Rhopalophorini, as defined in the present work, is a monophyletic group and includes 17 American genera. Within Rhopalophorini, Argyrodines + Parozodes constitute the basalmost group, and Cycnoderus is the sister group of the two major clades formed, one by Ischionodonta, Disaulax, Cosmisoma, Closteropus and Gurubira, and the other, by Rhopalophora, Coremia, Merocoremia, Dirocoremia, Thalusia and Lathusia; the relationships of Rhopalophorella, Rhopalina and Muxbalia remain inconclusive. A phylogenetic classification of Rhopalophorini at the genus level is proposed.
  • Portanus Ball: descriptions of ten new species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae)

    Carvalho, Adenomar Neves de; Cavichioli, Rodney Ramiro

    Abstract in English:

    The following new species are described and illustrated from Brazil: Portanus vittatus sp. nov. (Paraná), P. castaneus sp. nov. (Rondônia), P. variatus sp. nov. (Rondônia), P. ocellatus sp. nov. (Mato Grosso), P. cinctus sp. nov. (Mato Grosso), P. bimaculatus sp. nov. (Rondônia), P. eliasi sp. nov. (Rondônia), P. marginatus sp. nov. (Paraná), P. maculatus sp. nov. (Paraná) and P. bicornis sp. nov. (Mato Grosso).
  • Consumption of Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae) by Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)

    Cardoso, Josiane Teresinha; Lázzari, Sonia Maria Noemberg

    Abstract in English:

    Adults and larvae of coccinellids were observed feeding on populations of the giant conifer aphids Cinara spp. on Pinus spp., in Southern Brazil. The objective of this research is to evaluate the consumption capacity of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) on these aphid species, in order to obtain information for biological control programs. Ten larvae of each predator species were fed with aphids of small size (nymphs of 1st and 2nd instars), and 10 with aphids of medium size (nymphs of 3rd and 4th instars), maintained under 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, 12 h photophase and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. The aphids were counted every 24 hours, replacing those that were consumed. The total consumption of Cinara by the larvae of C. sanguinea was not statistically different at the three temperatures: 325.5; 322.2 and 324.8 of small aphids and 121.3; 140.4 and 109.9 of medium ones, respectively at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC. The consumption by H. convergens was higher than by C. sanguinea and increased noticeably with temperature: 444 aphids at 15ºC; 491.3 at 20ºC and 513.3 at 25ºC, considering the small aphids, and 187.1; 205.1 and 216.6 of medium aphids at the three temperatures. The small aphids weigh about half as much as medium ones and were preferred by all larval instars probably because they are easier to manipulate than the large ones. Both predators, especially the 4th instar larvae, showed high consumption capacity on the Cinara nymphs at all temperatures and can be regarded as promising biological control agents.
  • Occurrence and population fluctuation of insects on native and dense cropping systems of maté, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil

    Borges, Larissa R.; Lázzari, Sonia Maria Noemberg; Lázzari, Flávio Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    This research was carried out in order to compare the occurrence of insects in two maté cultivation systems, native and high tree density. It was performed from August/2000 to September/2001, in a private property in São Mateus do Sul county, in Paraná State, Brazil. Visual inspections of trees and light traps were used to evaluate insect populations in both areas. For Hedypathes betulinus (Klug) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), only six adults were observed in the dense area. Based on presence of sawdust at the basis of the trunk, it was obtained that the number of attacked trees did not surpass 11% in either area. For Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Lizer y Trelles) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), the number of galls per tree was counted and it was observed that the population peak occurred from November to January. For Hylesia spp. (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) and Thelosia camina Schaus (Lepidoptera, Eupterotidae), the presence of caterpillars on the trees was noticed from September to February, with the population peak in November and December. Adults of Hylesia spp. were more numerous in February and March. Two species that were not previously recorded for Brazil on maté were identified: Hylesia paulex Dognin (83%) and Hylesia remex Dyer (17%), collected with light traps. The maté caterpillar, T. camina was not collected with these traps. Nymphs and adults of Ceroplastes grandis Hempel (Hemiptera, Coccidae) were observed along the year on the branches, with population peak between April and June for the nymphs and from September to November for the adults. It should be considered that despite higher insect incidence in the dense area compared to the native area, the first presents higher yield, and that with a good pest management program the insect problems can be minimized.
  • Description of a new species of Centris Fabricius from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

