Abstract in English:Catalogue of the type-specimens of Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha) in the Natural History Museum, London. A commented list of the types of three families of Bibionomorpha - Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae - housed at the Natural History Museum (London) is provided. This includes four holotypes and one paratype of five species of Bolitophilidae; one paratype and three syntypes of two species of Diadocidiidae; and 17 holotypes, 91 paratypes, four lectotypes, and fourteen paralectotypes of 38 species of Ditomyiidae. Lectotypes are designated for the Neotropical species of the ditomyiids Australosymmerus (Melosymmerus) bisetosus Edwards, 1940 and A. (M.) pediferus Edwards, 1940.
Abstract in English:A new species of Giovanella Bonatto (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellinae) from Colombia. The Mesembrinellinae are exclusively Neotropical, with 33 nominal species distributed in nine genera. Only the genera Mesembrinella, Eumesembrinella, Huascaromusca and Laneella had until now been recorded in Colombia. In this work we present a new species of Giovanella Bonatto, 2005, genus with only one species, G. bolivar Bonatto, differing from the new species G. carvalhoi sp. nov., in the characters: legs entirely dark chestnut; thorax with dorsocentrals setae 1:2; abdomen with T5 with discal bristles poorly differentiated; T6 symmetric and paraphallus not extended and with denticules. Giovanella carvalhoi sp. nov. is from Cordillera Oriental, from the Departments of Caquetá (Amazonian foothills) and Santander, Colombia, collected between 22002400 m., and associated with decomposing organic matter. A key for the identification of males and females of the two species of Giovanella, illustrations of the genitalia and photographs of male and female of new species are also presented.
Abstract in English:External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae) and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae. The external structure of the integument of Dynamine postverta postverta (Cramer, 1779) is based on detailed morphological drawings and scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared with other species belonging to eight tribes of Nymphalidae, to assist future studies on the taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical Biblidinae.
Abstract in English:A taxonomic key for the genera of Elmidae (Coleoptera, Byrrhoidea) occurring in Goiás State, Brazil, including new records and distributional notes. Despite their great diversity and high abundance in Neotropical aquatic environments, the fauna of Elmidae remains practically unknown in some areas and even entire biomes in this region. In this work we bring, for the first time, faunistic data for the Elmidae of central Brazil. The aim of this work was to inventory the Elmidae fauna in central, southwestern and southeastern Goiás State, Brazil and to produce a taxonomic key, at genus level, for adults from the studied region. The taxonomic key presented herein offers means for the identification of all the 13 genera known to occur in Goiás, 11 of them being new records for the State. Moreover, the number of named species registered for Goiás increased from one to nine.
Abstract in English:A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol.) H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae) occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.
Abstract in English:Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae) from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.
Abstract in English:Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Taxonomic information on Neotropical Eumeninae is provided. A new species, Pachodynerus fessatus sp. nov. is described from southeastern São Paulo, Brazil. Additional material of Pachodynerus sericeus (Fox) was examined, representing the first further specimens after the original description and including the previously unknown male. The examination of new material of the genus Stenonartonia adds some new distribution records and shows some previously unrecorded individual variation for some species. The males of Stenonartonia guaraya Garcete-Barrett and Stenonartonia rejectoides Garcete-Barrett are described for the first time.
Abstract in English:Social wasp species of Mischocyttarus (Phi) related to M. alfkenii (Ducke) and M. paraguayensis Zikán (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae). A revision of the taxonomic status and an identification key are presented for species of the genus Mischocyttarus related to M. alfkenii (Ducke) and M. paraguayensis Zikán. Seven new species are proposed in the alfkenii and basimacula groups (M. achagua sp. nov.; M. arawak sp. nov.; M. awa sp. nov.; M. embera sp. nov.; M. muisca sp. nov.; M. uniformis sp. nov.; M. waunan sp. nov.), with five new synonymies [M. mamirauae Raw = M. alfkenii (Ducke); M. alfkenii excrucians Richards = M. flavicornis nigricornis Zikán = M. flavicornis Zikán; M. basimacula superpictus Richards = M. basimacula (Cameron)]. Specific status is also newly recognized for M. trinitatis Richards. Two new species are described in the paraguayensis and bahiae group (M. suzannae sp. nov.; M. tayacaja sp. nov.), while fifteen new synonymies are proposed (M. aracatubaensis Zikán = M. araujoi Zikán = M. costalimai Zikán = M. gilvus Zikán = M. infrastrigatoides Zikán = M. infrastrigatus Zikán = M. infrastrigatus Zikán = M. ornatulus Zikán = M. riograndensis Richards = M. rivulorum Richards = M. schrottkyi Zikán = M. scitulus Zikán = M. similaris Zikán = M. similatus Zikán = M. paraguayensis Zikán). These numbers change the picture of diversity in these species groups, as partly found in Richards's revision, published in 1978, reflecting higher diversity in northern Andean areas than in the Brazilian Atlantic region.
