Cambuci: a native fruit from the Brazilian Atlantic forest showed nutraceutical characteristics

Cambuci: fruto nativo da Mata Atlântica brasileira contém características nutracêuticas

Tatiane de Oliveira Tokairin Aline Priscilla Gomes da Silva Poliana Cristina Spricigo Severino Matias de Alencar Angelo Pedro Jacomino About the authors

Abstract

The Atlantic Forest is recognized as a biome rich in biodiversity. Cambuci trees (Campomanesia phaea) produce fruits that may be consumed as both fresh and processed forms but are still underutilized. The aim of this study was to describe the physicochemical characteristics and bioactive compounds in cambuci fruits from Brazilian Atlantic Forest, located at Natividade da Serra-SP, Brazil. Cambuci fruits of the fifty-nine accessions were characterized according to fresh weight, pulp yield, peel percentage, longitudinal and transversal diameters (LD and TD, respectively), pH, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), SSC/TA ratio, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds content, and antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay. The soluble solids contents varied from 5.10 °Brix to 11.00 °Brix. The titratable acidity varied from 1.29 to 2.90 g citric acid 100 g-1. Ascorbic acid content was of 31.12 to 139.38 mg 100 g-1. Total phenolic compounds varied from 330.5 mg GAE 100 g-1 to 3,526.04 mg GAE 100 g-1. The antioxidant activity was of 65.03 µmol Trolox g-1 fruit pulp (fresh weight) to 199.78 µmol Trolox g-1 fruit pulp (fresh weight), a factor of 6.7 difference between the extremes. These results showed cambuci fruits presented as rich source of ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, and with high antioxidant capacity.

Index terms
Campomanesia phaea; postharvest quality

Index terms
antioxidant capacity

Resumo

A Mata Atlântica é reconhecida como um bioma rico em biodiversidade. Plantas de cambuci (Campomanesia phaea) produzem frutas que podem ser consumidas nas formas frescas e processadas, mas ainda são subutilizadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as características físico-químicas e os compostos bioativos em frutos de cambuci oriundos da Mata Atlântica brasileira, localizado na cidade de Natividade da Serra-SP, Brasil. Frutos de cambuci de cinquenta e nove acessos foram caracterizados de acordo com o peso fresco, o rendimento da polpa, a porcentagem de casca, os diâmetros longitudinal e transversal (DL e DT, respectivamente), o pH, o teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS), a acidez titulável (AT), a relação TSS/AT, o ácido ascórbico,os teores de compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante, pelo método de DPPH. Os teores de sólidos solúveis variaram de 5,10 °Brix a 11,00 °Brix. A acidez titulável variou de 1,29 a 2,90 g de ácido citrico 100 g-1. O teor de ácido ascórbico foi de 31,12 a 139,38 mg 100 g-1. Os compostos fenólicos totais variaram de 330,5 mg GAE 100 g-1 a 3.526,04 mg GAE 100 g-1. A atividade antioxidante foi de 65,03 µmol Trolox g-1 de polpa de fruta (peso fresco) para 199,78 µmol Trolox g-1 de polpa de fruta (peso fresco), fator de 6.7 de diferença entre os extremos. Estes resultados demonstram que os frutos de cambuci se apresentam como uma fonte rica de ácido ascórbico, de compostos fenólicos totais e com alta capacidade antioxidante.

Termos para indexação
phenolic compounds

Termos para indexação
Campomanesia phaea; qualidade pós-colheita; compostos fenólicos; capacidade antioxidante

Introduction

Various species of the Myrtaceae are native of the Brazilian biomes, being that the Atlantic Forest is a biome with many occurrences of species from this botanical family whose fruit is commercially important due the quality of fruits. Some species, such as jabuticaba, guava, and pitanga, are more known, while others such as cambuci require further study, due to their great economic potential.