    Moure, Jesus Santiago; Oliveira, Favízia Freitas de; Viana, Blandina Felipe

    Abstract in English:

    Centris (Centris) pulchra sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected in a restricted area of coastal sand dunes with "restinga" vegetation in northeast of Brazil, near Salvador-BA.
  • Sphragis of Actinote Hübner, as a taxonomic character (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Acraeinae)

    Paluch, Márlon; Casagrande, Mirna M.; Mielke, Olaf H. H.

    Abstract in English:

    The sphragis morphology of seven species of Actinote Hübner, [1819] from south Brazil are presented and discussed comparatively. Their significant differences and scales were revealed with SEM photographs. They can be usable as characters to identify species.
  • Sex allocation and sex-dependent selection for body size in Trypoxylon rogenhoferi Kohl (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae)

    Peruquetti, Rui Carlos; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    Abstract in English:

    Two populations of the wasp Trypoxylon rogenhoferi Kohl, 1884 from São Carlos and Luís Antônio, State of São Paulo, Brazil, were observed and sampled from May 1999 to February 2001 using trap-nests. This mass-provisioning wasp was used to test some aspects of optimal sex allocation theory. Both populations fit all the predictions of the models of Green and Brockmann and Grafen. Maternal provisions determined the size of each offspring, and females allocated well-stocked brood cells to daughters, the sex that benefits most being large. This strategy resulted in a difference in size between the sexes. In São Carlos, female weight at emergence was 1.18 times that of males, in Luís Antônio this value was 1.13. The brood cell volume was correlated with both wing length and weight at emergence in both sexes, and the chance that a given brood cell contained a male offspring decreased with increased brood cell volume. In T. rogenhoferi female body size was related to fitness. Larger females were able to collect more mass of spiders per day, the spiders they captured were heavier, and they provisioned more brood cells per day. They also produced larger daughters. For males, no relationship between body size and fitness was found, but the data were scarce. Since the patterns of provisioning were variable among different females in both study sites, it is possible that the females not follow a unique strategy for sex allocation. The sex ratio and/or investment ratio in the São Carlos population was female-biased and in Luís Antônio, male-biased. In spite of the influence of trap-nests diameters on male production in Luís Antônio, there is some evidence that in São Carlos population the local availability of prey and/or lower rate of parasitism may be major forces in determining the observed sex ratio, but further studies are necessary to verify such hypothesis.
  • Male territories, mating, distribution and relation to plants in Protomeliturga turnerae (Ducke, 1907) (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae)

    Medeiros, Petrúcio C. R. de; Schlindwein, Clemens

    Abstract in English:

    Protomeliturga turnerae (Ducke, 1907) represents the monotypic tribe Protomeliturgini (Andrenidae, Panurginae). The species is oligolectic on flowers of Turnera L. (Turneraceae). A survey of bees on flowers of Turneraceae and of material in entomological collections showed that P. turnerae is common and endemic in Northeastern Brazil, occurring from the State of Maranhão to Alagoas. In João Pessoa, Paraíba, we studied the reproductive biology and mating behavior of P. turnerae and its relations to plants. At the study site, the species was univoltine with males emerging 5-8 days before the females. Soon after emergence the males established territories on flowers of Turnera subulata Smith which they occupied during several days. Parts of each territory overlapped with those of 1 to 3 other males. On the average, a territory comprised 124 flowers, 59 being shared with other males. Males showed two mating strategies: patrolling the flowers of T. subulata in which females collected pollen or waiting in a specific flower inside the territory for arriving females. P. turnerae showed multiple mating. On the average, a male mated 7 times a day, each copula lasting 3 to 25 sec. We observed 2 to 3 males attempting to copulate with the same female. At the end of anthesis of T. subulata the males stopped flying activity and remained inside flowers until their closure.
  • The immature stages of two Caladomyia Säwedall, 1981 species, from São Paulo State, Brazil (Chironomidae, Chironominae, Tanytarsini)

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Strixino, Giovanni

    Abstract in English:

