About mitigation, adaptation and the UNFCCC’s 21st Conference of the Parties* * I am grateful to George Martine for his suggestions and comments to a previous version of this note.

Susana B. Adamo About the author

Introduction

Concern over global climate change increases daily as extreme weather events multiply and scientific evidence accumulates on planetary borders, challenging humankind to take effective measures to both counteract the drivers of ongoing climate change and improve public response to its consequences. Global governance on this matter is critical and the Conference of the Parties (COP) is the highest decision-making body of the UN Convention Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). All the States that are part of the Convention are represented in the COP, whose main tasks are to review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts, and to take decisions necessary to promote the implementation of the Convention.

As shown in Annex, there have been twenty Conferences between 1995 and 2014 and overall results have admittedly been less than spectacular. Well-known political obstacles and the general lack of enthusiasm at the level of participating countries for necessary measures in the economic domain are generally at the root of these disappointments. This note, however, focuses on two other less prominent aspects of the negotiations that have obstructed analyses and problem-solving efforts at the technical level: the failure to deal with mitigation and adaptation within a balanced approach and the insufficient consideration of population dynamics in the overall structure of both problems and solutions in mitigation and adaptation.

COP21

The 21st Conference of the Parties will take place in Paris during November-December of 2015. Great expectations surround this meeting, wherein the Parties aim to reach "for the first time, a universal, legally binding agreement that will enable us to combat climate change effectively and boost the transition towards resilient, low-carbon societies and economies" (UNITED NATIONS, 2015UNITED NATIONS. Climate Change Conference. COP21 main issues. Paris, 2015. Available at: <http://www.cop21.gouv.fr/en/cop21-cmp11/cop21-main-issues>. Access: 26 Sep. 2015.
http://www.cop21.gouv.fr/en/cop21-cmp11/...
). In practical terms, this means achieving the goal of keeping global warming at or below 2ºC.

COP21 has some very ambitious new goals. First, the final agreement (to enter in force in 2020) should focus equally on mitigation (gas emissions reduction) and adaptation, while taking into account each country's need and capacities.1 1 In agreement with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" (art 4 of the UNFCCC, available at <https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf>). Second, countries should make public their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs)2 2 An outcome of the COP19 (Warsaw, 2013), the INDCs replace the traditional model of setting a global central target for tackling emissions and then dividing commitments amongst different countries (the model which collapsed in Copenhagen, 2009). In the new system, countries submit their individual plans for reducing emissions, collectively agreeing to limit temperature rise to two degrees above pre-industrial levels. On paper, this approach would encourage countries to commit to emission reductions at the national level, and to be transparent about what they're prepared to do (WEBSTER, 2015). to the reduction of emissions before the realization of COP21, in order to have an indicator of the cumulative impact of these contributions by the time of the meeting.3 3 As in October 11, 122 parties (out of 196) have presented their INDCs, a list is available at <http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/indc/Submission%20Pages/submissions.aspx>. Finally, the COP21 aims to mobilize $100 billion per year by developed countries, to be applied to enabling developing countries to combat climate change and promote sustainable development (UNITED NATIONS, 2015UNITED NATIONS. Climate Change Conference. COP21 main issues. Paris, 2015. Available at: <http://www.cop21.gouv.fr/en/cop21-cmp11/cop21-main-issues>. Access: 26 Sep. 2015.
http://www.cop21.gouv.fr/en/cop21-cmp11/...
).

These are challenging goals and compromises will likely be needed in order to advance. Just working on a negotiated draft to be discussed and agreed upon during the COP21 has already been a daunting task.4 4 The draft text for discussion, prepared in the COP20 (Lima, December of 2014), illustrates this over 43 pages, with numerous items marked for further discussion and many options presented for some of the more heaty debated articles. This text grew to 86 pages by February 2015 at the Geneva meeting, but the current (as of October 5th, 2015) version of the text is just 20 pages long, although it will very likely get longer again before the actual COP21 discussions.

Mitigation and adaptation in the "road to Paris"

Seeing that mitigation and adaptation are the core elements of the Convention, this section focuses on the aforementioned first goal of the COP21, exploring the extent to which the goal of a balanced approach has been actually present in the negotiations so far.

