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Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, Volume: 68, Issue: 1, Published: 2024
  • Cyphoedma n. gen. now described after a century of use, with the addition of a new species from Central America (Geometridae, Ennominae) Articles

    Matson, Tanner Alex

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Cyphoedman. gen., is validly described following a century of use as an unpublished manuscript name. Cyphoedma mirafloresa (Dognin, 1892) rev. stat. n. comb. is elevated to full species from subspecific status with Cyphoedma transvolutata (Walker, 1860) n. comb., and a third species in the genus is described from Central America: Cyphoedma ashleyorum n. sp. The adult habitus and male and female genitalia are illustrated for each of the three species and available COI (DNA) barcode data are reviewed.
  • Description of larva, pupa, and genitalia of Hybosa acutangula Spaeth, 1913 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) from the Brazilian Cerrado Articles

    Begha, Bruno Piotrovski; Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Great advances were made in recent years regarding the description of immatures of Cassidinae and their taxonomy as a whole, but many taxa remain undescribed. This study focuses on updating morphological data for Hybosa acutangula Spaeth, 1913 (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Ischyrosonychini), a tortoise beetle native of South America, which was collected in Fridericia florida (DC.) L. G. Lohmann in the Brazilian Cerrado. We provide descriptions and illustrations of the morphology of the larva, pupa, and genitalia of adults, all of which are novel for this genus. The main discerning features for this species among other Ischyrosonychini are the lack of dark patterns in the dorsum of either the larvae, being limited to the dark scoli and the cranium, or the pupae, and a much reduced anal fork. We also present the first record of parasitism by Chalcididae wasps, Brachymeria sp. Westwood, 1832 and Conura sp. Spinola, 1837. Morphological comparisons remain limited demanding further studies with other species of Ischyrosonychini, as to better understand the placement of this species within the taxonomy of tortoise beetles.
  • Diet composition affects the rearing of Mansonia humeralis (Diptera: Culicidae) immatures under laboratory conditions Articles

    Lima, Francisco Júnior Oliveira; Silva, Alexandre de Almeida e

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Mansonia Blanchard mosquitoes are aggressive and opportunistic, making it difficult for habitation in certain areas. However, there is no data regarding their rearing in laboratory in Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different diet composition on the development of Mansonia humeralis immatures. The plant Pistia stratiotes was used as a substrate for larval attachment, and fish food (Tetra Marine® Flakes) and baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in various combinations were used as feed. Eggs and larvae were obtained from mosquitoes collected in the field using protected human catches, and the experiments were conducted in the laboratory (25-27°C and 70-80% relative humidity) with 200 larvae per container (n=15). Mortality rate, larval development time, pupation rate, emergence rate, and the number of eggs and larvae were recorded. Overall, a high mortality rate (0.5 – 0.7) was observed in the first 12 days of the experiment in all diets, up to 50% of adults emerged from the remaining larvae with a male to female ratio of 1.1 to 1.3. The use of yeast in combination with fish food resulted in lower mortality rate (0.52), a shorter larval development time (34 days), a higher pupation rate (0.21) and number of eggs (21 eggs) compared to the other diets. However, fertility was very low (1%) regardless of the diet used. The use of yeast is recommended as part of the diet offered to this mosquito species under the laboratory conditions used in our study.
  • New species of Hexacladia Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Articles

    Machado, Keneson Klay Gonçalves; Costa, Valmir Antonio; Noyes, John; Lemos, Raimunda Nonata Santos de; Costa, Elizabeth Araújo; Mondego, Janaina Marques

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The rice stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a significant pest of rice cultivation in Brazil and attacks plants during both vegetative and reproductive phases. Natural enemy surveys conducted in plantations located in Arari, Miranda do Norte, Matões do Norte, Santa Rita, and Viana (state of Maranhão, Brazil) led to the discovery of a new species of parasitoid, which is described in this study. Hexacladia lemosae Costa, Noyes & Machado sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is the first species of its genus associated with T. limbativentris and develops as a gregarious endoparasitoid in adult stink bugs, occasionally in nymphs. The parasitoid emerges from the host while host is still alive.
  • Spodoptera cosmioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil: spatial distribution and relationship in the S. latifascia species group Articles