Cambuci is typical fruit tree from the Atlantic Forest of São Paulo State, Brazil, and it is found near the Coastal Forest (called Serra do Mar, São Paulo). It also occurs in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro States (LORENZI et al., 2006 LORENZI, H.; SARTORI, S.F.; BACHER, L.B.; LACERDA, M.T.C. Frutas brasileiras e exóticas cultivadas. Nova Odessa: Instituto Plantarum, 2006. 640p. ). The fruit has a fleshy and succulent pulp, low seed amount, and an intense and sweet aroma. They are used as flavoring agents and in the preparation of juice, jam and sweets (SANCHES AZEVEDO et al., 2017 SANCHES AZEVEDO, M.C.; SILVA, R.R.E.; JACOMINO, A.P.; GENOVESE, M.I. Physicochemical variability of cambuci fruit (Campomanesia phaea) from the same orchard, from different locations and at different ripening stages. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, London, v.97, n.2, p.526-535, 2017. ; VALLILO et al., 2005 VALLILO, M.I.; GARBELOTTI, M.L.; OLIVEIRA, E.D.; LAMARDO, L.C.A. Características físicas e químicas dos frutos do cambucizeiro (Campomanesia phaea). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.27, n.2, p.241-244, 2005. ).

The nutritional characteristics, bioactive compounds, and exotic flavor of cambuci fruits can facilitate their penetration in various market segments. While studies of cambucis are still incipient, these fruits have been reported as important sources of bioactive compounds such as tannins, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, which can control metabolic disorders and obesity (DONADO-PESTANA et al., 2015 DONADO-PESTANA, C.M.; BELCHIOR T.; FESTUCCIA W.T.; GENOVESE M.I. Phenolic compounds from cambuci (Campomanesia phaea O.Berg) fruit attenuate glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation induced by a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Food Research International, Oxford, v.69, p.170-178, 2015. ). The cambuci have remarkable nutritional and therapeutic values, it could be included in the regular consumption of fruits. Therefore, its attract characteristics are growing interest worldwide due to increased human concern in healthy food (SILVA et al., 2014 SILVA, L.M.R.; FIGUEIREDO, E.A.T.; RICARDO, N.M.P.S.; VIEIRA, I.G.P.; FIGUEIREDO, R.W.; BRASIL, I.M.; GOMES, C.L. Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chemistry, Barking, v.143, p.398-404, 2014. ).

Despite their huge commercial potential, cambuci fruit are only distributed in the local and regional markets of the growing regions in the Serra do Mar Coastal Forest in São Paulo State. They are sold as processed homemade products such as frozen pulp, jam, ice cream, and sweets (INSTITUTO AUA, 2017 INSTITUTO AUÁ. Empreendimentos socioambiental. Rota do Cambuci. Osasco, 2017. Disponível em: http://www.aua.org.br/. Acesso em: 15 jul. 2017.
http://www.aua.org.br/...
). Most of the cambuci plantations are restricted to home orchards, small properties where the orchards were established from plants multiplied by seed. Plantations are irregular, tree productivity is low, and fruit quality is not standardized, varying widely because of pre- and post-harvest factors such as genetic traits, climate, and cultivation practices. This study aimed to describe the physicochemical characteristics and bioactive compounds from cambuci accessions of the Atlantic Forest - São Paulo State.

Fruit from fifty-nine eight-year-old cambuci accessions were collected from a commercial plantation of non-cloned plants in Natividade da Serra-SP, Brazil (23°31′ S e 45°27′ W). The fruits were manually collected when they naturally abscised. The fruit was then carefully transported to the Postharvest Laboratory of Horticultural Products (LPV-ESALQ – USP) in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil.

Ten undamaged and uniformly mature fruit were selected per plant and stored in a cold chamber at 15°C and 85% RH.

