ADVANCES IN PROPAGATION OF GRAPEVINE IN THE WORLD

AVANÇOS OBSERVADOS NA PROPAGAÇÃO DE VIDEIRAS NO MUNDO

DANIEL SANTOS GROHS MARCUS ANDRÉ KURTZ ALMANÇA THOR VINICIUS MARTINS FAJARDO FRANCOIS HALLEEN ALBERTO MIELE About the authors

ABSTRACT

Grapevine production by classical grafting methods and in commercial scale emerged over 130 years. This system remained handmade until the mid-1950s, when the first international certification programs aimed at obtaining mother plants with high viral sanity emerged. The necessity to increase the scale of production on industrial model and plant material production based on minimum morphological standards appeared at the end of the 1960s. Along the 1970s, research unlocked knowledge on semi-automated grafting, process hygiene, use of plant growth regulators and understanding of physiological events of rootstock-scion compatibility, callus formation and rooting. So, until the mid-2000s, certification schemes and propagation processes advanced little in technical standard. However, grapevine growing areas were expanded and demands for plant material increased, and new diseases emerged from contaminated nurseries. These new diseases (new viral complexes, phytoplasmas, bacteria and grapevine trunk diseases) were discovered by high-sensitivity diagnostic methods. Today, there is a new discussion on the nursery segment worldwide. The propagation techniques have been reviewed from the perspective of reducing the incidence of new diseases and minimum physiological damage of nursery plants during the production stages. Therefore, technological innovations regarding equipment, practices and production inputs have been incorporated in new certification schemes. However, despite these advantages, these schemes have become more complex and multidisciplinary than previous ones, bringing difficulties in adaptation of nurserymen.

Index terms
grafting; nursery; certification; grapevine cuttings

RESUMO

A propagação de videiras a partir dos métodos clássicos de enxertia e em escala comercial teve origem há mais de 130 anos. Este sistema permaneceu artesanal até meados da década de 1950, quando se iniciaram os primeiros programas internacionais para certificação com foco na obtenção de plantas básicas com elevada sanidade para vírus. No fim da década de 1960 surgiu a necessidade de aumentar a escala para produção em um modelo industrial em que a muda apresentasse um padrão morfológico mínimo. Ao longo da década de 1970, aprofundaram-se as pesquisas relacionadas à automatização da prática de enxertia, à higienização do processo, ao uso de reguladores de crescimento e ao entendimento dos eventos fisiológicos da compatibilidade entre enxerto e porta-enxerto, formação de calos e enraizamentos. Assim, até meados dos anos 2000, os esquemas de certificação e o processo de propagação pouco evoluíram em termos técnicos. Porém, na medida em que a área vitivinícola foi expandindo e a demanda por mudas aumentado verificou-se que novas pragas se alastravam em escala global a partir de viveiros contaminados. Estas novas doenças (complexos virais, fitoplasmas, bactérias e fungos causadores de podridões vasculares), foram sendo descobertas à medida que os métodos de diagnose avançaram em sensibilidade de detecção. Hoje, surge uma nova discussão no segmento viveirista mundial fundamentada no fato de que o processo de propagação está sendo revisto sob o foco da redução de incidência das novas pragas e mínimo dano à muda ao longo das etapas da produção. Surgem assim, inovações tecnológicas, tanto em equipamentos quanto em práticas e insumos, sendo incorporadas aos novos modelos de certificação. Mas, se por um lado, estes esquemas tornam-se cada vez mais multidisciplinares, por outro, a complexidade gerada pode trazer dificuldades para a adesão pelos viveiristas.

Termos para indexação
enxertia; viveiro; certificação; mudas de videira

INTRODUCTION

The new scenario of grapevine propagation The history of world viticulture is closely linked to the production of propagating materials.

From the late seventeenth century, the epidemic of the root aphid known as phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) spread throughout Europe, decimating vineyards of varieties of Vitis vinifera species, which were commonly planted without the use of rootstocks (RILEY, 1891 RILEY, C.V. The Phylloxera and American resistant stocks. Scientific American, New York-NY, v.31, n.788, p.12596-12597, 1891. Suplemento ). Thus, growers started importing rootstocks of American origin resistant to this disease, and from this event, the vegetative propagation of grapevine by grafting became part of the modern viticulture activity (SPOERR, 1902 SPOERR, R. Nurseries for grapevine grafts. American Scientific, New York, v.53, p.21904-21906, 1902. ).

Initially, the process evolved in the technique, seeking higher yield in number of viable cuttings, resulting in automation by table grafting (ALLEY, 1957 ALLEY, C.J. Mechanized grape grafting: portable machine developed for bench or field grafting of grapes saves time and eliminates the need for skilled labor. California Agriculture, Richmond, v.11, n.6, p.3-12, 1957. ); the adjustment of paraffin types for grafting; the application of stratification for callus formation; storage of cold propagating material; the use of plant growth regulators for the formation of roots and calluses (ALLEY; PETERSON, 1977 ALLEY, C.J.; PETERSON, J.E. Grapevine propagation. IX. Effects of temperature, refrigeration, and indole butyric acid on callusing, bud push, and rooting of dormant cuttings. American Journal Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.28, n.1, p.1-7, 1977. ) and basic measures of process hygiene (BECKER; HILLER, 1977 BECKER, H.; HILLER, M.H. Hygiene in modern bench-grafting. American Journal Enology and Viticuture, Davis, v.28, n.2, p.113-118, 1977. ).

In a second stage, the process evolved to the phytosanitary quality, as several diseases, especially those caused by viruses were transmitted to cuttings from mother plants. Official entities responsible for obtaining, cleaning and availability of foundation plant stocks of high phytosanitary quality for nurseries were founded in several wine countries (MARTELLI, 1999 MARTELLI G.P. Infectious diseases and certification of grapevines. In: MEDITERRANEAN NETWORK ON GRAPEVINE CLOSTEROVIRUSES 1992-1997 AND THE VIROSES AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF THE GRAPEVINE A BIBLIOGRAPHIC REPORT, 1985-1997, Bari. Proceedings… Bari: CIHEAM, 1999. p.47-64. ).Certification schemes standardize quality protocols to obtain cuttings; however, there is no unified standard for these schemes. Some of them check the presence of viruses in materials produced in basic stocks, which is the case of EPPO Certification, which regulates the certification of agricultural crops in the European Union and is applied in countries such as Germany, Portugal, Spain and Italy (OEPP, 2008 OEPP. Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes. Pathogen-tested material of grapevine varieties and rootstocks. EPPO Bulletin, Oxford, v.38, n.3, p.422–429, 2008. ).Other countries have broader programs, with verification protocols and technical recommendations from the production of nuclear material to commercial nurseries. This is the case of APFIP in Australia, PPECP in Canada, Entav-Inra in France, FPS in the United States and Vine Improvement Scheme in terms of the Plant Improvement Act in South Africa.

In Brazil, the application of the certification term in grapevine fields awaits official regulation of technical conformity standards ( ALMEIDA, 2002 ALMEIDA, F.J. Produção e certificação de mudas de plantas frutíferas. Informe Agropecuário, Belo Horizonte, v.23, n.216, p.1-4, 2002. ). The nurseryman only needs to comply with minimum legal criteria for the commercialization of production, and there is no official control of the phytosanitary quality (BRASIL, 2004 BRASIL. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Decreto nº 5.153, de 23 julho de 2004. Aprova o Regulamento da Lei nº 10.711, de 5 de agosto de 2003, que dispõe sobre o Sistema Nacional de Sementes e Mudas - SNSM, e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial [da] República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, 26 jul. 2004. Seção 1, p.6. ).

Currently, regardless of whether the scheme is certified or not, there is a growing movement of technical transformation of the nursery segment on a global scale. Although large gains have been obtained with current schemes, there is an urgent need to innovate them against new phytosanitary threats (FILO et al., 2013 FILO, A.; SABBATINI, P.; SUNDIN, G.W.; ZABADAL, T.J.; SAFIR, G.R.; COUSINS, P. S. Grapevine crown gall suppression using biological control and genetic engineering: a review of recent research. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.64, n.1, p.1-14, 2013. ). In recent years, new diseases have been introduced in mother plants and widely disseminated among producing regions from propagation materials (GRAMAJE; DI MARCO, 2015 GRAMAJE, D.; DI MARCO, S. Identifying practices likely to have impacts on grapevine trunk disease infections: a European nursery survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.313-324, 2015. ). Due to little consideration in the current certification schemes, these diseases have generated a new stage for the advancement of technologies in propagation of grapevine cuttings (FILO et al., 2013 FILO, A.; SABBATINI, P.; SUNDIN, G.W.; ZABADAL, T.J.; SAFIR, G.R.; COUSINS, P. S. Grapevine crown gall suppression using biological control and genetic engineering: a review of recent research. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.64, n.1, p.1-14, 2013. ).

New diseases transmitted by vegetative propagation Traditionally, the focus of phytosanitary quality of mother plants lies on virus detection.

Grapevine species and hybrids used as rootstocks are hosts of about 65 viruses, eight viroids and 13 phytoplasmas. This amount increases frequently due to the continuous development of techniques for the detection of these pathogens, especially next generation sequencing (NGS) (MARTELLI, 2014 MARTELLI, G.P. Directory of virus and virus-like diseases of the grapevine and their agents. Journal of Plant Pathology, Bari, v. 96, n.1, p.1-136, 2014. Suplemento ; ROOSSINCK et al., 2015 ROOSSINCK, M.J.; MARTIN, D.P.; ROUMAGNAC, P. Plant virus metagenomics: Advances in virus discovery. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.105, n.6, p.716-727, 2015. ).

The following are among the several reasons why grapevine is so affected by these pathogens: it is inherently susceptible to several pathogens; it is cultivated in different geographic regions and under different environmental conditions and is vegetatively propagated, which is the main way of transmission of viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas. As a consequence, grapevine is able to acquire, maintain and accumulate such infectious agents, perpetuating them during the vegetative cycle. In addition, some insects and nematodes are efficient natural vectors of certain viruses and phytoplasmas, making the situation even more complex. Despite this context, grapevine remains one of the most important fruit crops in the world (FIORE, 2015 FIORE, N. Enfermedades de la vid causadas por virus, viroides y fitoplasmas: diagnóstico, epidemiología y control. In: CONGRESSO LATINO-AMERICANO DE VITICULTURA E ENOLOGIA, 15., 2015; CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE VITICULTURA E ENOLOGIA, 13., 2015, Bento Gonçalves, RS. Resumos… Bento Gonçalves: Embrapa Uva e Vinho, 2015. p.118-130. ).

