Abstract in English:New data on Marthiella Buffington (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae), with description of a new species. A new species of Marthiella Buffington (Hymenoptera, Figitidae) from Brazil and Nicaragua is described and illustrated. Rhabdeucoela semirufa Kieffer is transferred to Marthiella and a new combination was established: Marthiella semirufa. A key for identifying species of Marthiella is provided in this study.
Abstract in English:Rhodometra sacraria (Linnaeus), a cosmopolitan sterrhine confirmed from Chile (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Rhodometra sacraria (Linnaeus, 1767), corologically a cosmopolitan species, is documented from Chile thanks to the analysis of specimens from four different localities in that country, at the same time, increasing the number of species known from the subfamily Sterrhinae in Chile, as well as being only the second (confirmed) documentation of this species from the Neotropics.
Abstract in English:Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae). Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928), collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng.) Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.
Abstract in English:External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae). The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861) is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss.) Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth), which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.
Abstract in English:Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) carcasses, and the experiments were conducted in areas of pasture and semideciduous forest. A total of 85,694 adult flesh flies belonging to 57 species were collected from all carcasses. New records for nine species of Sarcophaginae are provided, including the first record of Blaesoxipha (Acridiophaga) caridei (Brèthes, 1906) to Brazil, and new occurrences of the following species for the Cerrado and/or for the state of Minas Gerais: Blaesoxipha (Acanthodotheca) acridiophagoides (Lopes & Downs, 1951), Malacophagomyia filamenta (Dodge, 1964), Nephochaetopteryx orbitalis (Curran & Walley, 1934), Nephochaetopteryx cyaneiventris Lopes, 1936, Nephochaetopteryx pallidiventris Townsend, 1934, Oxysarcodexia occulta Lopes, 1946, Ravinia effrenata (Walker, 1861) and Sarcophaga (Neobellieria) polistensis (Hall, 1933).
Abstract in English:The brown lacewings (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) of northwestern Turkey with new records, their spatio-temporal distribution and harbouring plants. The occurrence and spatio-temporal distribution of brown lacewing species (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) in Bursa province, northwestern Turkey, was investigated during 1999-2011. A total of 852 brown lacewing specimens of 20 species, including the genera of Hemerobius, Megalomus, Micromus, Sympherobius, and Wesmaelius were collected. Of these, 12 species were new records for northwestern Turkey while Sympherobius klapaleki is a new record for the Neuroptera fauna of Turkey. The most widespread species were Hemerobius handschini and Sympherobius pygmaeus with percent dominance values of 42.00 and 15.96%, respectively. Wesmaelius subnebulosus was the earliest emerging hemerobiid species and had the longest flight activity lasting from March to October. The species of southern origin characterized by the Mediterranean elements constituted 55% of the hemerobiid fauna and prevailed over the species of northern origin that belong to the Siberian centres. The total number of hemerobiid species reached a peak in July with captures of 15 species per month. There were 11, 13, 18 and 5 hemerobiid species occurring at altitudes between 1-500, 501-1000, 1001-1500 and 1500-2000 m, respectively. In addition, plant species harbouring hemerobiids are given for each species, and their association with the hemerobiid fauna is discussed.
Abstract in English:Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) using DNA barcodes. Geometrid larvae are the only prey known for larvae of the Neotropical potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 was amplified from geometrid larvae collected from cells of H. andeus in the Azapa Valley, Arica Province, and used to provide taxonomic identifications. Two species, Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 and Macaria mirthae Vargas, Parra & Hausmann, 2005 were identified, while three others could be identified only at higher taxonomic levels, because the barcode reference library of geometrid moths is still incomplete for northern Chile.
Abstract in English:Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae). The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two types of glandular structures: the impair gland and the paired glands. The prosternal glands are located within the conical integumentary sac, which in turn is situated on the individual's prosternum. The main goal of this study is to analyze the existence of any secretion from the prosternal paired glands, and check the action mode of this secretion. The methodology used for chemical analysis of the glands included the aeration and, analysis in gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the prosternal glands do not produce volatiles. Bioassays were conducted with simulated and natural attacks and revealed that the prosternal paired glands produce secretions of defense together with silk produced by labials glands as a defense strategy, described for the first time, against ants. The strategy consists in wrapping the ant with silk threads, the entire wrapped object moved to the end of the body, with the aid of the legs and prolegs, and possibly fixed in a nearby place. Evidence for the existence of a conical integumentary sac in larvae of other species and families of Lepidoptera allows us to propose the possibility of occurrence of prosternal paired glands with defensive function in these other groups as well.
Abstract in English:Nesting substrata, colony success and productivity of the wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga. Colonies of the wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga (von Ihering, 1903) are easily found in urban areas. However, in spite of the massive presence of this species in cities, little is known about its nesting habits, colony success and productivity. The present study aimed at answering the following questions: What are the substrates used for nesting by M. cassununga? What is the main foundation strategy adopted by M. cassununga in urban areas: a solitary female or associative foundation? Is there a relationship between foundation strategies and colony success? Is the total number of cells per nest related to the number of adults produced? The study was conducted in Juiz de Fora, southeastern Brazil, from December 2006 to November 2007. Nesting in man-made substrata seems to be a common strategy in M. cassununga (90.9%), with preference for nest building with a horizontal comb facing north. The colonies were established mainly by groups of foundresses (67.6%), with a success of 84%. The number of brood cells produced per nest was 71.74 ± 45.25 (18-203), and it was positively correlated with the number of adults produced. Hence, we can say that the nests founded by M. cassununga are located mainly in man-made substrata and mostly founded by a group of females. The cell reuse behavior increases the number of adults produced, as it optimizes foraging. These characteristics together with its behavior and nesting habits promote the success of this species in thriving in urban environments.