The UNFCCC conceptualizes mitigation and adaptation from different angles. On the one hand, mitigation5 5 Available at <http://unfccc.int/focus/mitigation/items/7169.php#intro>. This concept agrees with the IPCC 5AR WGII and III, which define mitigation (of climate change) as "a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs)". Available at <http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg3/ipcc_wg3_ar5_annex-i.pdf>. is approached in terms of actions needed for stabilizing greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentrations in the atmosphere, either by reducing GHG emissions, enhancing sinks and reservoirs, or both. It is recognized that the capacity to implement any or all of these reduction paths will depend on socio-economic and environmental circumstances, and on the availability of information and technology. A wide variety of policies and instruments are available to governments to create the incentives for mitigation actions, essential for meeting UNFCCC's objectives.

On the other hand, the UNFCCC defines adaptation6 6 Available at <http://unfccc.int/focus/adaptation/items/6999.php>. As with mitigation, this concept agrees with the definition of the IPCC 5AR WGII and III: "the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects. In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In some natural systems, human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects". Available at <http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg2/WGIIAR5-AnnexII_FINAL.pdf>. It is interesting to observe that the WGII glossary also includes a definition of mitigation related to disaster risk and disaster, and to some extent, to loss and damage: "the lessening of the potential adverse impacts of physical hazards (including those that are human-induced) through actions that reduce hazard, exposure, and vulnerability". more broadly as adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts. These adjustments include changes in processes, practices, and structures to moderate potential damages, or to benefit from, opportunities associated with climate change. The five general components of adaptation activities are: observation; assessment of climate impacts and vulnerability; planning; implementation; and monitoring and evaluation of adaptation actions.

Mitigation and adaptation have had a somewhat uneasy relationship during the history of the UNFCCC, which would explain the emphasis of the COP21 on equal focus. Venturini et al. created an interesting "map" of the network space of topics discussed in the COPs between 1995 and 2013 (VENTURINI et al., 2014VENTURINI, T. et al. Three maps and three misunderstandings: a digital mapping of climate diplomacy. Big Data & Society, v. 1, n. 2, 2014. Available at: <http://bds.sagepub.com/content/1/2/2053951714543804>.
http://bds.sagepub.com/content/1/2/20539...
, p. 6, fig.1), locating the relative position of the mitigation and adaptation frameworks. They found that the "climate diplomacy" around mitigation and its sub-topics (e.g. carbon sinks, measurement of GHGs, technology transfers, etc.) have had a preeminent role (VENTURINI et al., 2014, p. 16). This assessment is echoed by Briner and collaborators (BRINER et al., 2014BRINER, G. et al. Taking stock of the UNFCCC process and its inter-linkages. Paris: OECD/IEA, 2014., p. 12). Meanwhile, adaptation has been a very specific, clearly defined topic included in the negotiations since the beginning of the UNFCCC, but mainly centered on the issue of adaptation finance.

However, these authors conclude that there could be an "adaptation turn", judging by the emergence and rising visibility of the topics of "vulnerability" (from the COP9 to the COP 14) and "climate impacts" (COP15) (BRINER et al., 2014BRINER, G. et al. Taking stock of the UNFCCC process and its inter-linkages. Paris: OECD/IEA, 2014., p. 17). The Loss and Damage agreement (outcome of the COP19, in Warsaw 2013) would be yet another example of this apparent "turn". Officially, the "Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage",7 7 Available at <http://unfccc.int/adaptation/workstreams/loss_and_damage/items/6056.php>. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts was established in the COP19 (Warsaw 2013), after two years of deliberations on this issue (see decision 2/COP19 for the details). aims to be the main instrument - under the Convention - to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts in those developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in a comprehensive, integrated and coherent manner.

These differences as to how mitigation and adaptation are addressed seem to mirror the never-ending controversies between developed and developing countries during the different COPs. Their disagreements range from what issues to include in the negotiations, to how to address the respective responsibilities in GHG emission reduction goals (usually involving the interpretation and re-interpretation of the "common but differentiated responsibilities" article 4); and to how to address human impacts and adaptation, including the touchy issue of how to address financial support for adaptation actions (OTT et al., 2014OTT, H. et al. A first assessment of the Climate Conference in Lima - COP20 moves at a snail's pace on the road to paris 2015. Environmental Law & Management, v. 26, p. 151-158, 2014. ; SOLÓN, 2015SOLÓN, P. Behind the climate negotiating text for COP21. Focus on the Global South. 12 March 2015. Available at: < http://focusweb.org/content/behind-climate-negotiating-text-cop21>.
http://focusweb.org/content/behind-clima...
).