The four main grapevine viruses in the world are grapevine leafroll, rugose wood complex, fanleaf degeneration, and fleck disease due to the economic importance and incidence that they present in several grape-growing countries (MARTELLI et al., 2007 MARTELLI, G.P.; ADAMS, M.J.; KREUZE, J.F.; DOLJA, V.V. Family Flexiviridae: A case study in virion and genome plasticity. Annual Review of Phytopathology, Palo Alto, v.45, p.73-100, 2007. ; MAREE et al., 2013 MAREE, H.J.; ALMEIDA, R.P.P.; BESTER, R.; CHOOI, K.M.; COHEN, D.; DOLJA, V.V.; FUCHS., M.F.; GOLINO, D.A.; JOOSTE, A.E.C.; MARTELLI, G.P.; NAIDU, R.A.; ROWHANI, A.; SALDARELLI, P.; BURGER, J.T. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. Frontiers in Microbiology, New York, v.4, n.82, p.1-21, 2013. ; BASSO et al., 2014 BASSO, M.F.; FAJARDO, T.V.M.; PIO-RIBEIRO, G.; EIRAS, M.; ZERBINI, F.M. Avanços e perspectivas no estudo das doenças virais e subvirais em videira com ênfase na realidade brasileira. Revisão Anual de Patologia de Plantas, Passo Fundo, v.22, p.160-207, 2014. ; NAIDU et al., 2015 NAIDU, R. A.; MAREE, H. J.; BURGER, J. T. Grapevine leafroll disease and associated viruses: a unique pathosystem. Annual Review of Phytopathology, Palo Alto, v.53, p.613-634, 2015. ). However, recently, some new viruses have been discovered in grapevines and quickly became known as “emerging viruses” for the expression and relevance they have acquired in the world (MARTELLI; SALDARELLI, 2015 MARTELLI, G.P.; SALDARELLI, P. Phytosanitary challenges for the Mediterranean viticultural industry: Emerging grapevine viruses. Bari: CIHEAM - International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies, 2015. 4p. (Watch Letter, 33) ). Some examples are Grapevine Syrah virus 1 (GSyV-1) associated with the Syrah decline (AL RWAHNIH et al., 2009 AL RWAHNIH, M.; DAUBERT, S.; GOLINO, D.; ROWHANI, A. Deep sequencing analysis of RNAs from a grapevine showing Syrah decline symptoms reveals a multiple virus infection that includes a novel virus. Virology, New York, v.387, n.2, p.395-401, 2009. ); Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which causes the red blotch disease (SUDARSHANA et al., 2015 SUDARSHANA, M.R.; PERRY, K.L.; FUCHS, M.F. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus, an emerging threat to the grapevine industry. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.105, n.7, p.1026-1032, 2015. ); Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV), which causes “vein clearing” (ZHANG et al., 2011 ZHANG, Y.; SINGH, K.; KAUR, R.; QIU, W. Association of a novel DNA virus with the grapevine vein-clearing and vine decline syndrome. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.101, n.9, p.1081-1090, 2011. ) and Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV), which causes chlorotic mottling and leaf deformation (SALDARELLI et al., 2015 SALDARELLI, P.; GIAMPETRUZZI, A.; MORELLI, M.; MALOSSINI, U.; PIROLO, C.; BIANCHEDI, P.; GUALANDRI, V. Genetic variability of Grapevine pinot gris virus and its association with grapevine leaf mottling and deformation. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.105, n.4, p.555-563, 2015. ).

However, the criteria of phytosanitary quality in mother plants and cuttings need revision due to the increase in the incidence of fungi causing trunk diseases that cause the decline and death of young vineyards (STAMP, 2001 STAMP, J. A. The contribution of imperfections in nursery stock to the decline of young vines in California. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.40, n.3, p.S369–S375, 2001. ). In a survey carried out in 146 nurseries in Europe, Gramaje and Di Marco (2015) GRAMAJE, D.; DI MARCO, S. Identifying practices likely to have impacts on grapevine trunk disease infections: a European nursery survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.313-324, 2015. verified that in 25% of vineyards, the replanting of mother plants younger than 10 years was carried out due to the occurrence of this decline. Likewise, Liminana et al. (2009) LIMINANA, J.M.; PACREAU, G.; BOUREAU, F.; MENARD, E.; DAVID, S.; HIMONNET, C.; FERMAUD, M.; GOUTOULY, J.P.; LECOMTE. P.; DUMOT, V. Inner necrosis in grapevine rootstock mother plants in the Cognac area (Charentes, France). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.48, n.1, p.92-100, 2009. had already pointed out that even mother plants with healthy external appearance had internal necrotic lesions.

These findings are examples that some of these fungi can release spores in the air, presenting potential for infection through the wounds that occur in mother plants (LARIGNON; DUBOS, 2000 LARIGNON, P.; DUBOS, B. Preliminary studies on the biology of Phaeoacremonium. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.39, n.1, p.184-189. 2000. ; ; ROONEYLATHAM et al., 2005 ROONEY-LATHAM, S.; ESKALEN, A.; GUBLER, W.D. Occurrence of Togninia minima perithecia in esca-affected vineyards in California. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.89, n.8, p.867-871, 2005. ;GRAMAJE, ARMENGOL, 2011 GRAMAJE D.; ARMENGOL, J. Fungal trunk pathogens in the grapevine propagation process: potential inoculum sources, detection, identification, and management strategies. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.95, n. 9, p.1040–1055, 2011. ; BALOYI et al., 2013 BALOYI, M.A.; ESKALEN, A.; MOSTERT, L.; HALLEEN, F. First report of Togninia minima perithecia on esca- and Petri-diseased grapevines in South Africa. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.97, n.9, p.1247, 2013. ). For this reason, since the year 2000, a group of researchers has sought to redesign the process of cutting production with a focus on protecting against fungi that cause trunk diseases.

The pathogens associated with this complex have as main representatives: Esca, caused by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium spp. and Fomitiporia spp.; Petri Disease, caused by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp.; Botryosphaeria dieback and canker, caused by Botryosphaeriaceae fungi; Eutypa dieback, caused by Eutypa lata and Black foot disease, caused by Cylindrocarpon spp., Campylocarpon spp., Dactylonectria and Ilyonectria spp. (LARIGNON; DUBOS, 2000 LARIGNON, P.; DUBOS, B. Preliminary studies on the biology of Phaeoacremonium. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.39, n.1, p.184-189. 2000. ; VICENT et al., 2001 VICENT, A.; GARCÍA-FIGUERES, F.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J. ARMENGOL, J.; TORNÉ, L. Fungi associated with esca and grapevine declines in Spain: a three-year survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.40, n.3, p.325-329, 2001. ; HALLEEN et al., 2004 HALLEEN, F.; SCHROERS, H-J.; GROENEWALD, J.Z.; CROUS, P.W. Novel species of Cylindrocarpon (Neonectria) and Campylocarpon gen. nov. associated with black foot disease of grapevines (Vitis spp.). Studies in mycology, Netherlands, v.50, p.431–455, 2004. ; AROCA et al., 2006 AROCA, A.; GARCÍA-FIGUERES, F.; BRACAMONTE, L.; LUQUE, J.; RAPOSO, R. A survey of trunk disease pathogens within rootstocks of grapevines in Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.115, p.195-202, 2006. ;HALLEEN et al., 2006a HALLEEN, F.; SCHROERS, H-J.; GROENEWALD, J.Z.; REGO, C.; OLIVEIRA, H.; CROUS, P.W. Neonectria liriodendri sp. nov. the main causal agent of black foot disease of grapevines. Studies in Mycology, Netherlands, v.55, p.227–234, 2006a. ; HALLEEN et al., 2006b HALLEEN F.; FOURIE P. H.; CROUS P. W. A review of black-foot disease of grapevine. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.45, p.S55–S67, 2006b. ; MOSTERT et al., 2006 MOSTERT, L.; HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE, P.; CROUS, P.W. A review of Phaeoacremonium species involved in Petri disease and esca of grapevines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.45, p.S12–S29, 2006. ; ZANZOTTO et al., 2007 ZANZOTTO, A; AUTIERO, F.; BELLOTTO, D.; DAL CORTIVO, G.; LUCCHETTA, G.; BORGO, M. Occurrence of Phaeoacremonium spp. and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in grape propagation materials and young grapevines. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.119, n.2, p.183-192, 2007. ; REGO et al., 2009 REGO, C.; NASCIMENTO, T.; CABRAL, A; SILVA, M.J.; OLIVEIRA, H. Control of grapevine wood fungi in commercial nurseries. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.48, p.128–135, 2009. ; ÚRBEZ-TORRES et al., 2012 ÚRBEZ-TORRES, J.R.; PEDUTO, F.; STRIEGLER, R.K.; URREA-ROMERO, K.E.; RUPE, J.C.; CARTWRIGHT, R.D.; GUBLER, W.D. Characterization of fungal pathogens associated with grapevine trunk diseases in Arkansas and Missouri. Fungal Diversity, Hong Kong, v.52, n.1, p.169-189, 2012. ; BERTSCH et al., 2013 BERTSCH, C.; RAMÍREZ-SUERO, M.; MAGNIN-ROBERT, M.; LARIGNON, P.; CHONG, J.; ABOU-MANSOUR, E.; SPAGNOLO, A.; CLÉMENT, C.; FONTAINE, F. Grapevine trunk diseases: complex and still poorly understood. Plant Pathology, Amsterdam, v.62, n. 2, p.243–265, 2013. ; BILLONES-BAAIJENS et al., 2013 BILLONES-BAAIJENS, R.; RIDGWAY, H.J.; JONES, E.E.; CRUICKSHANK, R.H.; JASPERS, M.V. Prevalence and distribution of Botryosphaeriaceae species in New Zealand grapevine nurseries. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.135, n.1, p.175–185, 2013. ; WHITELAW-WECKERT et al., 2013 WHITELAW-WECKERT, M.A.; RAHMAN, L.; APPLEBY, L.M.; HALL, A.; CLARK, A.C.; WAITE, H.; HARDIE, W.J. Co-infection by Botryosphaeriaceae and Ilyonectria spp. fungi during propagation causes decline of young grafted grapevines. Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.62, n.6, p.1226–1237, 2013. ; LOMBARD et al., 2014 LOMBARD, L.; VAN DER MERWE, N.A.; GROENEWALD, J.Z.; CROUS, P.W. Lineages in Nectriaceae: re-evaluating the generic status of Ilyonectria and allied genera. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna,v.53, n.3, p.515-532, 2014. ). In addition to these species, new genera have been continuously reported in literature. HALLEEN et al. (2007) HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE P. H.; CROUS P. W. Control of black foot disease in grapevine nurseries. Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.56, p.637-645, 2007b. conducted pathogenicity studies in nurseries and vineyards with declining plants and found that symptomatic plants were contaminated by Cadophora luteo-olivaceae, Phialemonium cf. curvatum and Pleurostomophora richardsiae, whereas Moyo et al. (2014) MOYO, P.; ROETS, F.; ALLSOPP, E.; MOSTERT, L.; HALLEEN, F. Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.104, p.1063-1069, 2014. identified species of arthropods also acting in the transmission of trunk diseases.

In addition to viruses and trunk diseases, bacterial diseases are another phytopathogenic group that can infect host plants and be transmitted via propagative material. In Brazil, there is occurrence of bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas campetris pv. viticola. Its occurrence has already been reported in Pernambuco, Bahia, Piauí, Ceará, Roraima and São Paulo (RODRIGUES NETO et al., 2011 RODRIGUES NETO, J.; DESTÉFANO, S.A.L.; RODRIGUES, L.M.R.; PELLOSO, D.S.; OLIVEIRA JÚNIOR, L. da C. Grapevine bacterial canker in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: detection and eradication. Tropical Plant Pathology, Brasília, DF, v.36, n.1, p.42-44, 2011. ). The main measure for the control of this bacterium is to avoid its entry into areas where the disease does not occur and, if necessary, to eliminate the inoculum present in contaminated plants (SILVA et al., 2012 SILVA, A.M.F.; MENEZES, E.F.de; SOUZA, E.B.de; MELO, N.F.de; MARIANO, R. de L.R. Sobrevivência de Xanthomonas campestres pv. Viticola em tecido infectado de videira. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.34, n.3, p.757-765, 2012. ).

Another bacterial disease is Pierce’s disease, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, which is very important in grapevines in countries such as the United States, Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela and Chile, causing loss of quality and quantity of grapes, as well as the death of plants. Care for this disease should be at the time of introduction of vegetative vine materials in the country, and legal measures must be followed (KUHN, 2016 KUHN, G.B. Mal de Pierce: doença bacteriana da videira de importância quarentenária para o Brasil. Clube do Fazendeiro. 2016. Disponível em: http://www.cnpuv.embrapa.br/publica/artigos/mal_pierce.pdf . Acesso em: 28 jun. 2016. (5)
http://www.cnpuv.embrapa.br/publica/arti...
).

