Abstract in English:Species of Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini) occurring in Bolivia. The genus Gorybia (Cerambycinae, Piezocerini) consists of 45 described species with seven species recorded from Bolivia. Nine new species are described herein from Bolivia: G. abnormalis sp. nov.; G. alveolata sp. nov.; G. asyka sp. nov.; G. florida sp. nov.; G. inarmata sp. nov.; G. longithorax sp. nov.; G. guenda sp. nov.; G. tuberosa sp. nov. and G. wappesi sp. nov. A key to the species now known to occur in Bolivia is included.
Abstract in English:Alphus marinonii sp. nov., new species from Peru and Brazil (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae). A new species of Alphus, A. marinonii sp. nov., from Peru and Brazil (Rondônia) is described. Key to identification and pictures for the four species of the genus are provided. Notes on distribution of A. tuberosus are included, with a new record for Peru and Brazil (Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul).
Abstract in English:A new species of Orthoderella Giglio-Tos (Mantodea, Mantidae, Photinainae) from Brazil. The Neotropical genus Orthoderella Giglio-Tos includes four species recorded in Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay, and from central western, southern, and southeastern Brazil. Orthoderella caatingaensis sp. nov., from the Caatinga biome in northeastern Brazil, is described here. This new species can be recognized by having a black spot on the inner face of the fore coxae, which extends to its posterior external face; phalloid apophysis of the left dorsal phallomere trapezoidal in shape with the right margin sinuous and a laminate anterior process; and a ventral phallomere with a sclerotized and rugous distal process. An identification key, in both Portuguese and English, to the five species of Orthoderella is presented.
Abstract in English:The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae), with redescription of two species. Apiococcus Hempel is a genus from Brazil composed of four gall-inducing species. The adult females of two species, Apiococcus globosus Hempel and A. singularis Hempel, from Brazil, are redescribed and illustrated. Keys to the species of the genus and their galls are given.
Abstract in English:Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania Kristensen & Nielsen (Lepidoptera, Heterobathmiidae): identification based on DNA-barcoding and notes on the morphology and life history of the immature stages. The larva morphology of the species Heterobathmia pseuderiocrania (Lepidoptera, Heterobathmiidae), a Nothofagus obliqua leafminer in Chile, is described. The tissue-feeding first and last instars are described. Also, the number of larval stages, some aspects of the biology and life cycle of the species are provided.
Abstract in English:New genera, new species and redescription in Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from the Americas. New taxa described from El Salvador: Eranina sororcula sp. nov. (La Libertad). From Honduras: E. pallida sp. nov. (department not indicated). From Costa Rica: Mexicoscylus nigritarse sp. nov. (Guanacaste) and Cotyabanycha gen. nov., type species, C. ocularis sp. nov. (Limón). From Colombia and Ecuador: Sybaguasu mirim sp. nov. (Meta and Napo). From Ecuador: Piampatara antennata sp. nov. (Napo), Adesmus simile sp. nov. (Manabi), A. alboniger sp. nov. (Napo), A. swifti sp. nov. (Loja). From Bolivia: Potiapunga gen. nov., type species P. lata sp. nov. (Santa Cruz). Phoebe spegazzinii Bruch, 1908 is recorded for Ecuador (Manabi) and its chromatic variation is commented.
Abstract in English:Description of the third larval instar and pupa of Geniates barbatus Kirby (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae). The last larval instar and pupa of the Neotropical Geniatini Geniates barbatus Kirby, 1819 are described and illustrated. Biological notes and a key to the third instar larvae of Neotropical Rutelinae are also provided.
Abstract in English:Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung) or carcasses (carrion) and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the diversity of dung beetle communities inhabiting fragments of the Atlantic Forest, with the purpose of describing the ecology of the species in southern Brazil. This study was conducted in the region of Campos Novos, in Santa Catarina, where twenty sites of Atlantic forest fragments were sampled. Samplings of dung beetles were conducted using 200 pitfall traps, of which 100 were baited with human feces and another 100 with carrion. Size and environmental complexity were also measured for each forest fragment. A total of 1,502 dung beetles, belonging to six tribes, 12 genera and 33 species, were collected. Results of the Levin's index of niche breadth indicated that 11 species were categorized as being coprophagous, ten as generalists, and two as necrophagous. Most species are tunnelers (19), nine of rollers and four of dwellers. The great diversity of Scarabaeinae in the region of Campos Novos, including several rare species, adds important data to the Scarabaeinae fauna in the central-western region of Santa Catarina. It may also help choosing priority areas for conservation in the region, where human impact, with large areas of monoculture, increasingly threatens the fragments of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest.
