Relationships between development and population growth have challenged scholars and researchers for many years, and refer to the impacts of population growth and distribution on economic growth, and to the impacts of economic growth on population. Three decades ago the major issue was the causes and consequences of population growth. The central issue today is about the causes and consequences of demographic transition on the economy. Many changes have taken place over the last thirty years. From the demographic point of view, the most important change has been the generalization of the so-called demographic transition. "Demographic bonus" and "window of opportunities" have become substitutes for "the demographic bomb." This article describes how the relations between population and economy have been understood and how changes in these relations have affected academic research, academic thought and some public policies in Brazil. It summarizes recent findings on relationships between population and economy and their implications for public policies and development.
Demographic transition; Population aging; Development; Economic growth; Public policies