Advances observed in phytosanitary diagnostic methods Obtaining the mother plant is one of the most critical stages in the process of cutting production. Its sanitary condition will define the quality of cuttings over the years. Diagnosis is a fundamental step, together with epidemiological studies for the implementation of effective control of diseases caused by viruses, viroids and, recently, phytoplasmas, bacteria and fungi related to trunk diseases. Field observation is the first step in the phytosanitary checking process. However, latent infections and the presence of nonspecific symptoms, that is, symptoms common to several diseases, not necessarily caused by a specific pathogen, are frequent (FIORE, 2015 FIORE, N. Enfermedades de la vid causadas por virus, viroides y fitoplasmas: diagnóstico, epidemiología y control. In: CONGRESSO LATINO-AMERICANO DE VITICULTURA E ENOLOGIA, 15., 2015; CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE VITICULTURA E ENOLOGIA, 13., 2015, Bento Gonçalves, RS. Resumos… Bento Gonçalves: Embrapa Uva e Vinho, 2015. p.118-130. ).

In the case of the diagnosis of viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas, technology has evolved over the years, starting with biological indexing, followed by serological and molecular tests. Biological indexing by mechanical transmission of the pathogen to herbaceous hosts or graft indexing in woody indicators is the oldest diagnostic technique in use, although still important, especially due to its high sensitivity and in cases of diagnosis of unknown diseases. However, serology-based diagnosis has enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as the most commonly used test. Other techniques are based on the detection of pathogenic nucleic acids, such as molecular hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with its “conventional” type variants, in which the results are visualized on gels after electrophoresis or “real-time or quantitative” type (AL RWAHNIH et al., 2012 AL RWAHNIH, M.; OSMAN, F.; SUDARSHANA, M.; UYEMOTO, J.; MINAFRA, A.; SALDARELLI, P.; MARTELLI, G.; ROWHANI, A. Detection of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7 using real time qRT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR. Journal of Virological Methods, Amsterdam, v.179, n.2, p.383-389, 2012. , DUBIELA et al., 2013 DUBIELA, C.R.; FAJARDO, T.V.M.; SOUTO, E.R.; NICKEL, O.; EIRAS, M.; REVERS, L.F. Simultaneous detection of Brazilian isolates of grapevine viroses by TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. Tropical Plant Pathology, Brasília, DF, v.38, n.2, p.158-165, 2013. , OSMAN et al., 2013 OSMAN, F.; HODZIC, E.; OMANSKA-KLUSEK, A.; OLINEKA, T.; ROWHANI, A. Development and validation of a multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid detection of Grapevine virus A, B and D. Journal of Virological Methods, Amsterdam, v.194, n.1-2, p.138-145, 2013. ).

Molecular diagnosis has advanced significantly in recent years. The restriction in the use of a certain molecular test is due to the fact that it is only directed to the detection of pathogens with known nucleotide sequences and to some pathogens that are targets of the reaction. This makes it impossible to detect pathogens with unknown nucleotide sequence or that are not pre-established targets of detection. These two restrictions are overcome when using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). This technique allows identifying all viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas present in a plant tissue sample (AL RWAHNIH et al., 2015 AL RWAHNIH, M.; DAUBERT, S.; GOLINO, D.; ISLAS, C.; ROWHANI, A. Comparison of next-generation sequencing versus biological indexing for the optimal detection of viral pathogens in grapevine. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.105, n.6, p.758-763, 2015. ). With the continuous improvement of this technique, there is a permanent expansion of knowledge about the viroma (viral population) present in grapevines (BURGER; MAREE, 2015 BURGER, J.T.; MAREE, H.J. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing of viruses infecting grapevines. Methods in Molecular Biology, Clifton, v.1302, p.315-330, 2015. ). Thus, the generated information can be used to define better and more efficient virus control and management strategies.

However, the relatively high cost still does not allow the use of NGS as a routine technique, but it is economically feasible, for example, when compared to the costs of biological indexing (considering that for some pathogens there is a need to wait up to two years for the final result) and considering that biological tests are needed to incorporate selected mother plants in certification programs. In relation to quarantine controls, the NGS technique also allows reducing costs aiming the introduction of a new genetic material in a country (GIAMPETRUZZI et al., 2015 GIAMPETRUZZI, A.; MORELLI, M.; CHIUMENTI, M.; SAVINO, V.N.; MARTELLI, G.P.; LA NOTTE, P.; PALMISANO, F.; SALDARELLI, P. Towards the definition of the absolute sanitary status of certified grapevine clones and rootstocks. IN: MEETING OF INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE STUDY OF VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF THE GRAPEVINE, 18., 2015, Ankara. Proceedings… Ankara: ICVG, 2015. p.146-147. ). For the implementation of this new technique, it is essential to have support from the field of bioinformatics allied to the executor laboratory, as it will be necessary to process and analyze a large number of nucleotide sequences (WU et al., 2015 WU, Q.; DING, S.-W.; ZHANG, Y.; ZHU, S. Identification of viruses and viroids by Next-generation sequencing and homology-dependent and homology-independent algorithms. Annual Review of Phytopathology, Palo Alto, v.53, p.425-444, 2015. ).

Currently, the classical approach to phytosanitary testing of the mother plant based only on the presence of viruses has been reviewed, as studies have shown that fungi that cause trunk diseases are also transmitted to cuttings through these plants (GRAMAJE; ARMENGOL, 2011 GRAMAJE D.; ARMENGOL, J. Fungal trunk pathogens in the grapevine propagation process: potential inoculum sources, detection, identification, and management strategies. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.95, n. 9, p.1040–1055, 2011. ).For the diagnosis of fungi, the availability of tools for detection is the key factor and, in recent years, it is the area that has most advanced. Some phytopathogens such as Plasmopara viticola, Botrytis cinerea and Elsinoe ampelina are easy to detect as it is possible to verify typical visual symptoms. For trunk diseases, symptoms are not so obvious and detection in asymptomatic propagation material may be critical.

Currently, the most widely used method for detection is isolation in culture medium. It is a slow method and usually presents difficulty in identification.

Molecular diagnosis, as a faster and more efficient tool, using DNA extraction and specific tools is an alternative.

Conventional PCR, nested-PCR and real time-PCR are being developed for the identification and detection of the causal agents of Black foot disease, Petri disease and Botryosphaeriaceae species in plant tissues, water and soil samples obtained from nurseries and vineyards. In some cases, specific primers are designed to identify one or a few species (ALANIZ et al., 2009 ALANIZ, S.; ARMENGOL, J.; LEÓN, M.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ABAD-CAMPOS, P. Analysis of genetic and virulence diversity of Cylindrocarpon liriodendri and C. macrodidymum associated with black foot disease of grapevine. Mycological Research, Cambridge, v.113, n.1, p.16–23, 2009. ). However, in other cases, tools that allow the simultaneous identification of the largest possible number of species have been developed. Weir and Graham (2009) WEIR, B.S.; GRAHAM, A.B. Simultaneous identification of multiple fungal pathogens and endophytes with database t-RFLP. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.48, n.1, p. 159-188, 2009. , using t-RFLP were successful in the differentiation of Cylindrocarpon, Eutypa, Botryosphaeria, Phaeomoniella and Phaeoacremonium species. It is noteworthy that these techniques also require care.

PCR inhibitors may be present in samples, mainly in lignified tissues, limiting the use of this method (GRAMAJE; ARMENGOL, 2011 GRAMAJE D.; ARMENGOL, J. Fungal trunk pathogens in the grapevine propagation process: potential inoculum sources, detection, identification, and management strategies. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.95, n. 9, p.1040–1055, 2011. ). Lummerzheim et al. (2009) LUMMERZHEIM, M.; MORELLO, L.G.; MAS, A. A multiplex PCR assay detecting several Ascomycetes responsible for grapevine trunk diseases. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.48, n.1, p.159-188, 2009. tested multiplex-PCR from fungiextracted DNA for the simultaneous identification of Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diplodia seriata, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and did not obtain conclusive results.

Advances observed in the management of new diseases Procedures to control viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas in the process of cutting production are exclusively based on the prevention of infection.

The use of tested propagation material, free of major diseases, and preferably from a clonal and phytosanitary selection program that includes clonal cleaning by thermotherapy and / or meristem culture is recommended (MALIOGKA et al., 2009 MALIOGKA, V.I.; SKIADA, F.G.; ELEFTHERIOU, E.P.; KATIS, N.I. Elimination of a new Ampelovirus (GLRaV-Pr) and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) from two Vitis vinifera cultivars combining in vitro thermotherapy with shoot tip culture. Scientia Horticulturae, Amsterdam, v.123, n.2, p.280-282, 2009. ).

Currently, Brazil does not yet have an official certification system for grapevine cuttings (BRASIL, 2004 BRASIL. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Decreto nº 5.153, de 23 julho de 2004. Aprova o Regulamento da Lei nº 10.711, de 5 de agosto de 2003, que dispõe sobre o Sistema Nacional de Sementes e Mudas - SNSM, e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial [da] República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, 26 jul. 2004. Seção 1, p.6. ), similar to those in some countries of the European Union (Italy, France, etc.), as well as in countries such as the USA, Argentina, Chile, and South Africa. These countries have official certification standards defining levels of tolerance for the presence of pathogens, especially viruses in grapevine planting materials according to categories (MALIOGKA et al., 2015 MALIOGKA, V. I.; MARTELLI, G. P.; FUCHS, M.; KATIS, N. I. Control of viruses infecting grapevine. Advances in Virus Research, San Diego, v.91, p.175-227, 2015. ).

Another option, not yet commercially available for grapevine, is the use of plants whose resistance has been incorporated as a result of genetic transformation, considering the absence of sources of natural genetic resistance to viruses in grapevines (LAIMER et al., 2009 LAIMER, M.; LEMAIRE, O.; HERRBACH, E. H.; GOLDSCHIMIDT, V.; MINAFRA, A.; BIANCO, P.; WETZEL, T. Resistance to viruses, phytoplasmas and their vectors in the grapevine in Europe: A review. Journal of Plant Pathology, Bari, v.91, n.1, p.7-23, 2009. ; OLIVER; FUCHS, 2011 OLIVER, J.E.; FUCHS, M. Tolerance and resistance to viruses and their vectors in Vitis sp.: A virologist’s perspective of the literature. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.62, n.4, p.438-451, 2011. ).In addition, the control of vectors (nematodes, mealybugs such as Pseudococcidae, etc.) and weeds (hosts of pathogens and vectors) contribute to reduce the spread of viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas, together with the adoption of effective quarantine measures able to prevent the introduction of pathogens that are not yet present in a country or that are restricted to demarcated regions of territory (TSAI et al., 2010 TSAI, C.W.; ROWHANI, A.; GOLINO, D.A.; DAANE, K.M.; ALMEIDA, R.P. Mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll viruses: an analysis of virus-vector specificity. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.100, n.8, p.830-834, 2010. ; ALMEIDA et al., 2013 ALMEIDA, F.J. Produção e certificação de mudas de plantas frutíferas. Informe Agropecuário, Belo Horizonte, v.23, n.216, p.1-4, 2002. ).