Abstract in English:Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa) were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794), Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae), and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil), Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1) the Colombian territory and (2) northeastern Brazil.
Abstract in English:Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae) from Central Amazon, Brazil. There are 11 species of Richardia known to Brazil. Of these, only four are known to occur in the Brazilian Amazon Region, where the diversity of Richardia is underestimated. Herein we describe and illustrate Richardia intemperata sp. nov. and Richardia parispina sp. nov. from Amazonas, Brazil. An illustrated key to males from this region is also provided.
Abstract in English:Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae): descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Expression profile of a Laccase2 encoding gene during the metamorphic molt in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Metamorphosis in holometabolous insects occurs through two subsequent molting cycles: pupation (metamorphic molt) and adult differentiation (imaginal molt). The imaginal molt in Apis mellifera L. was recently investigated in both histological and physiological-molecular approaches. Although the metamorphic molt in this model bee is extremely important to development, it is not well-known yet. In the current study we used this stage as an ontogenetic scenario to investigate the transcriptional profile of the gene Amlac2, which encodes a laccase with an essential role in cuticle differentiation. Amlac2 expression in epidermis was contrasted with the hemolymph titer of ecdysteroid hormones and with the most evident morphological events occurring during cuticle renewal. RT-PCR semiquantitative analyses using integument samples revealed increased levels of Amlac2 transcripts right after apolysis and during the subsequent pharate period, and declining levels near pupal ecdysis. Compared with the expression of a cuticle protein gene, AmelCPR14, these results highlighted the importance of the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis as an ontogenetic marker of gene reactivation in epidermis for cuticle renewal. The obtained results strengthen the comprehension of metamorphosis in Apis mellifera. In addition, we reviewed the literature about the development of A. mellifera, and emphasize the importance of revising the terminology used to describe honey bee molting cycles.
Abstract in English:Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records. The Caatingas occur predominantly in northeastern Brazil and comparatively it is the biome that received less attention than any other ecosystem in Brazil, representing the region where invertebrate groups are less known. We present here the first list of ant species of the Caatingas, compiling information from the literature, from a study of samples preserved in alcohol in the Laboratory of Entomology (Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana), and from a field survey conducted in Milagres, Bahia, submitting standardized 1-m² samples of the leaf-litter to Winkler extractors. Summing all information, 11 subfamilies, 61 genera and 173 species (plus one subspecies) of ants are recognized in the biome. This species number does not consider morphospecies that could not be named due to the lack of reliable recent taxonomic information for some Neotropical ant genera. The list presented here for ant species of the Caatingas is therefore underestimated, but it is relevant because it allows the identification of areas to be sampled in order to improve our knowledge of the diversity of ants in this biome.
Abstract in English:Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae), galling 43 host plant species, which in turn belonged to 18 host plant families. Stem and buds together, compared to leaves, harbored more galls, which were mostly glabrous, isolated, fusiform and green. Myrtaceae, Asteraceae and Melastomataceae were the most representative host families. Similarities in gall characteristics to what has been reported in the literature probably result from spatial correlation in a larger scale driven by ecological and evolutionary processes.
Abstract in English:On the taxonomic status of Nephochaetopteryx calida (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Sarcophagidae). Based on analysis of the holotype of Nephochaetopteryx calida (Wiedemann) it was concluded that this species does not belong to Nephochaetopteryx. The holotype is a female partly damaged and it was not possible to place it in one of Sarcophaginae genera, remaining as Sarcophaga calida Wiedemann, 1830, incertae sedis.
Abstract in English:Egg parasitoids of Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius) (Pentatomidae) in lettuce crop. This study evaluated the occurrence of parasitoids in eggs of the stink bug, Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) found on lettuce crop in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Samples were collected in the vegetable garden "Cheiro Verde", in the municipality of Tangará da Serra, in curly lettuce. A bed of lettuce was selected randomly, where the eggs of E. meditabunda were collected. Five-hundred and seventy eight eggs of E. meditabunda were collected, 86.3% of them parasitized by Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), Trissolcus urichi Crawford, 1913 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) and Neorileya albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae), representing respectively 57.0%, 38.2% and 4.8% of the emerged individuals. This is the first record of these three species parasitizing eggs of E. meditabunda in lettuce.
Abstract in English:New host association: Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) parasitized by Melaloncha (Diptera, Phoridae). The genus Melaloncha Brues is a large assemblage of New World, parasitoid phorid flies. They are parasitoids of Apoidea bees. However, here we present the first record of a wasp parasitized by Melaloncha sp. The new host is Polybia scutellaris (White), a neotropical eusocial wasp. The parasitized wasp was found in an urban park near the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. It appears that the genus Melaloncha parasitizes a wider range of social Hymenoptera than currently known.