Abstract in English:Geobiota are defined by taxic assemblages (i.e., biota) and their defining abiotic breaks, which are mapped in cross-section to reveal past and future biotic boundaries. We term this conceptual approach Temporal Geobiotic Mapping (TGM) and offer it as a conceptual approach for biogeography. TGM is based on geological cross-sectioning, which creates maps based on the distribution of biota and known abiotic factors that drive their distribution, such as climate, topography, soil chemistry and underlying geology. However, the availability of abiotic data is limited for many areas. Unlike other approaches, TGM can be used when there is minimal data available. In order to demonstrate TGM, we use the well-known area in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales (NSW), south-eastern Australia and show how surface processes such as weathering and erosion affect the future distribution of a Moist Basalt Forest taxic assemblage. Biotic areas are best represented visually as maps, which can show transgressions and regressions of biota and abiota over time. Using such maps, a biogeographer can directly compare animal and plant distributions with features in the abiotic environment and may identify significant geographical barriers or pathways that explain biotic distributions.
Abstract in English:On the identity of Melipona torrida Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Melipona marginata var. torrida Friese, 1916, described from three workers putatively collected in Costa Rica, never had its identity properly recognized. Since its original description, no additional specimens have ever been collected in Costa Rica. It is argued here that Melipona torrida was based on mislabeled specimens and corresponds to Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, a form known only from southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. A lectotype is designated for Melipona torrida and notes on the type material of Melipona marginata obscurior are provided. Other known examples of species described from mislabeled specimens in Friese's Zur Bienenfauna von Costa Rica are discussed. It is pointed out that additional names proposed in this work, based on material from Costa Rica, might turn out to correspond to South American taxa. Also, the date of publication of this Friese's paper is discussed.
Abstract in English:Two new species of Neurigona Rondani from northern and northeastern Brazil (Diptera, Dolichopodidae). Two new species of Neurigona Rondani (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) of the brevitibia-group are described from northern and northeastern Brazil: N. lenae sp. nov. and N. manauara sp. nov. A key to males of the brevitibia-group is provided.
Abstract in English:The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov. , its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae).The subgenus Lycoderes (Lycoderides) Sakakibara, 1972 is raised to the genus category - Lycoderides stat. nov.. - : and it now includes: Lycoderides amazonicus (Sakakibara, 1991), comb. nov. , Lycoderides brevilobus (Sakakibara, 1972), comb. nov. , Lycoderides burmeisteri (Fairmaire, 1846), comb. nov. , Lycoderides cultratus (Sakakibara, 1991), comb. nov. , Lycoderides fernandezi (Strümpel, 1988), comb. nov. , Lycoderides fuscus (Amyot & Serville, 1843), comb. nov. , Lycoderides gradatus (Sakakibara, 1972), comb. nov. , Lycoderides hippocampus (Fabricius, 1803), comb. nov. , Lycoderides luteus (Funkhouser, 1940), comb. nov. , Lycoderides marginalis (Walker, 1851), comb. nov. , Lycoderides nathanieli (Cryan, 1999), comb. nov. , Lycoderides obtusus (Sakakibara, 1991), comb. nov. , Lycoderides pennyi (Sakakibara, 1991), comb. nov. , Lycoderides phasianus (Fowler, 1896), comb. nov. (= Enchenopa minamen Buckton, 1901,SYN. NOV: ), Lycoderides protensus (Sakakibara, 1991), comb. nov. , Lycoderides serraticornis (Fowler, 1896), comb. nov. , and Lycoderides strumpeli (Sakakibara, 1991), comb. nov. The following new species are described: Lycoderides abditus, sp. nov. , Lycoderides brulei,SP. NOV. (: both from French Guiana), Lycoderides capixaba, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Espírito Santo), Lycoderides cavichiolii, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro), Lycoderides meloi, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Bahia), and Lycoderides oliviae, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Minas Gerais). Other nomenclatural change: Stegaspis bracteata (Fabricius, 1787) = Lycoderes capitata Buckton, 1903, syn. nov. New records of geographical distribution and a key to the species are provided.