In the case of fungi related to trunk diseases, the procedure of recommended control is systemic to the entire production process of the cuttings with critical points of possible sources of inoculum. Thus, in the management of mother blocks, the need to protect wounds caused to plants after pruning of propagation material has been emphasized (VAN NIEKERK et al., 2011 VAN NIEKERK, J.M.; HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE, P. H. Temporal susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to trunk pathogen infection in South African grapevines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.50, p.139-150, 2011. ). The susceptibility of these wounds to trunk diseases varies from four weeks to more than four months, depending on the pathogen, the cultivar, the region and the climatic conditions (SERRA et al., 2008 SERRA, S.; MANNONI, M.A.; LIGIOS, V. Studies on the susceptibility of pruning wounds to infection by fungi involved in grapevine wood diseases in Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.47, p.234–246, 2008. ). Currently, the recommendation to protect the wound with chemical or biological fungicides (DI MARCO et al., 2004 DI MARCO, S.; OSTI , F.; CESARI, A. Experiments on the control of esca by Trichoderma. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.43, p.108–115, 2004. ; FOURIE; HALLEEN, 2006 FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Chemical and biological protection of grapevine propagation material from trunk disease pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.116, n.4, p.255-265, 2006. ;HALLEEN et al., 2010 HALLEEN F.; LOMBARD, P. J.; FOURIE P. H. Protection of grapevine pruning wounds against Eutypa lata by biological and chemical methods. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Stellenbosch, v.31, p.125-132, 2010. ) is unanimous. Mutawila et al. (2016a) MUTAWILA, C.; HALLEEN, F.; MOSTERT, L. Optimisation of time of application of Trichoderma biocontrol agents for protection of grapevine pruning wounds. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Adelaide, v.22, p.279–287, 2016a. recommend the application of Trichoderma after six hours from the end of sap exudation from cuts and Kotze et al. (2011) KOTZE, C.; VAN NIEKERK, J. M.; MOSTERT, L.; HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE P. H. Evaluation of biocontrol agents for grapevine pruning wound protection against trunk pathogen infection. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.50, p.247-263, 2011. observed that the use of Trichoderma showed better results than the use of chemicals. Mutawila et al. (2016b) MUTAWILA, C.; VINALE, F.; HALLEEN, F.; LORITO, M.; MOSTERT, L. Isolation, production and in vitro effects of the major secondary metabolite produced by Trichoderma species used for the control of grapevine trunk diseases. Plant Pathology, Amsterdam, v.65, p.104-113, 2016b. found that the 6-pentyl-a-pyrone (6PP) component produced by Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma atroviride was shown to inhibit trunk pathogens. In addition, the cleaning of tools is another practice that significantly reduces the infection of plant pathogens in mother plants. Agustí- Brisach et al. (2011) AGUSTÍ-BRISACH, C.; GRAMAJE, D.; LEÓN, M.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of vineyard weeds as potential hosts of black-foot and Petri disease pathogens. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.95, n.7, p.803-810, 2011. observed that the transmission of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Cadophora luteo-olivacea, Diplodia seriata, Eutypa lata and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum decreased after disinfection of pruning instruments.

After the entry of the propagation material into the nursery, there are a number of practices that are performed. Hydration of the plant material is widely recommended (WAITE et al., 2015 WAITE, H.; WHITELAW-WECKERT, M.; TORLEY, P. Grapevine propagation: principles and methods for the production of high-quality grapevine planting material. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, Wellington, v.43, n.2, p.144-161, 2015. ).

However, Gramaje and Di Marco (2015) GRAMAJE, D.; DI MARCO, S. Identifying practices likely to have impacts on grapevine trunk disease infections: a European nursery survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.313-324, 2015. , in a survey conducted in 146 nurseries in Europe, pointed out that hydration was performed prior to cold storage, but that the hydration time was variable, from one hour to more than 24 hours. Different species of trunk fungi have been detected in this water, and contamination can come from the plant material that brings the inoculum from the field or by the poor hygiene of tanks (RETIEF et al., 2006 RETIEF, E.; MCLEOD, A.; FOURIE, P.H. Potential inoculum sources of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in South African grapevine nurseries. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.115, n.3, p.331–339, 2006. ; AROCA et al., 2010 AROCA A.; GRAMAJE, D.; ARMENGOL, J.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; RAPOSO, R. Evaluation of grapevine nursery process as a source of Phaeoacremonium spp. and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and occurrence of trunk disease pathogens in rootstock mother vines in Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.126, n.2, p.165–174, 2010. ; AGUSTÍ-BRISACH et al., 2011 AGUSTÍ-BRISACH, C.; GRAMAJE, D.; LEÓN, M.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of vineyard weeds as potential hosts of black-foot and Petri disease pathogens. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.95, n.7, p.803-810, 2011. ; WAITE et al., 2013 WAITE, H.; GRAMAJE, D.; WHITELAW-WECKERT, M.; TORLEY, P.; HARDIE, W.J. Soaking grapevine cuttings in water: a potential source of cross contamination by micro-organisms. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.52, n.2, p.359–368, 2013. ). Gramaje and Di Marco (2015) GRAMAJE, D.; DI MARCO, S. Identifying practices likely to have impacts on grapevine trunk disease infections: a European nursery survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.313-324, 2015. also observed that the use of chemicals in hydration varied among nurseries. When used, they were fungicides based on iprodione and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate or biocides based on chlorine dioxide.

The place of cuttings production, when not disinfected, is related to fungal infection. The cold chamber, where temperatures range from 2ºC to 6ºC and humidity around 90%, is the ideal environment for the development of fungi adapted to cooler conditions such as Penicillium spp. (GRAMAJE; ARMENGOL, 2011 GRAMAJE D.; ARMENGOL, J. Fungal trunk pathogens in the grapevine propagation process: potential inoculum sources, detection, identification, and management strategies. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.95, n. 9, p.1040–1055, 2011. ). In stratification, higher temperatures (27ºC to 29ºC) and humidity above 90% favor the development of Botrytis cinerea. Aroca et al. (2010) AROCA A.; GRAMAJE, D.; ARMENGOL, J.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; RAPOSO, R. Evaluation of grapevine nursery process as a source of Phaeoacremonium spp. and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and occurrence of trunk disease pathogens in rootstock mother vines in Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.126, n.2, p.165–174, 2010. found viable Phaeoacremonium spp., Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Cadophoraluteoolivaceae propagules in pruning shears, grafting machines and peat used for callus formation.

Likewise, Retief et al. (2006) RETIEF, E.; MCLEOD, A.; FOURIE, P.H. Potential inoculum sources of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in South African grapevine nurseries. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.115, n.3, p.331–339, 2006. verified that the increase in the incidence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora at the rooting site occurred due to contamination in the pre-storage hydration phase. Waite and Morton (2007) WAITE, H.; MORTON, L. Hot water treatment, trunk diseases and other critical factors in the production of high-quality grapevine planting material. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v. 46, p. 5–17, 2007. verified that contamination at this stage was derived from fungal structures from mother plants.

Rooting is the last step of the process of cuttings production. When in the field, a practice performed in certain regions is grounding the grafting point for protection against severe cold or maintenance of the grafting moisture. However, this can drastically increase the incidence of fungi such as Cylindrocarpon spp. (HALLEEN et al., 2003 HALLEEN, F.; CROUS, P.W.; PETRINI, O. Fungi associated with healthy grapevine cuttings in nurseries, with special reference to pathogens involved in the decline of young vines. Australasian Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.32, p.47–52, 2003. ; FOURIE; HALLEEN, 2006 FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Chemical and biological protection of grapevine propagation material from trunk disease pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.116, n.4, p.255-265, 2006. ). Also, the planting of cutting with incomplete formation of the basal heal callus exposes xylem tissues to colonization by fungi present in the rooting beds, especially Black foot disease (HALLEEN et al., 2003 HALLEEN, F.; CROUS, P.W.; PETRINI, O. Fungi associated with healthy grapevine cuttings in nurseries, with special reference to pathogens involved in the decline of young vines. Australasian Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.32, p.47–52, 2003. ; DÍAZ et al., 2009 DIAZ, G.A.; ESTERIO, M.; AUGER, J. Effects of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum on grapevine rootstocks. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria, Santiago, v.36, n.3, p.381-390, 2009. ).The management of sprinkler irrigation used in the production of cuttings by table grafting to increase the grafting union may favor the release of fungal spores causing trunk diseases, in addition to other shoot diseases (GRAMAJE; DI MARCO, 2015 GRAMAJE, D.; DI MARCO, S. Identifying practices likely to have impacts on grapevine trunk disease infections: a European nursery survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.313-324, 2015. ). Regarding the control of invasive species, Agustí-Brisach et al. (2011) AGUSTÍ-BRISACH, C.; GRAMAJE, D.; LEÓN, M.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of vineyard weeds as potential hosts of black-foot and Petri disease pathogens. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.95, n.7, p.803-810, 2011. observed that several plant species were potential hosts of fungi of trunk diseases such as Black foot and Petri diseases.

Finally, the phytosanitary quality of cuttings, in general, is represented by their morphological conformity at the time of marketing. According to Díaz et al. (2009 DIAZ, G.A.; ESTERIO, M.; AUGER, J. Effects of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum on grapevine rootstocks. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria, Santiago, v.36, n.3, p.381-390, 2009. ), deficient processes that include inhibition of basal callus formation, decreased root emission, poor formation of the grafting callus, grafting failure and symptoms of incompatibility result in cutting highly susceptible to several fungi in future vineyards.

Regarding the use of fungicides throughout the process of cuttings production, although widespread, its use in the management of trunk diseases is recent. Among the chemical fungicides reported in literature, the most used in nurseries worldwide are: 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate, thiophanate-methyl, captan, mancozeb, thiram, benomyl, didecyldimethylammonium chloride (FOURIE; HALLEEN, 2006 FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Chemical and biological protection of grapevine propagation material from trunk disease pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.116, n.4, p.255-265, 2006. ). However, the performance of each product depends on how it is used in the process. For example, for the control of Botryosphaeriaceae fungi, fungi causing Black foot and Petri diseases, carbendazim and thiophanatemethyl have the potential to reduce infections in rooting beds (FOURIE; HALLEEN, 2006 FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Chemical and biological protection of grapevine propagation material from trunk disease pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.116, n.4, p.255-265, 2006. ; REGO et al., 2006 REGO, C.; FARROPAS, L.; NASCIMENTO, T.; CABRAL, A.; OLIVEIRA, H. Black foot of grapevine: sensitivity of Cylindrocarpon destructans to fungicides. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.45, p.S93–S100, 2006. ; GRAMAJE et al., 2009 GRAMAJE, D.; AROCA, A.; RAPOSO, R.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of fungicides to control Petri disease pathogens in the grapevine propagation process. Crop Protection, Surrey, v.28, n.12, p.1091–1097, 2009. ; ALANIZ et al., 2011 ALANIZ, S.; ABAD-CAMPOS, P.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of fungicides to control Cylindrocarpon liriodendri and Cylindrocarpon macrodidymum in vitro, and their effect during the rooting phase in the grapevine propagation process. Crop Protection, Surrey, v.30, n.4, p.489–494, 2011. ; BILLONES-BAAIJENS et al., 2013 BILLONES-BAAIJENS, R.; RIDGWAY, H.J.; JONES, E.E.; CRUICKSHANK, R.H.; JASPERS, M.V. Prevalence and distribution of Botryosphaeriaceae species in New Zealand grapevine nurseries. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.135, n.1, p.175–185, 2013. ). The use of thiophanate-methyl and thiram is efficient to reduce infections by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeacremonium minimum when used in different stages of cutting hydration (KUN; KOCSIS,2014 KUN A.; KOCSIS, L. Efficacy of treatments against Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum during nursery propagation. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.53, p.565–592, 2014. ).