Abstract in English:Interaction between Musca domestica L. and its predator Muscina stabulans (Fallén) (Diptera, Muscidae): Effects of prey density and food source abundance. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of prey density and food source abundance on the predatory behavior of Muscina stabulans over M. domestica. Three predator/prey proportions were evaluated (1:1, 1:3 and 1:6), using 100 third instar predator larvae against second instar prey larvae. Each proportion was maintained using three different levels of food substrate (25, 50 and 100 g). The experiments were carried out in triplicate in BOD incubators (25ºC, UR 70% ± 10% and 12 h photoperiod). The mortality of the M. domestica larvae was 100% under all conditions, except in the 1:6 predator/prey proportion, at the 50g and 100g food substrate levels, where it was 99.99% and 99.22%, respectively. There was a significant increase in the development period of M. stabulans in relation to the increase in prey density and decrease in quantity of food substrate. An increase in the proportion of individuals and a reduction in the amount of resource slowed down larval development. Muscina stabulans pupal weight was proportional to the increase in prey density and the amount of food substrate. The proportion or the density influenced the survival of M. stabulans, with no difference in relation to the amount of food source and consequently in the interaction of the factors. There was no difference between the 1:1 and 1:3 predator-prey densities, with both differing from the 1:6 density.
Abstract in English:Orthoptera assemblages associated with macrophytes of floodplain lakes of the Paraná River. The Orthoptera assemblage composition varies considerably, depending on habitat type. This study examines the spatiotemporal relationship between plant diversity, hydrometric level, environmental variables and the Orthoptera richness and abundance in floodplain lakes connected permanently or temporarily with the main channel of the Paraná River. The grasshoppers were collected fortnightly (April 2006May 2007). A total of 17 species were recorded and classified according to their frequency of occurrence in constant (7), accessory (4), or accidental (6) species. In the two lakes, the greater species richness and abundance was recorded in summer, thereby coinciding with the highest water level of the Paraná River. The most significant correlation between the orthopteran richness and abundance was with the water level. The aquatic plant richness was significantly different between the lakes, but the vegetation was dominated by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. (Liliales, Pontederiaceae). The lake, which was connected permanently, presented the highest values of diversity and abundance, proving to be a more diverse assemblage. The beta diversity was higher in the temporary connected lake than in the permanently connected one. The orthopterans assemblages were different between the lakes, Cornops aquaticum and Tucayaca gracilis were the species that contributed more to the level of dissimilarity. C. aquaticum was more representative in the lake temporarily connected, while T. gracilis in the permanent connected one. The water level of the Paraná River and the connectivity of the floodplain lakes play an important role to explain the abundance and richness of their orthopteran assemblages.
Abstract in English:Carabid beetle assemblages in three environments in the Araucaria humid forest of southern Brazil. Carabidae is composed mainly by ground-dwelling predator beetles. It is the fourth most diverse group within Coleoptera, but its diversity in the Neotropical region is understudied. Here we describe and analyze the diversity of carabid beetles in a region of subtropical rain forest dominated by Araucaria angustifolia with different landscapes. Three areas were chosen in an environmental integrity gradient: primary forests, secondary forests and old Pinus plantations. Pitfall traps were taken monthly, in a total of 14 samples per area. 1733 adult carabid beetles, belonging to 18 species, were sampled. There were differences in richness and abundance between the sampled areas. The total scores followed the same tendency: primary forests (14 species/747 individuals), secondary forests (13/631) and Pinus forests (10/355). An analysis of similarity shows differences in species composition, for both areas and seasons. Galerita lacordarei was the most abundant species for all samples and seasons. Carabid species show similar responses in accordance with habitat heterogeneity and disturbance. The abundance of Galerita lacordarei was influenced by temperature, for all sampled sites. Environmental changes affect the carabid assemblages and decrease diversity, possibly interfering in local dynamics. Seasonality patterns seem to indicate an increase in individual movement during summer, probably in search of resources. It is suggested that microhabitat patchiness is probably an important factor affecting carabid beetle diversity at small spatial scales.