Mitigation, adaptation and the road to Paris

In the discussions leading to Paris 2015, the handling of mitigation and adaptation seems to have followed the familiar path, at least judging by the texts of the Annex of the Call for Action (December 2014) and the October 5th draft agreement (2015).8 8 This note is based on these two drafts, the first and last ones available at the moment of this writing. More draft texts are likely to be available before the actual meeting in Paris at the end of November, for example the draft document of the Bonn Climate Change Conference October 19-23, 2015 (formally the Eleventh Part of the Second Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action). As on previous occasions, mitigation and adaptation are first considered in separate chapters and references to each other are minimal or non-existing. This is not necessarily an issue since the stated goal is to focus on them equally, but not necessarily jointly (UNITED NATIONS, 2014_________. Conference of The Parties (COP). Annex: elements for a draft negotiating text. Lima call for action. Lima: UNFCCC, 2014., p. 6; AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON THE DURBAN PLATFORM FOR ENHANCED ACTION, 2015AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON THE DURBAN PLATFORM FOR ENHANCED ACTION. Informal Note: A. Draft Agreement; B. Draft Decision. 5 October 2015. , p. 1).

One such mention is found in the Adaptation Section of the Draft Agreement, effectively recognizing the links between mitigation and adaptation: "Parties recognize that, the greater their mitigation efforts, the less adaptation will be needed" (AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON THE DURBAN PLATFORM FOR ENHANCED ACTION, 2015, p. 2, art. 4.2). A second one is in the Mitigation Section of the Draft Decision (but marked for discussion), suggesting to finance adaptation with funds from mitigation:

Requests the SBSTA9 9 Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice. to elaborate modalities and procedures for the mechanism for sustainable development [...] that inter alia: (a) Provide, where desired by the participating Parties, for the creation and issuance of real, permanent, additional and verified mitigation outcomes that may be used to meet nationally determined [contributions] [commitments] [other] in a manner that is supplementary to domestic action, is consistent with the rules and guidance for accounting, and provides for a share of proceeds for adaptation (AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON THE DURBAN PLATFORM FOR ENHANCED ACTION, 2015AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON THE DURBAN PLATFORM FOR ENHANCED ACTION. Informal Note: A. Draft Agreement; B. Draft Decision. 5 October 2015. ,p. 20, art. 34 [Option 1], emphasis added).10 10 Articles 22 (Mitigation Section) and 28 (Adaptation Section) of the Annex to the Call for Action (Lima 2014) asked for Parties to take into account joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests. In the Draft Agreement, there is instead a mention to forests in Article 6 (Finance), "Parties should strive to balance adaptation support relative to mitigation support, bearing in mind country-driven strategies, priorities and needs, including in relation to forests, technology transfer and capacity-building".

There are several other instances in both draft texts where the urgent need to balance mitigation and adaptation actions is mentioned, outside the specific Mitigation and Adaptation chapters. A sample of those that were still alive in the October 5th document are listed in Table 1, including the section from where they were taken.

Table 1
Selected examples of paragraphs mentioning both mitigation and adaptation

These texts suggest that, in addition to equal attention, mitigation and adaptation should be considered simultaneously, and be provided with similar levels of funding. Similarly, both should be included in technology transfer and capacity-building efforts, and both should have ways to evaluate progress. Finally, there is a call for taking advantage of opportunities that could improve both mitigation and adaptation efforts.

It should be pointed out that a particular aspect of adaptation, Loss and Damage, is still not included in this conversation, and actually, the topic is hardly mentioned in the October 5th text. However, even when it is a contested and contentious issue (OTT et al., 2014OTT, H. et al. A first assessment of the Climate Conference in Lima - COP20 moves at a snail's pace on the road to paris 2015. Environmental Law & Management, v. 26, p. 151-158, 2014. ; FLANNERY, 2015FLANNERY, B. P. The state of climate negotiations. Clermont-Ferrand, France: Fondation pour les Études et Recherches sur le Développement International (FERDI), 2015 (Working paper, n. 134).), there is still hope it will be reinstated during negotiations in Paris, and that it will be part of the final agreement.