    Brito, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Moreira, Gilson R.P.; Roque-Specht, Vânia F.; Filho, Wilson S. A.; Specht, Alexandre

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) is an economically relevant polyphagous moth, widely distributed in the Neotropics and part of the Spodoptera latifascia (Walker, 1856) species group. In this study, we used extensive sampling from different regions to describe the spatial distribution of S. cosmioides in Brazil and evaluate its variability both from morphological and molecular perspectives. Variable coloration and several morphological similarities were found among S. cosmioides and congeners of the S. latifascia complex, diverging from each 0.5 to 3.5% of mitochondrial DNA. The genetic divergence at the species level of S. cosmioides was 0.5% throughout Brazil, and a geographic structure was absent, including shared haplotypes with S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. Spodoptera cosmioides was found in all six biomes of Brazil, with the highest abundance recorded in the Cerrado, followed by the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, Caatinga, Pantanal, and Pampa.
  • From visit to emergence: Interactions between mycophagous Drosophilidae (Insecta, Diptera) and macroscopic fungi (Basidiomycota) and their patterns in ecological networks Articles

    Duarte, Lucas Batista; Valer, Felipe Berti; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Bernardi, Eduardo; Valente, Vera Lúcia da Silva; Gottschalk, Marco Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Ecological interactions are diverse, variable across space and time and not always well understood. The use of interaction network analysis has become a tool that promotes a deeper understanding on ecological and evolutionary processes. The interaction between insects and fungi is an interesting research model, helping to understand colonization dynamics and species specialization in spatially aggregated and ephemeral resources. Here, we describe the interactions between Drosophilidae species and the fungal basidiocarps in a subtropical forest in Brazil. Flies were collected when were visiting basidiocarps and then the basidiocarps themselves were also collected to obtain the emerging flies whose larvae fed on the fungi. We observed 31 species of drosophilids interacting with basidiocarps of 23 fungi species. An ecological network analysis was performed for the drosophilids breeding on basidiocarps and for those visiting them as adults. We found a specialized breeding network, with stronger interactions involving Hirtodrosophila and Auricularia and Zygothrica bilineata and a Marasmius species. Our results indicate the generalist habit of most Zygothrica species. The visitation network was highly specialized. Despite being well represented in the sampling, most Zygothrica species did not emerge from any fungal species. This study advances the knowledge on patterns of Drosophilid-fungi interactions and provides insights into their drivers.
  • Eighty-five years awaiting for description: a new species of Tabanus Linnaeus (Diptera: Tabanidae) from the Paraná State, in Brazil Articles

    Carmo, Daniel Dias Dornelas do; Henriques, Augusto Loureiro

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The largest genus within the family Tabanidae (Diptera: Brachycera), Tabanus Linnaeus, has a worldwide distribution and includes medium to large conspicuous flies. Although the species are difficult to identify and a large number have already been described, several new Neotropical species have been reported for science in the past few years. Taxonomy, the science that describes and catalogs biodiversity, depends on collections, as these preserve specimens for later purposes, allowing examination and checking by specialists. In this paper we describe a new species, Tabanus argentistrigatus sp. n. based on two specimens stored in the collection of the Museum of Zoology of the São Paulo University since 1938. The new species is only known from one location in the state of Paraná, which is now highly anthropized.
  • Evaluation of water-soluble dyes to mark internal structures of Lepidoptera via larval feeding Articles