Abstract in English:White grubs (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae) in the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: Key for identification, species richness and distribution. The objective of this study was to survey the occurrence and geographic distribution of white grub species (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae) in cultivated and non-cultivated fields of the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil and develop a key at genus-level. Twenty-eight species from 15 genera and three subfamilies were recorded: Dynastinae, Melolonthinae and Rutelinae. The species or genera recorded for the first time in the state are: Cyclocephala metrica, C. tucumana, Isonychus albicinctus, Liogenys bidenticeps, L. fusca, L. obesa and L. sinuaticeps, Paranomala violacea, as well as unidentified species of Amononyx, Dicrania, Leucothyreus, Macrodactylus, Plectris and Rhizogeniates. Among the species recorded, 23 were associated with winter crops. Only Cyclocephala metrica, Dyscinetus rugifrons, two species of Leucothyreus and one species of the tribe Sericini were not present in cultivated crop fields. Cyclocephala flavipennis and Diloboderus abderus occurred in most of the municipalities sampled, often associated with Plectris sp., C. modesta and C. putrida. The highest richness of melolonthids was concentrated in the northeast of the Planalto region.
Abstract in English:A review of the Neotropical Charipinae is given, with 35 species from four genera: Alloxysta, Apocharips, Dilyta and Phaenoglyphis. One new species, Alloxysta centroamericana Ferrer-Suay & Pujade-Villar sp. nov. is described; six Alloxysta species, Alloxysta citripes (Thomson, 1862), Alloxysta fracticornis (Thomson, 1862), Alloxysta melanogaster (Hartig, 1841), Alloxysta piceomaculata (Cameron, 1886), Alloxysta postica (Hartig, 1841) and Alloxysta pusilla (Kieffer, 1902), are recorded for the first time from the Neotropical region; 10 new records for earlier known species are also given. Diagnoses and a key to all species are also provided.
Abstract in English:Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart.) Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping), nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae), and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.
Abstract in English:Termite societies are structured by individuals that can be grouped into castes and instars. The development of these instars in most species occurs in irregular patterns and sometimes is distinguished subcastes in physical systems that originate polymorphic soldiers and workers. In this study, we characterized the morphological diversity of castes of apterous in Nasutitermes corniger. We collected four colonies of N. corniger, one every three months between May 2011 and February 2012. Individuals of the nest were separated into groups: larval stages, workers and presoldiers and soldiers. A morphometric analysis was performed on individuals from each group based on head width, metatibia, antenna, and thorax length. The data were submitted to discriminant analysis to confirm different morphological types inside these groups. The apterous line of N. corniger is composed of one first larval instar and two second larval instar. The workers caste has two lines of development with four instars in a larger line and three instars in a lower line. Two morphological types were identified in presoldiers and soldiers. The pattern of castes was similar to other species of the genus, in which bifurcation into two lines of workers, one smaller and one larger occurs after the first molt.
Abstract in English:We conducted a survey of insects and pest management practices on 34 farms growing ornamental tropical foliage plants in the central coffee region of Colombia over two years. Tropical foliage provided habitat for a diverse range of insects. In total, phytophagous or detritivorous insects from six orders, 40 families and 62 genera were collected. The most common were Hemiptera (29 genera from 16 families), followed by Coleoptera (17 genera from 4 families), Diptera (5 genera from 5 families), Lepidoptera (5 genera from 4 families), Hymenoptera (3 genera from 2 families) and Orthoptera (2 genera from 2 families). The most common phytophagous species were leaf cutting ants (Atta and Acromyrmex spp.), leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), leafhoppers (Cicadellidae), stinkbugs (Pentatomidae), squash bugs (Coreidae), tree hoppers (Membracidae) and plant hoppers (Fulgoridae). Beneficial insects identified from tropical foliage included predators and parasitoids amongst 5 orders, 12 families and 22 genera. The most abundant were predators among the Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, Reduviidae, Lycidae and Formicidae but only low numbers of parasitoids (Ichneumonidae, Braconidae and Tachinidae) were collected. A pest management questionnaire given to growers revealed a preponderance of reliance on broad spectrum insecticides with a smaller number of growers (approximately one third) also using some biological control methods. Our survey contributes basic information regarding diversity of Neotropical insects associated with ornamental foliage plants.
Abstract in English:Aiming to contribute to a rearing methodology for the brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, in the laboratory, we evaluated oviposition on artificial substrates of different colors. During six days, oviposition was evaluated daily, by counting the total number of eggs, number of clutches, and eggs/clutch. Females laid 12,463 eggs, in 1,677 clutches, resulting in an average of 7.28 ± 0.44 eggs/clutch. Black, brown, and green felt had the most eggs and clutches. The results demonstrated that many colors are suitable as oviposition substrate for E. heros, providing information for the mass rearing of this insect.