Fruit was evaluated based on the following physicochemical properties and bioactive compound measurements: a) Fresh weight of the whole fruit - determined using an analytical balance, results were expressed in grams (g); b) Pulp yield and peel percentage - obtained using the ratios between the weight of the whole fruit weight and those of its parts. The peel was manually removed using a spatula and the seeds were left in the pulp; c) Longitudinal and transverse diameters (LD and RD, respectively) - measured using a digital caliper, results were expressed in millimeters (mm); d) pH - measured in liquefied samples using a potentiometer (AOAC, 2012 AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 19th ed. Gaithersburg, 2012. 1015p. ); e) Soluble solids content (SSC) - measured in the pulp using a digital refractometer (Atago Palette PR-101), results were expressed in °Brix (AOAC, 2012 AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 19th ed. Gaithersburg, 2012. 1015p. ); f) Titratable acidity (TA) - measured in the pulp, by using the method described in AOAC (2012) AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 19th ed. Gaithersburg, 2012. 1015p. , results were expressed in g of citric acid per 100 g-1; g) Ratio - SSC/AT; h) Ascorbic acid (AA)- measured by titration with sodium 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol in a juice aliquot diluted in oxalic acid at 0.5% (STROCHECKER; HENNING, 1967 STROHECKER, R.; HENNING, H.M. Analisis de vitaminas: métodos comprobados. Madrid: Paz Montalvo, 1967. 428p. ), results were expressed in mg 100 g-1; i) Total phenolic compounds - according to the method recommended by Woisky and Salatino (1998) WOISKY, R.G.; SALATINO, A. Analysis of propolis: some parameters and procedure for chemical quality control. Journal of Apicultural Research, Cardiff, v.37, p.99-105, 1998. , results were expressed in mg 100 g-1 of gallic acid (GAE); j) Antioxidant capacity by DPPH free radical scavenging- measured using the method described in Al-Duais et al. (2009) AL-DUAIS, M.; MÜLLER, L.; BÖHM, V.; JETSCHKE, G. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolics of Cyphostemma digitatum before and after processing: use of different assays. European of Food Research and Technology, Heidelberg, v.228, n.5, p.813-821, 2009. , results were expressed in μmol g-1 of Trolox (fresh weight).

The design was completely randomized with four replications of 10 fruits for each species and year of assessment.

Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics including central tendency (mean), standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. Correlations between the analyzed variables were studied to determine degrees of association. Coefficients > 0.70 were selected (STATSOFT, 2010 STATSOFT. Statistica (data analysis software system). Version 7.0. 2015. Disponível em: http://www.statsoft.com. Acesso em: 12 mar. 2015.
http://www.statsoft.com...
; SOUNIS, 1975 SOUNIS, E. Bioestatística: princípios fundamentais, metodologia estatística, aplicação às ciências biológicas. 2.ed. São Paulo: McGraw-Hill, 1975. 230p. ).

The cambuci (Campomanesia phaea) fruit sampled from fifty-nine accessions varied in color from green to the grayish-yellowish green (L = 44.14 ± 2.78; °Hue = 107.90 ± 6.26; C = 13.00 ± 4.00), which is characteristic of the species (VALLILO et al., 2005 VALLILO, M.I.; GARBELOTTI, M.L.; OLIVEIRA, E.D.; LAMARDO, L.C.A. Características físicas e químicas dos frutos do cambucizeiro (Campomanesia phaea). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.27, n.2, p.241-244, 2005. ). Color is the first attribute perceived by consumers and is a subjective purchasing decision parameter. It is associated with product freshness and is an important determinant for acceptance of the fruit in the marketplace (WU; SUN, 2013 WU, D.; SUN, D.W. Colour measurements by computer vision for food quality control–A review. Trends in Food Science &Technology, Cambridge, v.29, n.1, p.5-20, 2013. ). Physical characteristics such as color, size, and pulp quantity directly influence fruit consumption in native fruits, due intense color, freshness and characteristic taste (LIMA et al., 2016 LIMA, J.S.S.; CASTRO, J.M.C.; SABINO, L.B.S.; LIMA, A.C.S.; TORRES, L.B.V. Physicochemical properties of Gabiroba (campomanesia lineatifolia) and Myrtle (blepharocalyx salicifolius) native to the mountainous region of Ibiapaba-CE, Brazil. Revista Caatinga, Mossoró, v.29, n.3, p.753-757, 2016. ).

The cambuci fruit sampled had an average fresh weight of 42.03 g (Table 1). Fruit from trees in Natividade da Serra-SP (Brazil) showed a lower average fresh weight than those reported by Vallilo et al. (2005) VALLILO, M.I.; GARBELOTTI, M.L.; OLIVEIRA, E.D.; LAMARDO, L.C.A. Características físicas e químicas dos frutos do cambucizeiro (Campomanesia phaea). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.27, n.2, p.241-244, 2005. in fruits from trees in Caraguatatuba-SP, Brazil (55.81 g).

Despite the geographic proximity of these two regions, different weather conditions during the sampling years might explain the discrepancy in the average weight of the fruit from their cambuci accessions. Furthermore, since cambuci populations consist mainly of trees propagated from seed, genetic diversity might have contributed to the fruit weight differences between these two locals.