    Rezende, Gabriel Fernandes; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Understanding aspects of insect ecology is a key component for the applicability of control methods or pest resistance management. For instance, the comprehension of insect dispersal is crucial to determining insect gene flow and the maximum distance between refuge areas in Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops. But, for such studies, insects need to be marked prior to release. Seeking to refine the technique of dispersion studies of the genetic material of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), this study aimed to determine the efficiency of water-soluble dyes for the internal marking of S. frugiperda immatures and adults via larval feeding, with emphasis on marking the spermatophore. Rhodamine B, Methylene Blue, Ponceau, Coomassie, and Eosin-Nigrosin were added to the larval artificial diet at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 ppm. Mortality and duration of the larval stage as well as the efficiency of marking internal structures of larvae and adults were evaluated. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue increased the duration of the larval period, but the former caused higher mortality. The staining of the gut, hemolymph, and imaginal discs, in the larval phase, was observed for Rhodamine B, Methylene Blue, and Coomassie dyes. However, none of the dyes were efficient for marking spermatophores. Thus, the addition of these water-soluble dyes to the larval diet of S. frugiperda can mark internal structures of the larva, but not the adult. Therefore, these dyes have limited application once they may be used only for marking larvae.
  • Living fruits of Psychotria brachyceras Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae) as the main larval host of Zygothrica orbitalis (Sturtevant, 1916) (Diptera, Drosophilidae) Articles

    Mendes, Mayara Ferreira; Blauth, Monica Laner; Lüdtke, Raquel; Gottschalk, Marco Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Zygothrica is a genus of Drosophilidae (Diptera) whose species utilize flowers and fungi for breeding sites, with records of fungi being used as courtship arena. Due to this habit, its representation in Drosophilidae surveys using banana-baited traps is generally low. However, Zygothrica orbitalis was well represented in a few samples with these traps. In this study, we report for the first time the breeding site of Z. orbitalis in living fruits of Psychotria brachyceras (Rubiaceae), noting that the use of living fruits is rare among Drosophilidae. The fructification of the plant occurs in the area of study from May to August, with previous collection records of the species in the Restinga (sandbank or strand) forest. Additionally, the emergence of some individuals of the invasive species Drosophila suzukii was observed, which highlights the necessity for continuous study of this plant to understand the dynamics between a native and an exotic species. Besides the ecological importance, our results are relevant for understanding the evolution of trophic resource use by the Zygothrica genus.
  • An unexpected new species of Isostenosmylus Krüger, 1913 (Neuroptera: Osmylidae), from the Brazilian Northeast Articles

    Martins, Caleb Califre; Machado, Renato José Pires; Ardila-Camacho, Adrian

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The genus Isostenosmylus Krüger, 1913 contains 18 species distributed in South America, especially in the Andean region and in southern Brazil and Paraguay. Herein, a new species – Isostenosmylus derpi sp. n. – from a specific habitat named “Brejo de Altitude” from Paraíba state, Northeast Brazil, is described and illustrated. Distribution map and an updated taxonomic key for the genus females are provided.
  • Bacterial community associated with Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) from an urban area in the Amazon, Brazil Articles

    Oliveira, Tatiane Marques Porangaba de; Silva, Herculano da; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The emergence of insecticide resistance in different mosquito populations underscores the pressing need for alternative approaches to control vector-borne diseases. Among several technological strategies, the employment of bacterial symbionts, such as the Wolbachia pipientis strains wMel and wAlbB to inhibit the ability of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) to transmit dengue and Zika viruses in endemic regions worldwide is promising. This investigation examines both the bacterial diversity associated with Culex quinquefasciatus and the genetic diversity of Wolbachia in females collected in Coari, Amazonas State, Brazil. Both 16S rRNA and Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene sequences were generated and examined. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum. Wolbachia was the predominant genus, followed by Providencia, unclassified Erwiniaceae, and Acinetobacter. The presence of Delftia in Cx. quinquefasciatus need further investigations to identify the strains and if any of them can inhibit the transmission of arboviruses by this mosquito. Wolbachia 16S rRNA sequences were detected in all samples analyzed. The wsp sequences from Coari specimens were identified as Wolbachia wPip strain of the supergroup B. These sequences are identical and share 100% similarity with those of other Cx. quinquefasciatus populations from Brazil. Our findings suggest the hypothesis of previous studies that the Wolbachia invasion in Cx. quinquefasciatus was recent.
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