However, the use of biological control agents to reduce trunk diseases has increased significantly in recent years (GRAMAJE; DI MARCO, 2015 GRAMAJE, D.; DI MARCO, S. Identifying practices likely to have impacts on grapevine trunk disease infections: a European nursery survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.313-324, 2015. ). Trichoderma species have been used to reduce the incidence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeacremonium spp., Eutypa lata, Phomopsis viticola, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Neofusicoccum australe, Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata (KOTZE et al., 2011 KOTZE, C.; VAN NIEKERK, J. M.; MOSTERT, L.; HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE P. H. Evaluation of biocontrol agents for grapevine pruning wound protection against trunk pathogen infection. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.50, p.247-263, 2011. ; MUTAWILA et al., 2011 MUTAWILA, C.; FOURIE P. H.; HALLEEN, F.; MOSTERT, L. Histo-pathology study of the growth of Trichoderma harzianum, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Eutypa lata on grapevine pruning wounds. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.50, p.46-60, 2011. ). This control agent is used in the immersion process of whole cuttings, roots and basal ends of cuttings and whole grafted cuttings (FOURIE; HALLEEN, 2006 FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Chemical and biological protection of grapevine propagation material from trunk disease pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.116, n.4, p.255-265, 2006. ; DI MARCO; OSTI, 2007 DI MARCO, S.; OSTI, F. Applications of Trichoderma to prevent Phaeomoniella chlamydospora infections in organic nurseries. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.46, n.1, p.73–83, 2007. ; MOUNIER et al., 2014 MOUNIER, E.; CORTES, F.; CADIOUS, M.; PAJOT, E. The benefits of Trichoderma atroviride I-1237 for the protection of grapevines against trunk diseases: from the nursery to the vineyard. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.53, p.565–592, 2014. ).

Pertot et al. (2016) PERTOT, I.; PRODORUTTI, D.; COLOMBINI, A.; PASINI, L. Trichoderma atroviride SC1 prevents Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum infection of grapevine plants during the grafting process in nurseries. BioControl, Dordrecht, v.61, n.3, p.257-267, 2016. tested the use of Trichoderma atroviride at different stages of the grafting process. The best results were obtained in the pre-storage, stratification and preplanting hydration stages. Fourie and Halleen (2002) FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Investigation on the occurrence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in canes of rootstock mother vines. Australasian Plant Pathology, Netherlands, v.31, p.425-426, 2002. applied Trichoderma harzianum for 5 seconds before grafting, after grafting and monthly during rooting, obtaining 41.7% more root mass. Another option currently studied is the combination of chemical (short-term effect) with biological fungicides (long-term effect). Mutawila et al. (2015) MUTAWILA, C.; HALLEEN, F.; MOSTERT, L. Development of benzimidazole resistant Trichoderma strains for the integration of chemical and biocontrol methods of grapevine pruning wound protection. Biocontrol, Netherlands, v.60, p.387-399, 2015. generated benzimidazole-resistant Trichoderma atroviride mutants through the use of gamma radiation. When tested in vineyard field trials, these mutants were successful in protection against Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. Another group of microorganisms being tested are mycorrhizal fungus. Grapevine roots inoculated with Glomus intraradices presented lower number of root lesions and lower severity by fungi causing Black foot disease (PETIT; GUBLER, 2006 PETIT, E.; GUBLER, W.D. Influence of Glomus intraradices on black foot disease caused by Cylindrocarpon macrodidymum on Vitis rupestris under controlled conditions. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.90, n.12, p.1481–1484, 2006. ). Similarly, Jones et al. (2014) observed that the inoculation of Acaulospora laevis and Funneliformis mosseae decreased the susceptibility of three grapevine rootstocks to Ilyonectria spp.

Another phytosanitary practice that has been validated in recent years is treatment with hot water (HWT) for the control of fungi of trunk diseases (FOURIE; HALLEEN, 2006 FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Chemical and biological protection of grapevine propagation material from trunk disease pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.116, n.4, p.255-265, 2006. ; WAITE; MORTON, 2007 WAITE, H.; MORTON, L. Hot water treatment, trunk diseases and other critical factors in the production of high-quality grapevine planting material. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v. 46, p. 5–17, 2007. ; GRAMAJE et al., 2009 GRAMAJE, D.; AROCA, A.; RAPOSO, R.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of fungicides to control Petri disease pathogens in the grapevine propagation process. Crop Protection, Surrey, v.28, n.12, p.1091–1097, 2009. ).

Basically, HWT is performed in two periods: before grafting (FOURIE; HALLEEN, 2004a FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Occurrence of grapevine trunk disease pathogens in rootstock mother plants in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology, Netherlands, v.33, p.313-315, 2004a. ), and after collection of cuttings from the nursery and before planting in the vineyard (HALLEEN et al., 2007 HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE P. H.; CROUS P. W. Control of black foot disease in grapevine nurseries. Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.56, p.637-645, 2007b. ). Gramaje et al. (2009) GRAMAJE, D.; AROCA, A.; RAPOSO, R.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of fungicides to control Petri disease pathogens in the grapevine propagation process. Crop Protection, Surrey, v.28, n.12, p.1091–1097, 2009. observed that the mycelial growth of Cadophora luteo-olivaceae isolates was not viable from 50ºC to 54ºC for 30 minutes, but Cylindrocarpon liriodendri and Cylindrocarpon macrodidymum isolates were already unviable from 43ºC to 47ºC. However, in some situations, the treated material may present failure in budding, root formation and sealing of the grafting site due to physiological damage caused by high temperatures (GRAMAJE et al., 2009 GRAMAJE, D.; AROCA, A.; RAPOSO, R.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of fungicides to control Petri disease pathogens in the grapevine propagation process. Crop Protection, Surrey, v.28, n.12, p.1091–1097, 2009. ; WAITE; MORTON, 2007 WAITE, H.; MORTON, L. Hot water treatment, trunk diseases and other critical factors in the production of high-quality grapevine planting material. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v. 46, p. 5–17, 2007. ). For example, in Spain, a protocol of 53ºC for 30 minutes has been used; however, these temperatures have caused damage to budding of traditional grape cultivars used in New Zealand (GRAHAM, 2007 GRAHAM, A. Hot water treatment of grapevine rootstock cuttings grown in a cool climate. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.46, p.124, 2007. ; BILLONES-BAAIJENS et al., 2015 BILLONES-BAAIJENS, R.; JASPERS, M.; ALLARD, A.; HONG, Y.; RIDGWAY, H.; JONES, E. Management of Botryosphaeria species infection in grapevine propagation materials. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.355-367, 2015. ). This variability of recommendations and the fact that the treatment does not present efficiency against 100% of fungi (GRAMAJE et al., 2010 GRAMAJE, D.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Field evaluation of grapevine rootstocks inoculated with fungi associated with Petri disease and esca. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.61, n.4, p.512–520, 2010. ) have made the use of this technology not widespread and unpopular.

Advances observed in propagation physiology The knowledge of the physiological effects involved in grapevine propagation, such as hormonal balance in grafting events has already been explored and reviewed (ALONI et al., 2010 ALONI, B.; COHEN, R.; KARNI, L.; AKTAS, H.; EDELSTEIN, M. Hormonal signaling in rootstock-scion interactions. Scientia Horticulturae, Amesterdam, v.127, n.2, p.119-126, 2010. ).However, studies related to the biochemical and molecular understanding of the different stages of the technique in interaction with the production environment have been carried out. For example, overcoming the incompatibility between rootstock and grafting is derived from the understanding of cytological events that involve the formation of vascular connections and plasmodesmas during grafting (PINA; ERREA, 2005 PINA, A.; ERREA, P. A review of new advances in mechanism of graft compatibility–incompatibility. Scientia Horticulturae, Amsterdam, v.106, n.1, p.1-11, 2005. ). Similarly, Cookson et al. (2013) COOKSON, S.J.; MORENO, M.J.C.; HEVIN, C.; MENDOME, L.Z.N.; DELROT, S.; TROSSAT-MAGNIN, C.; OLLAT, N. Graft union formation in grapevine induces transcriptional changes related to cell wall modification, wounding, hormone signalling, and secondary metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany, Oxford, v.64, n.10, p.2997-2008, 2013. characterized at molecular level the sequence of hormonal signaling events related to the rootstock / grafting relationship, observing that the expression of this signalization is differentiated in time and specific for the rootstock, the grafting and the grafting interface.

These advances have allowed us understanding how the stages of cutting production are closely related throughout the entire process and cannot be considered in isolation. Todik et al. (2005) TODIK, S.; TESIC, D.; BESLIC, Z. The effect of certain exogenous growth regulators on quality of grafted grapevine rootlings. Plant Growth Regulation, Dordrecht, v.45, n.2, p.121–126, 2005. monitored the hormonal balance between auxin and cytokinin throughout grafting and verified positive effects on the use of paclobutrazol and chlormequat still in the vegetative growth stage of mother plants, increasing the number of first-class cuttings after stratification.

Analyzing the relationship between zinc and auxin synthesis throughout grafting, Somkuwar et al. (2013) SOMKUWAR, R.G.; SHARMA, J.; SATISHA, J.; KHAN, I.; ITROUTWAR, P. Effect of zinc application to mothervines of dog ridge rootstock on rooting success and establishment under nursery condition. International Journal of Scientific e Technology research, New Delhi, v.2, n.9, p.198-201, 2013. increased the uniformity and the amount of roots after the addition of the micronutrient in mother plants of rootstocks. Another advance derived from the understanding of interactions is the association or refinement of already consolidated techniques, seeking to maximize the results that would be obtained in isolation. Gökbayrak et al. (2010) GÖKBAYRAK, Z.; DARDENIZ, A.; ARIKAN, A.; KAPLAN, U. Best duration for submersion of grapevine cuttings of rootstock 41B in water to increase root formation. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Helsinki, v.8, n.3-4, p.607-609, 2010. obtained large numbers of roots in rootstocks of 41B after 24 hours of immersion in water followed by exogenous application of AIB for 20 seconds before planting. Corbean et al. (2009) CORBEAN, D.G.; POP, N.; BABES, A.; COMSA, A. Research on new methods of forcing management for production of grafted vines at S.C. Richter Tehnologii Viticole S.R.L. Jidvei. Bulletin UASMV Horticulture, Cluj-Napoca, v.66, n.1, p.659, 2009. compared different hormones added to grafting paraffin and obtained 91% of grafts on 12 days of stratification using 8-quinolinol and Dobrei et al. (2013) DOBREI A.; GEORGETA, G. A.; MIHAELA, M.; ANCA, D.; GIURICI, B. The influence of forcing on callus formation and roots of some grapevine varieties. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology, Timisora, v.17, n.1, p.51- 55, 2013. reduced cuttings mortality from differentiated stratification temperature management (gradual reduction from 28°C to 26°C).

The quantification of the damage caused by the environment (especially climate) and by the process on the propagation material has also influenced the definition of the most specific techniques (HUNTER et al., 2003 HUNTER, J. J.; VOLSCHENK, C. G.; LE ROUX, D. J.; FOUCHE, G. W.; ADAMS L. Plant material quality: a compilation of research. Stellenbosh: ARC-Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, 2003. 50p. ). Works relating damage to the plant material from its origin with loss of physiological vigor throughout the process are increasingly frequent. Currently, loss of physiological vigor has been related to the increase of the phenomenon of “abnormal grafting” (HUNTER et al., 2013 HUNTER, J.J.; VOLSCHENK, C.G.; FOUCHE, G.W. Graft union abnormality: Some impacting factors. Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola, Dois Portos, p.938-943, 2013. ). This phenomenon has its initial symptoms still in the nursery, with the typical graft thickening (GARDIMAN et al., 2007 GARDIMAN, M.; LOVAT, L.; ANACLERIO, F.; MASIA, A.; MORETTI, G. Ingrossamento anomalo del punto d’innesto in barbatelle innestate: aspetti varietali e fisiologici. Italus Hortus, Firenze, v.14, p.35-39, 2007. ). However, plant death usually occurs only after planting. Thus, a number of studies on the physiological quality indicators have been conducted in recent years (HUNTER et al., 2003 HUNTER, J. J.; VOLSCHENK, C. G.; LE ROUX, D. J.; FOUCHE, G. W.; ADAMS L. Plant material quality: a compilation of research. Stellenbosh: ARC-Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, 2003. 50p. ) such as: accumulation of carbohydrates, phenolic substances, nitrogenous components and anti-oxidant enzymes. These indicators are used to monitor the transport of nutrients and water (BAVARESCO; LOVISOLO, 2000 BAVARESCO, L.; LOVISOLO, C. Effect of grafting on grapevine chlorosis and hydraulic conductivity. Vitis, Siebeldingen, v.39, n.3, p.89-92, 2000. ) or pathogens (GAMBETTA et al., 2009 GAMBETTA, G.A.; ROST, T.L.; MATTHEWS, M.A. Passive pathogen movement via open xylem conduits in grapevine graft unions. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.60, n.2, p.241-245, 2009. ) in xylem and phloem throughout the process of cutting production. After multicriteria analysis, Hunter et al. (2013) HUNTER, J.J.; VOLSCHENK, C.G.; FOUCHE, G.W. Graft union abnormality: Some impacting factors. Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola, Dois Portos, p.938-943, 2013. tested different rootstocks, stratification methods, soil types and irrigation methods and verified that there are macro-and micro-factors determining the damage to the mother plant and to the propagation material throughout grafting. According to these authors, the major consequence of stress was the poor formation of intervascular connections of the graft, resulting in the activation of the incompatibility or abnormality mechanism.