    The pupae and larvae of Caladomyia ortoni Säwedall, 1981 and Caladomyia riotarumensis Reiff, 2000, from São Paulo State, are described and illustrated. Caladomyia ortoni Säwedall, 1981 = Nimbocera paulensis Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, 1991, syn. nov.
  • Description of Lutzomyia chotensis, a new species of Peruvian Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    Galati, Eunice A. Bianchi; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Zorrilla, Victor

    Abstract in English:

    Lutzomyia chotensis sp. nov. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from Cajamarca Department, Peru, is described and its taxonomic position discussed.
  • Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) herreri sp. nov. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the South Peruvian Andes

    Galati, Eunice A. Bianchi; Cáceres, Abraham G.

    Abstract in English:

    A new species of phlebotomine, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) herreri sp. nov., belonging to the series osornoi, from the Department of Puno, Peru, is described. Identification keys for both sexes of the species of this series are presented.
  • New species and note on Neotropical Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of the Arriagada's collection, Santiago, Chile

    Martins, Ubirajara R.; Galileo, Maria Helena M.

    Abstract in English:

    New species described: Acanthoderini - Acanthoderes (Psapharochrus) piraiuba sp. nov.from Argentina (San Luis); Acanthoderes (Acanthoderes) uyapensis sp. nov. from Bolivia (La Paz); Dufauxia simplex sp. nov. from Paraguay (Caazapá); Aerenicini - Antodice quadrimaculata sp. nov. from Paraguay (Caazapá); Calliini - Drycothaea maculata sp. nov. from Bolivia (La Paz); Falsamblesthiini - Obereoides antennatus sp. nov. from Bolívia (La Paz). Color variation of Phoebe spegazzinii Bruch, 1908 is discussed.
  • Biological aspects of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) on Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Carioca (Fabaceae), under laboratory conditions

    Taiatella Sari, Lisiane; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Zabrotes subfasciatus is a serious pest of common beans, P. vulgaris L.. In Brazil there are several studies dealing with resistance of bean genotypes to this insect, while other studies have emphasized the utilization of oils and powders from plants to repel their attack. In this paper, fecundity, fertility, pattern of oviposition, life cycle and longevity were evaluated for a Brazilian stock from the Goiás State on P. vulgaris cv. Carioca, at 30ºC and 70% R.H. The mean fecundity was 38 eggs per female and 73% of viability. Egg laying showed an aggregated pattern. Males and females lived an average of 13 and 9 days, respectively. The total life cycle lasted for about 28 days.
  • Correlation between the infestation level of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and the quality factors of stored corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae)

    Caneppele, Maria Aparecida Braga; Caneppele, Carlos; Lázzari, Flávio Antonio; Lázzari, Sonia Maria Noemberg

    Abstract in English:

    This experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of Sitophilus zeamais on physical, physiological and sanitary quality of stored corn. Samples of 500 g of the hybrid OC-705, in three replicates, were conditioned in glasses covered with a screened lid, and kept in chamber at 25±2ºC, 70±5% RH and 12 h of photophase, for 150 days. The infestation levels were 0, 5, 15 and 50 adults/replicate, for the storage periods of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. The moisture content, classification, weight loss, germination and internal infestation were evaluated monthly. Significant inverse correlations were verified between the number of insects and both the germination and the weight loss; also between the internal infestation and the germination and the standard type. The presence of S. zeamais showed a positive correlation with the weight loss, what means that the internal and external infestations contribute to the reduction of physiological and physical quality of corn seeds. The mean dry matter loss was 0,36%/day, corresponding to a consumption of 0,0001%/insect/month. As the result of those damages, the product suffered reduction of the commercial grade in 30 days, with significant loss in all quality factors.
  • Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) (Heteroptera, Anthocoridae): sensitivity to diapause-inducting photoperiods?