Abstract in English:Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae), an important predator of cassidine beetles. Stiretrus decemguttatus is an important predator of two species of cassidine beetles, Botanochara sedecimpustulata (Fabricius, 1781) and Zatrephina lineata (Fabricius, 1787) (Coleoptera, Cassidinae), on the Marajó Island, Brazil. It attacks individuals in all development stages, but preys preferentially on late-instar larvae. Its life cycle in the laboratory was 43.70 ± 1.09 days, with an egg incubation period of six days and duration from nymph and adult stages of 16.31 ± 0.11 and 22.10 ± 1.67 days, respectively. The duration of one generation (T) was 12.65 days and the intrinsic population growth rate (r) 0.25. These data reveal the adjustment of the life cycle of S. decemgutattus with those of the two preys, but suggest greater impact on Z. lineata. However, no preference over cassidine species was shown in the laboratory. Up to 17 different color patterns can be found in adults of S. decemguttatus, based on combinations of three basic sets of color markings. Some of them resemble the markings of chrysomelids associated with Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) and are possibly a mimetic ring. Three color patterns were identified in nymphs, none of which was associated with any specific adult color pattern.
Abstract in English:Temporal variation in the composition of ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on trees in the Pantanal floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In this paper we investigate how seasonal flooding influences the composition of assemblages of ants foraging on trees in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During the flood in the Pantanal, a large area is covered by floods that are the main forces that regulate the pattern of diversity in these areas. However, the effects of such natural disturbances in the ant communities are poorly known. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temporal variation in assemblages of ants foraging on trees in the Pantanal of Miranda. Samples were collected during a year in two adjacent areas, one who suffered flooding during the wet period and another that did not suffer flooding throughout the year. In 10 sites for each evaluated habitat, five pitfall traps were installed at random in trees 25 m apart from each other. In the habitat with flooding, the highest richness was observed during the flooding period, while there was no significant change in richness in the area that does not suffer flooding. The diversity of species between the two evaluated habitats varied significantly during the two seasons. Most ants sampled belong to species that forage and nest in soil. This suggests that during the flood in flooded habitats, ants that did not migrate to higher areas without flooding adopt the strategy to search for resources in the tree canopy.
Abstract in English:Fauna of Simuliidae (Diptera) from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: Distribution, new records and list of species. The fauna of Simuliidae in Brazil is composed of 87 species, 17 of which are recorded from the state of Espírito Santo. Entomological collections were carried out in 2010-2011 with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the species richness of this family in the state. Ninety three rivers and streams were sampled, each collection being carried out in a 50m transect. During the study period 30 species were collected, 13 of which represent new records for the state, 12 of the genus Simulium and one of the genus Lutzsimulium. Among these new state records one, Simulium lobatoi, also represents a new record from southeastern Brazil. The other newly recorded species are: Lutzsimulium hirticosta, Simulium distinctum, Simulium exiguum, Simulium oyapockense, Simulium botulibranchium, Simulium petropoliense, Simulium clavibranchium, Simulium rappae, Simulium minusculum, Simulium dinellii, Simulium ochraceum and Simulium scutistriatum.
Abstract in English:Entomofauna associated to fruits and seeds of two species of Enterolobium Mart. (Leguminosae): Harm or benefit? The aims of the present study were to identify the entomofauna associated to the fruits and seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong and Enterolobium timbouva Mart. (Leguminosae), as well as to determine relationships among insects and the possible harm and/or benefit stemming from these associations. Fruit infestation was evaluated and the insects were identified. Seed consumption (%) and the germination of predated seeds (%) were determined. The fruits of E. contortisiliquum exhibited a high percentage of infestation (91%). The most representative species in the fruits were Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, Merobruchus bicoloripes (Pic, 1930) and Stator limbatus (Horn, 1873). In the fruits of E. timbouva, only one species was found (S. limbatus). E. contortisiliquum seed consumption was proportionately higher (55.2%) to that of E. timbouva (15%). The germination of predated seeds from E. contortisiliquum was null, whereas 40% of predated seeds from E. timbouva germinated.
Abstract in English:Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%), Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%), Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%), Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%), Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%), Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14%) and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20%) were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%). It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.
Abstract in English:Dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) attracted to sheep dung in exotic pastures. In this study we provide data on the abundance and richness of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae) attracted to sheep dung in exotic pastures (Brachiaria spp.). In four areas of exotic pasture pitfall traps were installed and baited with fresh sheep dung for sampling of dung beetles. A total of 2,290 individuals were captured belonging to 16 species, 10 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae beetles. Trichillum externepunctatum Preudhomme de Borre, 1886 and Dichotomius bos (Blanchard, 1843) were dominant. The guild of dwellers was the most abundant in pastures. We demonstrate that dung beetles are attracted to sheep dung. Since the production of both cattle and sheep in the same area is common in tropical pasturelands, results obtained here highlight the need to investigate the actual role of dung sharing (cattle dung + sheep dung) by dung beetles. It is also suggested that experiments be performed for evaluation of the ecological functions performed by dung beetles using sheep dung.