The effect of damage on cutting formation has been considered in the field and process scale.

Popescu et al. (2014) POPESCU, D.N.; ILIESCU, M.; COMSA, M.; CORBEAN, D.G. Quality evaluation of Selection Oppenheim 4 rootstock clones used to produce grapevine planting material, depending on the applied agrotechnics. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, Cluj-Napoca, v.71, n.2, p.357-358, 2014. characterized mother plants in France and Romania and concluded that the climatic and soil conditions of each site were determinant in the accumulation of sugars and carbohydrates for the same clones. At the process level, Iliescu et al. (2012) ILIESCU, M.; POPESCU, D.; COMSA, M. Studies on quality of rootstocks in the viticultural centre Blaj. Bulletin UASMV Horticulture, Cluj-Napoca, v.69, n.1, p.395-396, 2012. observed that when the carbohydrate content of the plant material was below 12%, it became unviable for cutting production. These authors verified that the prolonged use of hydration in pre-planting for more than 24 hours resulted in the reduction of carbohydrates and, therefore, a higher percentage of dead cuttings. A similar situation was observed by Gramaje and Di Marco (2015) GRAMAJE, D.; DI MARCO, S. Identifying practices likely to have impacts on grapevine trunk disease infections: a European nursery survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.313-324, 2015. , who verified extreme oxygen reductions in sealed packages to avoid moisture loss of the propagation material stored in cold chamber. Up to certain levels, reduction of oxygen levels stimulates budding; however, at very low levels, there is production of toxic substances, leading to loss of physiological quality of the material.

From the physiological understand of cutting process, it has been verified that common practices are disregarded by nurserymen, but present a high impact on the physiological quality of plant material.

For example, in a survey conducted by Gramaje and Di Marco (2015) GRAMAJE, D.; DI MARCO, S. Identifying practices likely to have impacts on grapevine trunk disease infections: a European nursery survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.313-324, 2015. , 51% of nurseries took up to 4 hours between collection and arrival at the nursery. The permanence of the propagating material in transit for excessive time resulted in greater dehydration and risks of contamination by pathogens.

Advances observed in certification schemes The need to reduce the physiological damage of the propagating material throughout propagation and the tendency of the combined use of technologies for the prevention of trunk diseases at different stages has evidenced shown the urgent need of evolution of certification schemes. Halleen and Fourie (2016) HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE, P. H. An integrated strategy for the proactive management of grapevine trunk disease pathogen infections in grapevine nurseries. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Stellenbosch, v.37, n.2, p.104-114, 2016. proposed an integrated management strategy focusing on trunk disease management for South African nurseries. Initially, plant material collected from mother blocks is disinfested in a broad-spectrum fungicidal solution such as benomyl or carbendazim before cold storage. Prior to grafting, the material is submitted to HWT (50°C for 30 minutes) and then cooled by immersion in a solution of water with didecyldimethylammonium chloride for 30 minutes. After grafting, the material is immersed for one minute in a Trichoderma solution prior to placement in stratification boxes, which is carried out before planting. In the nursery, cuttings are kept free from foliar diseases, nematodes, soil diseases, etc. in order to reduce stress. Finally, before marketing, cuttings are again submitted to HWT in order to eradicate soil diseases such as black foot, Pythium and Phytophthora that may eventually have infected them. This process was validated by the authors and proved to be highly efficient with significant improvement of the phytosanitary quality of cuttings produced.

With regard to transfer and control of clonal plants that compose mother blocks, new business models are being designed. In countries where there is official certification, there is an appreciation for the preservation of local clones, restricted importation of plant materials and guarantee of intellectual property.

In this way, business models have sought to increase the control of the distribution of basic material to nurseries (ALLEY; GOLINO, 2000 ALLEY, L.; GOLINO, D. The origins of the grape program at Foundation Plant Materials Service. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.51, p.222-230, 2000. ). In countries that do not have an official certification model, there is a search for alternative solutions through voluntary schemes for the constitution of healthy stocks of mother plants. For example, in Brazil, plants obtained after in vitro thermotherapy associated with in vitro cultivation were indexed by molecular method for diseases such as grapevine leafroll complex, corky bark, fanleaf degeneration, fleck disease and stem pitting. These plants are systematically transferred to nurseries after confirming their technical capacity and meeting minimum cutting propagation requirements (GROHS et al., 2015 GROHS, D.S.; FELDBERG, N.P.; FAJARDO, T.V.M. Avanços na transferência de materiais propagativos de videira para viveiristas licenciados pela Embrapa. In: CONGRESSO LATINO-AMERICANO DE VITICULTURA E ENOLOGIA, 15., 2015, Bento Gonçalves. Anais... Bento Gonçalves: Embrapa Uva e Vinho, 2015. p. 378 ).

CONCLUSION

Although the practice of grapevine grafting originated in antiquity, with records from the beginning in the Christian era, but it was in the last 130 years that the modern technique was developed.

In this period, it is possible to subdivide it into three cycles: 1) from 1900 to 1950: emphasis on the compatibility of grafting for different phylloxeraresistant rootstocks; 2) from 1950 to 2000: emphasis on standardization of the production process and programs for phytosanitary certification with a focus on viruses); 3) from the 2000s: emphasis on the diagnosis and management of new diseases, focusing on trunk diseases, in adjusting production protocols for local specificities and in new certification models.

Regarding this new cycle, recent scientific discoveries have been accompanied by innovations in automation such as: specific machinery for grafting, stratification and collection of plant material; equipment for physical phytosanitary treatments; availability of specific chemical and biological inputs for cuttings. However, the increase in the complexity of the current certification programs and production costs are disadvantages, leading to a selection of nurseries. Thus, it is expected that in the medium term, there will be a gain in quality of vineyards with greater phytosanitary status, longevity and production. However, in the short term, there will be a tendency of limitation in the capacity of meeting the demand for nurserymen, restriction in the international trade and consequent increase in the cutting cost.

