Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The identities of the following four New World species of Stegana from Costa Rica, Stegana atrimana Malloch, 1924, Stegana nigrita Malloch, 1924, Stegana schildi Malloch, 1924, and Stegana tempifera Malloch, 1924, are clarified, and their redescriptions are provided. According to the original descriptions, the holotypes of the four species, deposited in the National Museum of Natural History (USNM), were males. However, upon dissection of their terminalia, we realized that all but one (S. tempifera) are females. Therefore, redescriptions of their external morphology (and/or terminalia) are mainly based on male paratypes, except for S. schildi, which is based on a male non-type specimen from Panama bearing Malloch’s handwritten identification label. Photomicrographs of the habitus and terminalia, in addition to china ink drawings of the aedeagi and associated sclerites, are included.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Calythea Schnabl & Dziedzicki has 15 known species distributed worldwide, including three species in the neotropics. The species of Calythea can be easily identified by having bright silvery grey-dusting on the thorax and abdomen, forming a contrasting pattern with the dark body. Herein, we describe two new species from the Neotropical region and present new records of the genus for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. We also redescribe Calythea comis (Stein). In addition, we present an identification key for the Neotropical species and drawings of the terminalia and habitus images of the new species, C. comis, C. crenata (Bigot) and C. micropteryx (Thomson).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Ficus inflorescences host a species-rich chalcid wasp community, including pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae: Tetrapusinae, Kradibiinae, and Agaoninae) and several species of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW), that show several life-history strategies, including gall-inducers, kleptoparasites (i. e. inquilines), and parasitoids. We analyzed the structure and degree of specialization of the fig wasp community associated with Ficus inflorescences in urbanized areas, agroecosystems, and on the edge of forest fragments in the state of Goiás (Brazil). We sampled 34 wasp species in four native Ficus tree species, from which four wasp species occurred in more than one host. Neotropical fig pollinators (Pegoscapus and Tetrapus) were the most abundant species, and they were host-specific, although two pollinator species were associated with Ficus obtusifolia. The Jaccard similarity index was higher in samples of fig wasps collected in the same host, indicating that the community composition was specific to each host species. Community structure indices indicate a specialized structure with low connectance, high bidimensional Shannon H2’ and low partner diversity. The communities present a modular web structure in which modules were represented by each host and its associated insect species. These results indicate that the fig wasp communities analyzed are highly specialized, despite a few not strictly host-specific species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Aedes aegypti is the mosquito that has been most successful in adapting to the anthropic environment and transmitting several viruses to humans as well. The species has three subspecies that can identified by the variations in the color of the abdominal scales. Each subspecies possesses a distinct scale color pattern. Herein, it is described the first register of Ae. aegypti queenslandensis in São Paulo State, Brazil. Both the scale color pattern, and factor involved in the emergence of the local population are discussed, as well as possible epidemiological implications.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Corpses in Brazil are commonly hidden in sugarcane plantations in the attempt to delay their finding and hinder the solution of the crime. On the other hand, these plantations are regularly sprayed with insecticides for pest control. Until now no study has reported the effects of insecticides on ant fauna. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that if a body hidden in a monoculture is accidentally contaminated by an insecticide, both the carcass decomposition pattern and the Formicidae fauna will be affected. To accomplish this, pig carcasses contaminated and non-contaminated were placed in a sugarcane monoculture environment and subsequently examined for data collection every 24 hours. The concentration used to contaminate the carcasses was 20 grams per liter of thiamethoxam. The decomposition patterns of contaminated carcasses were changed, in turn affecting the behavior of Formicidae fauna. A total of 5318 ants were collected, 3397 in contaminated carcasses and 1919 in non-contaminated carcasses, and 30 species of 11 genera were identified. According to the analysis, there are no differences between the composition of species between contaminated and non-contaminated carcasses, however, a significant difference was observed in the composition of species along the stages of decomposition between the two types of carcasses. Therefore, our hypothesis has been confirmed, contaminated carcasses undergo changes in their normal pattern of decomposition and the fauna of ants that act on them. As this group of insects has great importance for forensic sciences, the analysis of the experts should take these results into account.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT An update of the delimitation of the genus Bruggmanniella based on phylogenetic analysis using morphological data is presented. In this work, we reinforced the results of the previous phylogenetic analysis of the closely related genera Bruggmanniella, Pseudasphondylia, Illiciomyia and Odontokeros, assigned here as Bruggmanniella s.l after the controversial molecular approach of Lin et al. (2020). We also included the species described under Bruggmanniella between 2019 and 2020 and discuss some aspects of the evolutionary changes of pupal morphology related with niche occupation of Bruggmanniella species. The results confirm our previous delimitation of the Bruggmanniella s.l arranged into three branches: one branch composed exclusively with the Neotropical species of Bruggmanniella; another branch containing the species of Pseudasphondylia, found only in Japan; and the last branch with species of Odontokeros with predominant distribution in Taiwan. Our results also support the revalidation of the genus Odontokeros, and Illiciomyia as synonym of Pseudasphondylia.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The municipality of Paracambi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) reports sporadic cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Previous studies detected Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae) as the main vector in the region, but its spatial distribution and the presence of other vector species have not been evaluated. This study aims at filling this knowledge gap, by studying the ecology of sand flies, their spatiotemporal distribution, and correlation with land use/cover. Two campaigns of monthly sand fly collections using light traps and manual captures were conducted in 1992–1994 and 2001–2003. Females were dissected to detect natural Leishmania infections. The spatial distribution of sand flies was assessed using kernel density maps. Correlations with land use/cover were evaluated by extracting satellite imagery data around the capture points. A total of 17,232 sand flies from 13 species were captured. Medically important species included Ny. intermedia, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia fischeri and Ny. whitmani. No Leishmania-infected females were detected. Highest densities were detected in the peri-urban areas Cascata and Sabugo, and in rural areas São José and Mutirão. Ny. intermedia had statistically significant correlations with pasture and agricultural areas. Present results strengthened that Ny. intermedia and Mg. migonei are the main local ACL vectors. Correlations with land use evidence the association between ACL and anthropic environmental change.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Three new species of Pseudosympycnus Robinson are described and illustrated from Peru: P. pennipes sp. nov., P. latitarsus sp. nov. and P. rafaeli sp. nov. In addition, Pseudosympycnus latipes (Parent) is recorded for the first time from the country and the male terminalia are illustrated. The first photographs of the holotype of P. bicolor Robinson and an updated key to species of the genus are provided.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Three parasitoid species Aphidius colemani, Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were evaluated concerning their parasitism potential in two aphid species, Aphis glycines and Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The feeding of these two aphid species, even at low sums, can significantly damage photosynthesis and is found to transmit many kinds of plant viruses, which impact potential adverse effects on the plants. The overall parasitization on all nymphal ages in As. glycines was accomplished by Ad. colemani (60.50%), Ad. matricariae (49.16%) and Al. abdominalis (40%), while in As. gossypii parasitism exhibited by Ad. colemani (79.48%), Ad. matricariae (65.33%) and Al. abdominalis (58.83%). Aphelinus abdominalis exhibited the lowest parasitism in both given species as hosts. Significant differences in parasitism of different parasitoids and host species were observed. Concerning the preference of nymphal instars, we found that parasitoids species prefer to parasitize 1st- 4th instars in As. gossypii while in As. glycines 2nd, 1st, 3rd and 4th. Our results showed that the parasitism increases with the increase of parasitoid numbers and hosts densities.