    Silveira, Luís Cláudio Paterno; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes

    Abstract in English:

    The minute pirate bugs, Orius spp., are known as predators on several pests as thrips, aphids, spider mites and whiteflies. Orius insidiosus is an important thrips predator, commercially used around the world. However, one of the main problems on biological control of thrips in temperate regions is the occurrence of reproductive diapause in Orius species. This characteristic promotes the interruption of biological control strategies when predators are exposed to short photoperiods. This research had as objective to evaluate the influence of different photoperiod conditions on eggs/nymphs and adults of O. insidiosus in laboratory. The trials were carried out through the combination of eggs/nymphs and adults reared under the photoperiods 10L:14D; 11L:13D; 12L:12D and 13L:11D, at 25±2ºC and 70±10% RH. The predators were maintained during their pre-imaginal development time under one of the photoperiods and, after being emerged as adults transferred to another photoperiod regime. The predator had a tendency to present longer development time under photoperiod 13L:11D. There was no influence of the different photoperiods conditions on the reproduction of O. insidiosus. The females laid eggs normally during all their lifetime. O. insidiosus is not sensitive to photoperiod evaluated and do not enter in reproductive diapause.
  • Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, 1880) (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae) on Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, 1852) (Hemipera, Aphididae)

    Rodrigues, Sandra Maria Morais; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius

    Abstract in English:

    Life table analyses have been developed to understanding the impact of various sources of intrinsic and extrinsic mortalities on the rate of population growth. The understanding of the population increase of the parasitoids related to their hosts is important in biological control programs. This work had as objective to evaluate the survival and fertility of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, 1880) on Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, 1852) as a host under fertility life table. The experiment were carried out in a climatic chamber at 25 ± 1ºC, RH 60 ± 10% and 10h photophase. To determine the immature mortality, the development time and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females of the parasitoid (less than one day old) and 240 nymphs of S. graminum (3 days old) were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility of L. testaceipes, 15 females (less than one day old) were used. Nymphs of S. graminum (3 days old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being in the 1st day - 300 nymphs; 2nd day - 250 nymphs; 3rd day - 200 nymphs; 4th day - 150 and in the other days a number of 50 nymphs. L. testaceipes had an immature mortality of 22,2%, and a development time of males and females of 9.0 and 9.1 days, respectively. The females of L. testaceipes laid, in it first life day, 257.8 eggs, and they survived up until seven days. The net reproduction rate (Ro) and the intrinsic rate of increase (r m) were respectively, 301.9 and 0.513. The finite rate of increase (l) was 1.67 females per day, the mean length of a generation (T) was 11.13 days and the time to duplicate the population (TD) was 1.35 weeks. The parasitoid L. testaceipes have a high potential of population growth on S. graminum as a host under the analyzed conditions.
  • Development of Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae) in laboratory conditions

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha; Carvalho, Claudio José Barros de

    Abstract in English:

    Ophyra albuquerquei may often be a potential predator of Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 in poultry and pig houses in southern Brazil. Here we address the developmental period of immatures stages and their viability. To obtain eggs, larvae and pupae, a colony was established in the laboratory. Adult flies were fed on a diet comprising two parts dry milk, two parts sugar and one part fish flour. Larval diet comprised one part fish flour and one part sawdust and water. The eggs, larvae and pupae were incubated at 26º ± 1ºC, 75% ± 10% R.H. and 12 h photoperiod. The egg to adult cycle took 573 h with a total viability of 64%. The shortest of the stages was the egg stage, which lasted about 20 h. The larval stage had the lowest viability (about 82%) and longest time interval (279 h). Overall, the results of this study show that O. albuquerquei can be readily maintained in the laboratory.
  • Occurrence of Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Brazil Comunicações Científicas

    Sampaio, Marcus V.; Bueno, Vanda H.P.; Soglia, Maria C.M.; Rodrigues, Sandra M.M.

    Abstract in English:

    Specimens of the aphid parasitoid, Binodoxys brevicornis (Haliday, 1833), were reared from the mummies of Cavariella aegopodii (Scopoli, 1763) collected on Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae) at the Campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais State on September/2002. This is the first record of B. brevicornis in Brazil.
  • New records of Simuliidae (Diptera, Nematocera) in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Scientific Communications

    Pepinelli, Mateus; Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Hamada, Neusa

    Abstract in English:

    Adult and immature Simuliidae were studied in 31 streams of 8 regions of the State of São Paulo. Among the 25 species collected, seven are new records for the State of São Paulo, and one of them, Simulium shewellianum Coscarón, 1985 for Brazil as well.
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