  • AGUSTÍ-BRISACH, C.; GRAMAJE, D.; LEÓN, M.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of vineyard weeds as potential hosts of black-foot and Petri disease pathogens. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.95, n.7, p.803-810, 2011.
  • AL RWAHNIH, M.; DAUBERT, S.; GOLINO, D.; ISLAS, C.; ROWHANI, A. Comparison of next-generation sequencing versus biological indexing for the optimal detection of viral pathogens in grapevine. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.105, n.6, p.758-763, 2015.
  • AL RWAHNIH, M.; DAUBERT, S.; GOLINO, D.; ROWHANI, A. Deep sequencing analysis of RNAs from a grapevine showing Syrah decline symptoms reveals a multiple virus infection that includes a novel virus. Virology, New York, v.387, n.2, p.395-401, 2009.
  • AL RWAHNIH, M.; OSMAN, F.; SUDARSHANA, M.; UYEMOTO, J.; MINAFRA, A.; SALDARELLI, P.; MARTELLI, G.; ROWHANI, A. Detection of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7 using real time qRT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR. Journal of Virological Methods, Amsterdam, v.179, n.2, p.383-389, 2012.
  • ALANIZ, S.; ABAD-CAMPOS, P.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of fungicides to control Cylindrocarpon liriodendri and Cylindrocarpon macrodidymum in vitro, and their effect during the rooting phase in the grapevine propagation process. Crop Protection, Surrey, v.30, n.4, p.489–494, 2011.
  • ALANIZ, S.; ARMENGOL, J.; LEÓN, M.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ABAD-CAMPOS, P. Analysis of genetic and virulence diversity of Cylindrocarpon liriodendri and C. macrodidymum associated with black foot disease of grapevine. Mycological Research, Cambridge, v.113, n.1, p.16–23, 2009.
  • ALLEY, C.J. Mechanized grape grafting: portable machine developed for bench or field grafting of grapes saves time and eliminates the need for skilled labor. California Agriculture, Richmond, v.11, n.6, p.3-12, 1957.
  • ALLEY, C.J.; PETERSON, J.E. Grapevine propagation. IX. Effects of temperature, refrigeration, and indole butyric acid on callusing, bud push, and rooting of dormant cuttings. American Journal Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.28, n.1, p.1-7, 1977.
  • ALLEY, L.; GOLINO, D. The origins of the grape program at Foundation Plant Materials Service. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.51, p.222-230, 2000.
  • ALONI, B.; COHEN, R.; KARNI, L.; AKTAS, H.; EDELSTEIN, M. Hormonal signaling in rootstock-scion interactions. Scientia Horticulturae, Amesterdam, v.127, n.2, p.119-126, 2010.
  • AROCA A.; GRAMAJE, D.; ARMENGOL, J.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; RAPOSO, R. Evaluation of grapevine nursery process as a source of Phaeoacremonium spp. and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and occurrence of trunk disease pathogens in rootstock mother vines in Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.126, n.2, p.165–174, 2010.
  • AROCA, A.; GARCÍA-FIGUERES, F.; BRACAMONTE, L.; LUQUE, J.; RAPOSO, R. A survey of trunk disease pathogens within rootstocks of grapevines in Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.115, p.195-202, 2006.
  • BALOYI, M.A.; ESKALEN, A.; MOSTERT, L.; HALLEEN, F. First report of Togninia minima perithecia on esca- and Petri-diseased grapevines in South Africa. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.97, n.9, p.1247, 2013.
  • BASSO, M.F.; FAJARDO, T.V.M.; PIO-RIBEIRO, G.; EIRAS, M.; ZERBINI, F.M. Avanços e perspectivas no estudo das doenças virais e subvirais em videira com ênfase na realidade brasileira. Revisão Anual de Patologia de Plantas, Passo Fundo, v.22, p.160-207, 2014.
  • BAVARESCO, L.; LOVISOLO, C. Effect of grafting on grapevine chlorosis and hydraulic conductivity. Vitis, Siebeldingen, v.39, n.3, p.89-92, 2000.
  • BECKER, H.; HILLER, M.H. Hygiene in modern bench-grafting. American Journal Enology and Viticuture, Davis, v.28, n.2, p.113-118, 1977.
  • BERTSCH, C.; RAMÍREZ-SUERO, M.; MAGNIN-ROBERT, M.; LARIGNON, P.; CHONG, J.; ABOU-MANSOUR, E.; SPAGNOLO, A.; CLÉMENT, C.; FONTAINE, F. Grapevine trunk diseases: complex and still poorly understood. Plant Pathology, Amsterdam, v.62, n. 2, p.243–265, 2013.
  • BILLONES-BAAIJENS, R.; JASPERS, M.; ALLARD, A.; HONG, Y.; RIDGWAY, H.; JONES, E. Management of Botryosphaeria species infection in grapevine propagation materials. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.355-367, 2015.
  • BILLONES-BAAIJENS, R.; RIDGWAY, H.J.; JONES, E.E.; CRUICKSHANK, R.H.; JASPERS, M.V. Prevalence and distribution of Botryosphaeriaceae species in New Zealand grapevine nurseries. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.135, n.1, p.175–185, 2013.
  • BRASIL. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Decreto nº 5.153, de 23 julho de 2004. Aprova o Regulamento da Lei nº 10.711, de 5 de agosto de 2003, que dispõe sobre o Sistema Nacional de Sementes e Mudas - SNSM, e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial [da] República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, 26 jul. 2004. Seção 1, p.6.
  • BURGER, J.T.; MAREE, H.J. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing of viruses infecting grapevines. Methods in Molecular Biology, Clifton, v.1302, p.315-330, 2015.
  • COOKSON, S.J.; MORENO, M.J.C.; HEVIN, C.; MENDOME, L.Z.N.; DELROT, S.; TROSSAT-MAGNIN, C.; OLLAT, N. Graft union formation in grapevine induces transcriptional changes related to cell wall modification, wounding, hormone signalling, and secondary metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany, Oxford, v.64, n.10, p.2997-2008, 2013.
  • CORBEAN, D.G.; POP, N.; BABES, A.; COMSA, A. Research on new methods of forcing management for production of grafted vines at S.C. Richter Tehnologii Viticole S.R.L. Jidvei. Bulletin UASMV Horticulture, Cluj-Napoca, v.66, n.1, p.659, 2009.
  • ALMEIDA, F.J. Produção e certificação de mudas de plantas frutíferas. Informe Agropecuário, Belo Horizonte, v.23, n.216, p.1-4, 2002.
  • DI MARCO, S.; OSTI , F.; CESARI, A. Experiments on the control of esca by Trichoderma. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.43, p.108–115, 2004.
  • DI MARCO, S.; OSTI, F. Applications of Trichoderma to prevent Phaeomoniella chlamydospora infections in organic nurseries. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.46, n.1, p.73–83, 2007.
  • DIAZ, G.A.; ESTERIO, M.; AUGER, J. Effects of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum on grapevine rootstocks. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria, Santiago, v.36, n.3, p.381-390, 2009.
  • DOBREI A.; GEORGETA, G. A.; MIHAELA, M.; ANCA, D.; GIURICI, B. The influence of forcing on callus formation and roots of some grapevine varieties. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology, Timisora, v.17, n.1, p.51- 55, 2013.
  • DUBIELA, C.R.; FAJARDO, T.V.M.; SOUTO, E.R.; NICKEL, O.; EIRAS, M.; REVERS, L.F. Simultaneous detection of Brazilian isolates of grapevine viroses by TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. Tropical Plant Pathology, Brasília, DF, v.38, n.2, p.158-165, 2013.
  • FILO, A.; SABBATINI, P.; SUNDIN, G.W.; ZABADAL, T.J.; SAFIR, G.R.; COUSINS, P. S. Grapevine crown gall suppression using biological control and genetic engineering: a review of recent research. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.64, n.1, p.1-14, 2013.
  • FIORE, N. Enfermedades de la vid causadas por virus, viroides y fitoplasmas: diagnóstico, epidemiología y control. In: CONGRESSO LATINO-AMERICANO DE VITICULTURA E ENOLOGIA, 15., 2015; CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE VITICULTURA E ENOLOGIA, 13., 2015, Bento Gonçalves, RS. Resumos… Bento Gonçalves: Embrapa Uva e Vinho, 2015. p.118-130.
  • FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Chemical and biological protection of grapevine propagation material from trunk disease pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.116, n.4, p.255-265, 2006.
  • FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Investigation on the occurrence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in canes of rootstock mother vines. Australasian Plant Pathology, Netherlands, v.31, p.425-426, 2002.
  • FOURIE, P.H.; HALLEEN, F. Occurrence of grapevine trunk disease pathogens in rootstock mother plants in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology, Netherlands, v.33, p.313-315, 2004a.
  • GAMBETTA, G.A.; ROST, T.L.; MATTHEWS, M.A. Passive pathogen movement via open xylem conduits in grapevine graft unions. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.60, n.2, p.241-245, 2009.
  • GARDIMAN, M.; LOVAT, L.; ANACLERIO, F.; MASIA, A.; MORETTI, G. Ingrossamento anomalo del punto d’innesto in barbatelle innestate: aspetti varietali e fisiologici. Italus Hortus, Firenze, v.14, p.35-39, 2007.
  • GIAMPETRUZZI, A.; MORELLI, M.; CHIUMENTI, M.; SAVINO, V.N.; MARTELLI, G.P.; LA NOTTE, P.; PALMISANO, F.; SALDARELLI, P. Towards the definition of the absolute sanitary status of certified grapevine clones and rootstocks. IN: MEETING OF INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE STUDY OF VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF THE GRAPEVINE, 18., 2015, Ankara. Proceedings… Ankara: ICVG, 2015. p.146-147.
  • GÖKBAYRAK, Z.; DARDENIZ, A.; ARIKAN, A.; KAPLAN, U. Best duration for submersion of grapevine cuttings of rootstock 41B in water to increase root formation. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Helsinki, v.8, n.3-4, p.607-609, 2010.
  • GRAHAM, A. Hot water treatment of grapevine rootstock cuttings grown in a cool climate. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.46, p.124, 2007.
  • GRAMAJE D.; ARMENGOL, J. Fungal trunk pathogens in the grapevine propagation process: potential inoculum sources, detection, identification, and management strategies. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.95, n. 9, p.1040–1055, 2011.
  • GRAMAJE, D.; AROCA, A.; RAPOSO, R.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Evaluation of fungicides to control Petri disease pathogens in the grapevine propagation process. Crop Protection, Surrey, v.28, n.12, p.1091–1097, 2009.
  • GRAMAJE, D.; DI MARCO, S. Identifying practices likely to have impacts on grapevine trunk disease infections: a European nursery survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.54, n.2, p.313-324, 2015.
  • GRAMAJE, D.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J.; ARMENGOL, J. Field evaluation of grapevine rootstocks inoculated with fungi associated with Petri disease and esca. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.61, n.4, p.512–520, 2010.
  • GROHS, D.S.; FELDBERG, N.P.; FAJARDO, T.V.M. Avanços na transferência de materiais propagativos de videira para viveiristas licenciados pela Embrapa. In: CONGRESSO LATINO-AMERICANO DE VITICULTURA E ENOLOGIA, 15., 2015, Bento Gonçalves. Anais.. Bento Gonçalves: Embrapa Uva e Vinho, 2015. p. 378
  • HALLEEN F.; FOURIE P. H.; CROUS P. W. A review of black-foot disease of grapevine. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.45, p.S55–S67, 2006b.
  • HALLEEN F.; LOMBARD, P. J.; FOURIE P. H. Protection of grapevine pruning wounds against Eutypa lata by biological and chemical methods. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Stellenbosch, v.31, p.125-132, 2010.
  • HALLEEN, F.; CROUS, P.W.; PETRINI, O. Fungi associated with healthy grapevine cuttings in nurseries, with special reference to pathogens involved in the decline of young vines. Australasian Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.32, p.47–52, 2003.
  • HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE P. H.; CROUS P. W. Control of black foot disease in grapevine nurseries. Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.56, p.637-645, 2007b.
  • HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE, P. H. An integrated strategy for the proactive management of grapevine trunk disease pathogen infections in grapevine nurseries. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Stellenbosch, v.37, n.2, p.104-114, 2016.
  • HALLEEN, F.; SCHROERS, H-J.; GROENEWALD, J.Z.; CROUS, P.W. Novel species of Cylindrocarpon (Neonectria) and Campylocarpon gen. nov. associated with black foot disease of grapevines (Vitis spp.). Studies in mycology, Netherlands, v.50, p.431–455, 2004.
  • HALLEEN, F.; SCHROERS, H-J.; GROENEWALD, J.Z.; REGO, C.; OLIVEIRA, H.; CROUS, P.W. Neonectria liriodendri sp. nov. the main causal agent of black foot disease of grapevines. Studies in Mycology, Netherlands, v.55, p.227–234, 2006a.
  • HUNTER, J. J.; VOLSCHENK, C. G.; LE ROUX, D. J.; FOUCHE, G. W.; ADAMS L. Plant material quality: a compilation of research. Stellenbosh: ARC-Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, 2003. 50p.
  • HUNTER, J.J.; VOLSCHENK, C.G.; FOUCHE, G.W. Graft union abnormality: Some impacting factors. Ciência e Técnica Vitivinícola, Dois Portos, p.938-943, 2013.
  • ILIESCU, M.; POPESCU, D.; COMSA, M. Studies on quality of rootstocks in the viticultural centre Blaj. Bulletin UASMV Horticulture, Cluj-Napoca, v.69, n.1, p.395-396, 2012.
  • JONES, E.E.; HAMMOND, S.; BLOND, C.; BROWN, D.S.; RIDGWAY, H.J. Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rootstock cultivar on the susceptibility to infection by Ilyonectria species. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.53, n.3, p.565–592, 2014.
  • KOTZE, C.; VAN NIEKERK, J. M.; MOSTERT, L.; HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE P. H. Evaluation of biocontrol agents for grapevine pruning wound protection against trunk pathogen infection. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.50, p.247-263, 2011.