Also missing from the draft text is any mention of potential conflicts between mitigation and adaptation measures or actions. And yet, it has been noted that mitigation and adaptation measures influence each other in complicated ways, requiring integrative approaches that also take into account their tradeoffs, conflicts and disconnections (MOSER, 2012MOSER, S. C. Adaptation, mitigation, and their disharmonious discontents: an essay. Climatic Change, v. 111, n. 2, p. 165-175, 2012. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-012-0398-4>.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-012-039...
). For example, actions and measures may present different spatial and temporal scales (BERRY et al., 2015BERRY, P. et al. Cross-sectoral interactions of adaptation and mitigation measures. Climatic Change, v. 128, n. 3-4, p. 381-393, 2015. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1214-0>.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-121...
) or may involve different social groups within a country, or even different countries (e.g. AYERS; HUQ, 2009AYERS, J.; HUQ, S. The Value of linking mitigation and adaptation: a case study of Bangladesh. Environmental Management, v. 43, n. 5, p. 753-764, 2009. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-008-9223-2>.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-008-922...
; DE SHERBININ et al., 2011DE SHERBININ, A. et al. Preparing for resettlement associated with climate change. Science, v. 334, n. 6055, p. 456-457, October 2011. Available at: <http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6055/456.short>.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/60...
, p. 456).

Mitigation, adaptation and population dynamics

Several characteristics of current population dynamics are important for understanding potential changes in population-environment relationships under climate change and yet, have not been given sufficient consideration in the COP process. Regional differences in socio-demographic dynamics (for instance in aging, lower or higher fertility, changes in socioeconomic status, variations in spatial distribution related to increasing spatial mobility and to the urban transition) are critical in both mitigation and adaptation efforts. Demographic characteristics, structures and dynamics are linked, for example, to changes in consumption patterns (CURRAN; DE SHERBININ, 2004CURRAN, S.; DE SHERBININ, A. Completing the picture: the challenges of bringing 'consumption' into the population-environment equation. Population and Environment, v. 26, n. 2, p. 107-31, 2004. Available at: <http://www.springerlink.com/content/l84t106362160774/fulltext.pdf>.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/l84t...
; LEVY; MOREL, 2012LEVY, M.; MOREL, A. Drivers. In: UNEP (Ed.). Global Environmental Outlook (GEO) 5: environment for the future we want. Nairobi: UNEP, 2012. p. 10-26. ; THE ROYAL SOCIETY SCIENCE POLICY CENTRE, 2012THE ROYAL SOCIETY SCIENCE POLICY CENTRE. People and the Planet. London: The Royal Society London, 2012.), and to changes in the patterns of exposure and vulnerability to environmental events, including those related to climate change such as rising sea levels or changes in water availability (see for example ADAMO; DE SHERBININ, 2011ADAMO, S. B.; DE SHERBININ, A. The impact of climate change on the spatial distribution of populations and migration. In: UNDESA. Population Division (Ed.). Population distribution, urbanization, internal migration and development: an international perspective. New York: UNDESA, 2011. p.161-195. ; CEPAL; UNIVERSIDAD DE CANTABRIA, 2012CEPAL; UNIVERSIDAD DE CANTABRIA. Instituto de Hidraúlica Ambiental. Efectos del cambio climático en la costa de América Latina y el Caribe: impactos. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL, 2012.; RUNFOLA et al., forthcomingRUNFOLA, D. M. et al. The influence of internal migration on exposure to extreme weather events in Mexico. Society and Natural Resources, forthcoming. ).