Abstract in English:Biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae) in crop succession at central Brazil. Beetles of the family Melolonthidae make up a large group and some species are considered pests of planted crops. Little information is available on the basic biological aspects of the genus Leucothyreus, such as association with cultivated crops and their occurrence periods. Therefore studies were developed in soybean and corn crops in Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, with the objective of studying the occurrence and biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus. For acquisition of immature specimens of both species, in April 2011 sampling was performed in corn fields, in July and October in the fallow area, and in soybeans fields planted in December; in 2012 sampling was performed in January and February in soybean fields and in March in corn fields. In 2011 the total number of larvae obtained in April, July, October and December were 100, 6, 30 and 27, and in January, February and March of 2012 these quantities were 32, 52 and 65 larvae, respectively. In all sampling events the larvae of L. alvarengai were collected in greater quantity. At the beginning of the reproductive period of L. alvarengai and L. aff. semipruinosus, it was observed that the adults began to fly and soon after started oviposition in the field in September. The appearance of larvae coincides with the time of soybean planting in the field, thus the larvae feed on roots of soybean plants at the beginning of their development and the cycle from egg to adult of the two species was completed in one year.
Abstract in English:What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest to the dung beetle assemblage? The Atlantic Forest in Brazil is one of the most highly disturbed ecosystems and is mainly represented by fragmented areas. However, in places where human disturbances have ceased, certain areas are showing a natural regeneration pattern. The aim of the present study was to determine how the dung beetle assemblage responds to distinct habitat structures in a fragment of Atlantic Forest. For such, open and closed forest areas were sampled in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in the northeastern region of Brazil. Pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion were used to collect the beetles. A total of 7,267 individuals belonging to 35 species were captured. Canthon chalybaeus and C. mutabilis were restricted to open areas. Nearly 90% of the individuals of C. aff. simulans and Deltochilum aff. irroratum were identified in these areas. A higher percentage (> 50%) of Canthon staigi, Dichotomius aff. depressicolis and D. aff. sericeus occurred in closed areas. Abundance differed between areas, with higher values in closed areas. Richness was not influenced by the habitat structure. NMDS ordination exhibited the segregation of areas and ANOSIM confirmed that this variable explained the assemblage of dung beetle species. The findings of the present study validate that open areas are associated to more restrictive conditions, limiting a higher abundance of dung beetle. Although situated near preserved fragments, the studied open areas increase the heterogeneity of the general landscape.
Abstract in English:Parasitoids of the endangered leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier in urban and natural areas. Hosts of parasitoids in urban areas may suffer from a double threat of habitat destruction by urbanization and parasitism pressure. Moreover, the parasitoids themselves might be at risk if they are specialists. Here, we studied whether Atta robusta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), which is on the red list of Brazilian threatened species, suffers from higher parasitism pressure in an urban area compared to a natural one. In addition, we determined whether their specialist parasitoids, Eibesfeldtphora breviloba and Myrmosicarius exrobusta (Diptera, Phoridae), are in risk and evaluated whether they are influenced by habitat structure, temperature, humidity, ant traffic, and time of the day. The study was carried out in an urban park and in a natural protected area in the city of Rio de Janeiro. In each site we chose an open area and a closed area (forest) and sampled nine nests in each area. We found that parasitism pressure was similar in urban and natural areas, with the same two parasitoid species present in both areas. The main difference was related to habitat structure, since M. exrobusta was mainly present in open areas while E. breviloba was almost exclusively found in closed areas. Myrmosicarius exrobusta was not present during the hottest midday times, and its abundance was negatively correlated to vapor pressure deficit. These results suggest that green areas can be an important component in efforts to conserve diversity in urban areas. However, the complexity of the habitats in those areas is a fundamental issue in designing urban parks.
Abstract in English:Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) under controlled conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase). The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days) was not significantly higher than those of males (9.27 days). The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.067, 0.600 and 8.133 days, respectively. The mean fecundity per female was 1,398 eggs and the mean fertility was 1,367.50 larvae. On average, females copulated 1.133 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of mating and fecundity (r = 0.881, P <0.001). However a strong negative correlation was observed between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.826, P = 0.002) and longevity (r = -0.823, P = 0.001). The biotic potential of S. eridania was estimated at 1.894 x 10(25) individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro) was 560.531 times per generation and the mean generation time (T) was 35.807 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.177, with a finite rate of increase (l) of 1.193, per week
Abstract in English:New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.
Abstract in English:The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild) (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910) was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae) and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae) and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae) under laboratory conditions.
Abstract in English:A replacement name for Hualpenia Mundaca, Parra & Vargas (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae). Vihualpenia nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Hualpenia Mundaca, Parra & Vargas, 2013 (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), in order to remove homonymy with Hualpenia Franz, 1996 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).