  • KUHN, G.B. Mal de Pierce: doença bacteriana da videira de importância quarentenária para o Brasil. Clube do Fazendeiro. 2016. Disponível em: http://www.cnpuv.embrapa.br/publica/artigos/mal_pierce.pdf . Acesso em: 28 jun. 2016. (5)
    » http://www.cnpuv.embrapa.br/publica/artigos/mal_pierce.pdf
  • KUN A.; KOCSIS, L. Efficacy of treatments against Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum during nursery propagation. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.53, p.565–592, 2014.
  • LAIMER, M.; LEMAIRE, O.; HERRBACH, E. H.; GOLDSCHIMIDT, V.; MINAFRA, A.; BIANCO, P.; WETZEL, T. Resistance to viruses, phytoplasmas and their vectors in the grapevine in Europe: A review. Journal of Plant Pathology, Bari, v.91, n.1, p.7-23, 2009.
  • LARIGNON, P.; DUBOS, B. Preliminary studies on the biology of Phaeoacremonium. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.39, n.1, p.184-189. 2000.
  • LIMINANA, J.M.; PACREAU, G.; BOUREAU, F.; MENARD, E.; DAVID, S.; HIMONNET, C.; FERMAUD, M.; GOUTOULY, J.P.; LECOMTE. P.; DUMOT, V. Inner necrosis in grapevine rootstock mother plants in the Cognac area (Charentes, France). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.48, n.1, p.92-100, 2009.
  • LOMBARD, L.; VAN DER MERWE, N.A.; GROENEWALD, J.Z.; CROUS, P.W. Lineages in Nectriaceae: re-evaluating the generic status of Ilyonectria and allied genera. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna,v.53, n.3, p.515-532, 2014.
  • LUMMERZHEIM, M.; MORELLO, L.G.; MAS, A. A multiplex PCR assay detecting several Ascomycetes responsible for grapevine trunk diseases. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.48, n.1, p.159-188, 2009.
  • MALIOGKA, V. I.; MARTELLI, G. P.; FUCHS, M.; KATIS, N. I. Control of viruses infecting grapevine. Advances in Virus Research, San Diego, v.91, p.175-227, 2015.
  • MALIOGKA, V.I.; SKIADA, F.G.; ELEFTHERIOU, E.P.; KATIS, N.I. Elimination of a new Ampelovirus (GLRaV-Pr) and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) from two Vitis vinifera cultivars combining in vitro thermotherapy with shoot tip culture. Scientia Horticulturae, Amsterdam, v.123, n.2, p.280-282, 2009.
  • MAREE, H.J.; ALMEIDA, R.P.P.; BESTER, R.; CHOOI, K.M.; COHEN, D.; DOLJA, V.V.; FUCHS., M.F.; GOLINO, D.A.; JOOSTE, A.E.C.; MARTELLI, G.P.; NAIDU, R.A.; ROWHANI, A.; SALDARELLI, P.; BURGER, J.T. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. Frontiers in Microbiology, New York, v.4, n.82, p.1-21, 2013.
  • MARTELLI G.P. Infectious diseases and certification of grapevines. In: MEDITERRANEAN NETWORK ON GRAPEVINE CLOSTEROVIRUSES 1992-1997 AND THE VIROSES AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF THE GRAPEVINE A BIBLIOGRAPHIC REPORT, 1985-1997, Bari. Proceedings… Bari: CIHEAM, 1999. p.47-64.
  • MARTELLI, G.P. Directory of virus and virus-like diseases of the grapevine and their agents. Journal of Plant Pathology, Bari, v. 96, n.1, p.1-136, 2014. Suplemento
  • MARTELLI, G.P.; ADAMS, M.J.; KREUZE, J.F.; DOLJA, V.V. Family Flexiviridae: A case study in virion and genome plasticity. Annual Review of Phytopathology, Palo Alto, v.45, p.73-100, 2007.
  • MARTELLI, G.P.; SALDARELLI, P. Phytosanitary challenges for the Mediterranean viticultural industry: Emerging grapevine viruses. Bari: CIHEAM - International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies, 2015. 4p. (Watch Letter, 33)
  • MOSTERT, L.; HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE, P.; CROUS, P.W. A review of Phaeoacremonium species involved in Petri disease and esca of grapevines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.45, p.S12–S29, 2006.
  • MOUNIER, E.; CORTES, F.; CADIOUS, M.; PAJOT, E. The benefits of Trichoderma atroviride I-1237 for the protection of grapevines against trunk diseases: from the nursery to the vineyard. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.53, p.565–592, 2014.
  • MOYO, P.; ROETS, F.; ALLSOPP, E.; MOSTERT, L.; HALLEEN, F. Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.104, p.1063-1069, 2014.
  • MUTAWILA, C.; FOURIE P. H.; HALLEEN, F.; MOSTERT, L. Histo-pathology study of the growth of Trichoderma harzianum, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Eutypa lata on grapevine pruning wounds. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.50, p.46-60, 2011.
  • MUTAWILA, C.; HALLEEN, F.; MOSTERT, L. Development of benzimidazole resistant Trichoderma strains for the integration of chemical and biocontrol methods of grapevine pruning wound protection. Biocontrol, Netherlands, v.60, p.387-399, 2015.
  • MUTAWILA, C.; HALLEEN, F.; MOSTERT, L. Optimisation of time of application of Trichoderma biocontrol agents for protection of grapevine pruning wounds. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Adelaide, v.22, p.279–287, 2016a.
  • MUTAWILA, C.; VINALE, F.; HALLEEN, F.; LORITO, M.; MOSTERT, L. Isolation, production and in vitro effects of the major secondary metabolite produced by Trichoderma species used for the control of grapevine trunk diseases. Plant Pathology, Amsterdam, v.65, p.104-113, 2016b.
  • NAIDU, R. A.; MAREE, H. J.; BURGER, J. T. Grapevine leafroll disease and associated viruses: a unique pathosystem. Annual Review of Phytopathology, Palo Alto, v.53, p.613-634, 2015.
  • OEPP. Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes. Pathogen-tested material of grapevine varieties and rootstocks. EPPO Bulletin, Oxford, v.38, n.3, p.422–429, 2008.
  • OLIVER, J.E.; FUCHS, M. Tolerance and resistance to viruses and their vectors in Vitis sp.: A virologist’s perspective of the literature. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Davis, v.62, n.4, p.438-451, 2011.
  • OSMAN, F.; HODZIC, E.; OMANSKA-KLUSEK, A.; OLINEKA, T.; ROWHANI, A. Development and validation of a multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid detection of Grapevine virus A, B and D. Journal of Virological Methods, Amsterdam, v.194, n.1-2, p.138-145, 2013.
  • PERTOT, I.; PRODORUTTI, D.; COLOMBINI, A.; PASINI, L. Trichoderma atroviride SC1 prevents Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium aleophilum infection of grapevine plants during the grafting process in nurseries. BioControl, Dordrecht, v.61, n.3, p.257-267, 2016.
  • PETIT, E.; GUBLER, W.D. Influence of Glomus intraradices on black foot disease caused by Cylindrocarpon macrodidymum on Vitis rupestris under controlled conditions. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.90, n.12, p.1481–1484, 2006.
  • PINA, A.; ERREA, P. A review of new advances in mechanism of graft compatibility–incompatibility. Scientia Horticulturae, Amsterdam, v.106, n.1, p.1-11, 2005.
  • POPESCU, D.N.; ILIESCU, M.; COMSA, M.; CORBEAN, D.G. Quality evaluation of Selection Oppenheim 4 rootstock clones used to produce grapevine planting material, depending on the applied agrotechnics. Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, Cluj-Napoca, v.71, n.2, p.357-358, 2014.
  • REGO, C.; FARROPAS, L.; NASCIMENTO, T.; CABRAL, A.; OLIVEIRA, H. Black foot of grapevine: sensitivity of Cylindrocarpon destructans to fungicides. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.45, p.S93–S100, 2006.
  • REGO, C.; NASCIMENTO, T.; CABRAL, A; SILVA, M.J.; OLIVEIRA, H. Control of grapevine wood fungi in commercial nurseries. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.48, p.128–135, 2009.
  • RETIEF, E.; MCLEOD, A.; FOURIE, P.H. Potential inoculum sources of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in South African grapevine nurseries. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.115, n.3, p.331–339, 2006.
  • RILEY, C.V. The Phylloxera and American resistant stocks. Scientific American, New York-NY, v.31, n.788, p.12596-12597, 1891. Suplemento
  • RODRIGUES NETO, J.; DESTÉFANO, S.A.L.; RODRIGUES, L.M.R.; PELLOSO, D.S.; OLIVEIRA JÚNIOR, L. da C. Grapevine bacterial canker in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: detection and eradication. Tropical Plant Pathology, Brasília, DF, v.36, n.1, p.42-44, 2011.
  • ROONEY-LATHAM, S.; ESKALEN, A.; GUBLER, W.D. Occurrence of Togninia minima perithecia in esca-affected vineyards in California. Plant Disease, Saint Paul, v.89, n.8, p.867-871, 2005.
  • ROOSSINCK, M.J.; MARTIN, D.P.; ROUMAGNAC, P. Plant virus metagenomics: Advances in virus discovery. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.105, n.6, p.716-727, 2015.
  • SALDARELLI, P.; GIAMPETRUZZI, A.; MORELLI, M.; MALOSSINI, U.; PIROLO, C.; BIANCHEDI, P.; GUALANDRI, V. Genetic variability of Grapevine pinot gris virus and its association with grapevine leaf mottling and deformation. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.105, n.4, p.555-563, 2015.
  • SERRA, S.; MANNONI, M.A.; LIGIOS, V. Studies on the susceptibility of pruning wounds to infection by fungi involved in grapevine wood diseases in Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.47, p.234–246, 2008.
  • SILVA, A.M.F.; MENEZES, E.F.de; SOUZA, E.B.de; MELO, N.F.de; MARIANO, R. de L.R. Sobrevivência de Xanthomonas campestres pv. Viticola em tecido infectado de videira. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.34, n.3, p.757-765, 2012.
  • SOMKUWAR, R.G.; SHARMA, J.; SATISHA, J.; KHAN, I.; ITROUTWAR, P. Effect of zinc application to mothervines of dog ridge rootstock on rooting success and establishment under nursery condition. International Journal of Scientific e Technology research, New Delhi, v.2, n.9, p.198-201, 2013.
  • SPOERR, R. Nurseries for grapevine grafts. American Scientific, New York, v.53, p.21904-21906, 1902.
  • STAMP, J. A. The contribution of imperfections in nursery stock to the decline of young vines in California. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.40, n.3, p.S369–S375, 2001.
  • SUDARSHANA, M.R.; PERRY, K.L.; FUCHS, M.F. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus, an emerging threat to the grapevine industry. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.105, n.7, p.1026-1032, 2015.
  • TODIK, S.; TESIC, D.; BESLIC, Z. The effect of certain exogenous growth regulators on quality of grafted grapevine rootlings. Plant Growth Regulation, Dordrecht, v.45, n.2, p.121–126, 2005.
  • TSAI, C.W.; ROWHANI, A.; GOLINO, D.A.; DAANE, K.M.; ALMEIDA, R.P. Mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll viruses: an analysis of virus-vector specificity. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.100, n.8, p.830-834, 2010.
  • ÚRBEZ-TORRES, J.R.; PEDUTO, F.; STRIEGLER, R.K.; URREA-ROMERO, K.E.; RUPE, J.C.; CARTWRIGHT, R.D.; GUBLER, W.D. Characterization of fungal pathogens associated with grapevine trunk diseases in Arkansas and Missouri. Fungal Diversity, Hong Kong, v.52, n.1, p.169-189, 2012.
  • VAN NIEKERK, J.M.; HALLEEN, F.; FOURIE, P. H. Temporal susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to trunk pathogen infection in South African grapevines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.50, p.139-150, 2011.
  • VICENT, A.; GARCÍA-FIGUERES, F.; GARCÍA-JIMÉNEZ, J. ARMENGOL, J.; TORNÉ, L. Fungi associated with esca and grapevine declines in Spain: a three-year survey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.40, n.3, p.325-329, 2001.
  • WAITE, H.; GRAMAJE, D.; WHITELAW-WECKERT, M.; TORLEY, P.; HARDIE, W.J. Soaking grapevine cuttings in water: a potential source of cross contamination by micro-organisms. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.52, n.2, p.359–368, 2013.
  • WAITE, H.; MORTON, L. Hot water treatment, trunk diseases and other critical factors in the production of high-quality grapevine planting material. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v. 46, p. 5–17, 2007.
  • WAITE, H.; WHITELAW-WECKERT, M.; TORLEY, P. Grapevine propagation: principles and methods for the production of high-quality grapevine planting material. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, Wellington, v.43, n.2, p.144-161, 2015.
  • WEIR, B.S.; GRAHAM, A.B. Simultaneous identification of multiple fungal pathogens and endophytes with database t-RFLP. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna, v.48, n.1, p. 159-188, 2009.
  • WHITELAW-WECKERT, M.A.; RAHMAN, L.; APPLEBY, L.M.; HALL, A.; CLARK, A.C.; WAITE, H.; HARDIE, W.J. Co-infection by Botryosphaeriaceae and Ilyonectria spp. fungi during propagation causes decline of young grafted grapevines. Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.62, n.6, p.1226–1237, 2013.
  • WU, Q.; DING, S.-W.; ZHANG, Y.; ZHU, S. Identification of viruses and viroids by Next-generation sequencing and homology-dependent and homology-independent algorithms. Annual Review of Phytopathology, Palo Alto, v.53, p.425-444, 2015.
  • ZANZOTTO, A; AUTIERO, F.; BELLOTTO, D.; DAL CORTIVO, G.; LUCCHETTA, G.; BORGO, M. Occurrence of Phaeoacremonium spp. and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in grape propagation materials and young grapevines. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.119, n.2, p.183-192, 2007.
  • ZHANG, Y.; SINGH, K.; KAUR, R.; QIU, W. Association of a novel DNA virus with the grapevine vein-clearing and vine decline syndrome. Phytopathology, Saint Paul, v.101, n.9, p.1081-1090, 2011.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2017

History

  • Received
    21 Sept 2016
  • Accepted
    27 Apr 2017
Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n , 14884-900 Jaboticabal SP Brazil, Tel.: +55 16 3209-7188/3209-7609 - Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil
E-mail: rbf@fcav.unesp.br