Population dynamics, then, are yet another important link between mitigation and adaptation. They have a role in the implementation of mitigation policies, and in understanding the differences in vulnerability, exposure and adaptive capacity among diverse social groups that may be crucial for adaptation practices. Aspects such as age structure, gender or spatial distribution have a direct connection to adaptation and mitigation (JIANG; HARDEE, 2011JIANG, L.; HARDEE, K. How do recent population trends matter to climate change? Population Research and Policy Review, v. 30, n. 2, p. 287-312, 2011. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11113-010-9189-7>.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11113-010-918...
; LUTZ; STRIESSNIG, 2015LUTZ, W.; STRIESSNIG, E. Demographic aspects of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Population Studies, v. 69, suppl., p. S69-S76, 2015. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2014.969929>. Access: 08 Oct. 2015
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2014....
), and more aspects of population dynamics are being incorporated into models, scenarios and forecasts (HUNTER; O'NEILL, 2014O'NEILL, B. et al. A new scenario framework for climate change research: the concept of shared socioeconomic pathways. Climatic Change, v. 122, n. 3, p. 387-400, 2014. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0905-2>.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-090...
; O'NEILL et al., 2014O'NEILL, B. et al. A new scenario framework for climate change research: the concept of shared socioeconomic pathways. Climatic Change, v. 122, n. 3, p. 387-400, 2014. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0905-2>.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-090...
).

New approaches to scenario building are taking these links into consideration. For example, one of the incentives for the development of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways11 11 The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways is a set of possible socioeconomic futures combining emissions drivers and mitigative capacity with exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity (HUNTER; O'NEILL, 2014, p. 233). was to identify challenges common to both mitigation and adaptation, which may need to be considered together, especially at the local level (see for example AYERS; HUQ, 2009AYERS, J.; HUQ, S. The Value of linking mitigation and adaptation: a case study of Bangladesh. Environmental Management, v. 43, n. 5, p. 753-764, 2009. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-008-9223-2>.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-008-922...
; LAUKKONEN et al., 2009LAUKKONEN, J. et al. Combining climate change adaptation and mitigation measures at the local level. Habitat International, v. 33, n. 3, p. 287-292, 2009. Available at: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0197397508000623>.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/art...
; FIELD et al., 2014FIELD, C. B. et al. Technical summary. In: FIELD, C. B. et al. (Ed.). Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2014. p. 35-94. , p. 89).

In conclusion

This brief note looked at mitigation and adaptation in the context of the COP21's preparations and through the consideration of selected draft texts for negotiation. Even when the goal of focusing equally on both aspects is clear in the discussions, there are still certain aspects that would need to be incorporated in order to address adaptation in equal terms with mitigation.

Following the international climate negotiations can sometimes be an arid and even dull endeavor. Nevertheless, it is crucial that analysts from different scientific fields scrutinize this process and help transform the obvious connections between mitigation and adaptation efforts in the context of climate change into more effective policy agreements. Population dynamics are an important component of problem solving and practical implementation. In return, the population-environment field benefits from the analysis of the COP processes because they offer a clear example of the recursive relationship between demographic behavior, population dynamics, and environmental processes and impacts.

The World Science Report 2013 states that "global environmental change is about humans changing global environments, and about humans, individually and collectively, shaping the direction of planetary and social evolution" (INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCES COUNCIL AND UNESCO, 2013INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCES COUNCIL; UNESCO. World Social Science Report 2013: changing global environments. Paris: OECD Publishing & UNESCO Publishing, 2013., p. 4). This conceptualization is behind the growing interest on mitigation and, specially, adaptation issues within the social sciences in general, and within the population-environment community in particular.