Abstract in English:Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study carried out an insect gall inventory in restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly from April 2010 to March 2011 along the full extension of seven beaches. A total number of 147 gall morphotypes associated with 70 plant species were found, distributed in 33 plant families, and at least 54 genera. Myrtaceae was the botanical family with the highest richness of gall morphotypes and host species, followed by Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, and Malpighiaceae. Most of the gall morphotypes occurred in leaves (78 morphotypes), 38 in stems, 14 in flowers, eight in buds and fruits, and one in adventitious roots. The galling insects belong to the five orders: Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, and Thysanoptera. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the most common galling taxon (78 morphotypes), represented by 87 species, being 78 gallers, seven inquilines and two predators. In addition to the gallers, parasitoids, inquilines, and predators were also found.
Abstract in English:Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae). Coleopterans of the family Melolonthidae comprise a large group of species that feed on different food sources, including plant roots, stems, and leaves, in addition to plant materials at different decomposition stages. Several species are found in the genus Leucothyreus, occurring in different regions of Brazil, including the various biomes in the country. Information on the biology of species of the genus Leucothyreus is scarce, therefore, we conducted studies on the biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard, 1850. The period of adult occurrence was determined with a light trap installed between a cropped and pasture area in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Adults collected in the field were used to form insect pairs and the studies were initiated in the entomology laboratory as the adults began ovipositing. Adults were observed flying in the field from October to December. Eggs were obtained as pairs were formed and a colony was established, the embryonic period lasting 14.6 days on average. The larval period in the 1st instar lasted 21.6 days, in the 2nd instar 19.6 days, and in the 3rd instar, 85.6 days. The head capsule width was 1.48 mm in the 1st instar, 2.44 mm in the 2nd, and 3.83 mm in 3rd larval instar. The pupal stage had an average duration of 35.5 days. The egg to adult period lasted 173.3 days. Morphometric information for the larval and adult stages is presented in this study.
Abstract in English:Distinct genetic structure in populations of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) shown by genetic markers ISSR and COI gene. Green lacewings are generalist predators, and the species Chrysoperla externa presents a great potential for use in biological control of agricultural pests due to its high predation and reproduction capacities, as well as its easy mass rearing in the laboratory. The adaptive success of a species is related to genetic variability, so that population genetic studies are extremely important in order to maximize success of the biological control. Thus, the present study used nuclear (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat - ISSR) and mitochondrial (Cytochrome Oxidase I - COI) molecular markers to estimate the genetic variability of 12 populations in the São Paulo State, Brazil, as well as the genetic relationships between populations. High levels of genetic diversity were observed for both markers, and the highest values of genetic diversity appear associated with municipalities that have the greatest areas of native vegetation. There was high haplotype sharing, and there was no correlation between the markers and the geographic distribution of the populations. The AMOVA indicated absence of genetic structure for the COI gene, suggesting that the sampled areas formed a single population unit. However, the great genetic differentiation among populations showed by ISSR demonstrates that these have been under differentiation after their expansion or may also reflect distinct dispersal behavior between males and females.
Abstract in English:Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Pierce's disease of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is a serious problem in some regions of North America, not yet reported in Brazil. In this study, a survey of potential sharpshooter (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae) and spittlebug (Hemiptera, Cercopidae) vectors of X. fastidiosa was conducted in vineyards at the São Francisco River Valley, a major grape growing region in Brazil. Four vineyards of Vitis vinifera L. were sampled fortnightly from June/2005 to June/2007, using yellow sticky cards, each placed at two different heights (45 cm aboveground and 45 cm above the crop canopy) in 10 sampling localities. A total of 4,095 specimens of sharpshooters were collected, nearly all from 3 Proconiini species, Homalodisca spottii Takiya, Cavichioli & McKamey, 2006 (96.8% of the specimens), Tapajosa fulvopunctata (Signoret, 1854) (3.1%), and Tretogonia cribrata Melichar, 1926 (1 specimen). Hortensia similis (Walker, 1851) (2 specimens) was the only Cicadellini species. Only 1 cercopid specimen, belonging to Aeneolamia colon (Germar, 1821), was trapped. Even though they are not considered potential Xylella vectors, 2 Gyponini leafhoppers were collected: Curtara samera DeLong & Freytag, 1972 (11 specimens) and Curtara inflata DeLong & Freytag, 1976 (1 specimen). Homalodisca spottii was observed feeding and mating on green branches of grapevines, in addition to egg masses. Because of its prevalence on the crop canopy, occurrence throughout the year (with peaks from February to August), and ability to colonize grapevines, H. spottii could be an important vector if a X. fastidiosa strain pathogenic to grapevines becomes introduced at the São Francisco River Valley.