  • *
    I am grateful to George Martine for his suggestions and comments to a previous version of this note.
  • 1
    In agreement with the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" (art 4 of the UNFCCC, available at <https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf>).
  • 2
    An outcome of the COP19 (Warsaw, 2013), the INDCs replace the traditional model of setting a global central target for tackling emissions and then dividing commitments amongst different countries (the model which collapsed in Copenhagen, 2009). In the new system, countries submit their individual plans for reducing emissions, collectively agreeing to limit temperature rise to two degrees above pre-industrial levels. On paper, this approach would encourage countries to commit to emission reductions at the national level, and to be transparent about what they're prepared to do (WEBSTER, 2015WEBSTER, R. Adding up INDSs: what country commitments could mean for climate change. Road to Paris: Science for Smart Policy, 2015. Available at: <http://roadtoparis.info/2015/03/06/adding-up-indcs-what-country-commitments-could-mean-for-climate-change/>.
    http://roadtoparis.info/2015/03/06/addin...
    ).
  • 3
    As in October 11, 122 parties (out of 196) have presented their INDCs, a list is available at <http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/indc/Submission%20Pages/submissions.aspx>.
  • 4
    The draft text for discussion, prepared in the COP20 (Lima, December of 2014), illustrates this over 43 pages, with numerous items marked for further discussion and many options presented for some of the more heaty debated articles. This text grew to 86 pages by February 2015 at the Geneva meeting, but the current (as of October 5th, 2015) version of the text is just 20 pages long, although it will very likely get longer again before the actual COP21 discussions.
  • 5
    Available at <http://unfccc.int/focus/mitigation/items/7169.php#intro>. This concept agrees with the IPCC 5AR WGII and III, which define mitigation (of climate change) as "a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs)". Available at <http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg3/ipcc_wg3_ar5_annex-i.pdf>.
  • 6
    Available at <http://unfccc.int/focus/adaptation/items/6999.php>. As with mitigation, this concept agrees with the definition of the IPCC 5AR WGII and III: "the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects. In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In some natural systems, human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects". Available at <http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg2/WGIIAR5-AnnexII_FINAL.pdf>. It is interesting to observe that the WGII glossary also includes a definition of mitigation related to disaster risk and disaster, and to some extent, to loss and damage: "the lessening of the potential adverse impacts of physical hazards (including those that are human-induced) through actions that reduce hazard, exposure, and vulnerability".
  • 7
    Available at <http://unfccc.int/adaptation/workstreams/loss_and_damage/items/6056.php>. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts was established in the COP19 (Warsaw 2013), after two years of deliberations on this issue (see decision 2/COP19 for the details).
  • 8
    This note is based on these two drafts, the first and last ones available at the moment of this writing. More draft texts are likely to be available before the actual meeting in Paris at the end of November, for example the draft document of the Bonn Climate Change Conference October 19-23, 2015 (formally the Eleventh Part of the Second Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action).
  • 9
    Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice.
  • 10
    Articles 22 (Mitigation Section) and 28 (Adaptation Section) of the Annex to the Call for Action (Lima 2014) asked for Parties to take into account joint mitigation and adaptation approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests. In the Draft Agreement, there is instead a mention to forests in Article 6 (Finance), "Parties should strive to balance adaptation support relative to mitigation support, bearing in mind country-driven strategies, priorities and needs, including in relation to forests, technology transfer and capacity-building".
  • 11
    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways is a set of possible socioeconomic futures combining emissions drivers and mitigative capacity with exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity (HUNTER; O'NEILL, 2014HUNTER, L.; O'NEILL, B. Enhancing engagement between the population, environment, and climate research communities: the shared socio-economic pathway process. Population and Environment, v. 35, n. 3, p. 231-242, 2014. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11111-014-0202-7>.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11111-014-020...
    , p. 233).

Annex


Sessions of the UNFCCC's Conference of the Parties

References

  • AD HOC WORKING GROUP ON THE DURBAN PLATFORM FOR ENHANCED ACTION. Informal Note: A. Draft Agreement; B. Draft Decision. 5 October 2015.
  • ADAMO, S. B.; DE SHERBININ, A. The impact of climate change on the spatial distribution of populations and migration. In: UNDESA. Population Division (Ed.). Population distribution, urbanization, internal migration and development: an international perspective. New York: UNDESA, 2011. p.161-195.
  • AYERS, J.; HUQ, S. The Value of linking mitigation and adaptation: a case study of Bangladesh. Environmental Management, v. 43, n. 5, p. 753-764, 2009. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-008-9223-2>.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-008-9223-2
  • BERRY, P. et al. Cross-sectoral interactions of adaptation and mitigation measures. Climatic Change, v. 128, n. 3-4, p. 381-393, 2015. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1214-0>.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1214-0
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    » http://www.springerlink.com/content/l84t106362160774/fulltext.pdf
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    » http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6055/456.short
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  • FLANNERY, B. P. The state of climate negotiations. Clermont-Ferrand, France: Fondation pour les Études et Recherches sur le Développement International (FERDI), 2015 (Working paper, n. 134).
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Sep-Dec 2015

History

  • Received
    21 Oct 2015
  • Reviewed
    30 Oct 2015
  • Accepted
    08 Nov 2015
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