Growers from the Serra do Mar Coastal Forest region recommended that fruit weighing > 68 g be classified as large, while medium fruit weighs between 39 g and 68 g, and small fruit are those weighing < 39 g. This study found that 37% of the plants produced small fruits and the remaining 63% produced medium fruit. Large fruits were not found. The data indicates that this variable did not necessarily correlate with pulp yield in small fruits, and had pulp yields similar to those of larger fruit. Some fruit had the highest pulp yield (93.34%) and, consequently, the lowest peel percentage (6.66%), while other fruits by smaller percentages in the same variables (80% and 20%, respectively). Vallilo et al. (2005) VALLILO, M.I.; GARBELOTTI, M.L.; OLIVEIRA, E.D.; LAMARDO, L.C.A. Características físicas e químicas dos frutos do cambucizeiro (Campomanesia phaea). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.27, n.2, p.241-244, 2005. obtained pulp yield values (92.53%) similar to those found in this study, but found higher peel percentages, varying from 13.90% to 22.85%. Failure to remove seeds from the pulp might account for this difference. Even though cambuci trees have not been genetically improved by breeding, they still have high pulp yields. Therefore, they show promise in terms of agro-industrial exploitation. The coefficients of variation for the above-mentioned attributes indicate wide ranges in fresh weight and peel percentage (20.13% and 28.40%, respectively).

The longitudinal diameter (LD), the transverse diameter (TD), and the LD/TD ratio data showed fruits were slightly flattened (LD/TD < 1). The longitudinal diameter ranged from 30.85 to 44.37 mm and transverse diameter from 43.80 to 62.54 mm.

The pH value of the cambuci fruit pulp was the most stable quality attribute analyzed (ranged from 2.39 to 2.83 and coefficient of variation: 3.39%) (Table 2).

Soluble solids content (SSC) varied from 5.10 to 11.00 °Brix, with a mean of 8.60 °Brix. There was variation in the soluble solid content among the accessions about 6 °Brix, it is significant because this parameter is associated with fruit sweetness. Similar results were reported by Sanches (2017) SANCHES AZEVEDO, M.C.; SILVA, R.R.E.; JACOMINO, A.P.; GENOVESE, M.I. Physicochemical variability of cambuci fruit (Campomanesia phaea) from the same orchard, from different locations and at different ripening stages. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, London, v.97, n.2, p.526-535, 2017. in fruits of the same species harvested at Paraibuna-SP (10,36ºBrix). Bianchini (2016) BIANCHINI, F.G.; BALBI, R.V.; PIO, R.; SILVA, D.F.; PASQUAL, M.; VILAS BOAS, E.V.B. Caracterização morfológica e química dos frutos de cambucizeiro. Bragantia, Campinas, v.75, p.10-18, 2016. recorded soluble solids contents between 7.30 and 13.30 °Brix in a study with 58 accessions of cambuci trees in São Bento do Sapucaí - SP. Titratable acidity (TA), which contributes to pleasant fruit flavor, varied from 1.29% to 2.90% citric acid, with a mean of 1.93%. These results imply that the acidity in cambuci fruit varies between as do sour passion fruit (2.78% citric acid) and ‘Pera’ oranges (0.95% citric acid) (LADANIYA, 2008 LADANIYA, M.S. Citrus fruit: biology, technology and evaluation. San Diego: Elsevier, 2008. 576p. ; MEDEIROS et al., 2009 MEDEIROS, S.A.F.; YAMANISHI, O.K.; PEIXOTO, J.R.; PIRES, M.C.; JUNQUEIRA, N.T.V.; RIBEIRO J.G.B.L. Caracterização físico-química de progênies de maracujá-roxo e maracujá-azedo cultivados no Distrito Federal. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.31, n.2, p.492-499, 2009. ).

The SSC/TA ratio is the best way to evaluate the taste of a fruit and is usually used to evaluate its degree of maturation, being more accurately than either SSC or TA alone (COMIOTTO et al., 2012 COMIOTTO, A.; FACHINELLO, J.C.; HOFFMANN, A.; PORTELLA MACHADO, N.; GALARÇA, S.P.; BETEMPS, D.L. Vigor, floração, produção e qualidade de pêssegos 'Chimarrita' e 'Maciel' em função de diferentes porta-enxertos. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.42, n.5, p.788-794, 2012. ). The mean was 4.62 and the maximum and minimum values were 8.46 and 2.37, respectively (Table 2). The SSC/TA in some accessions was 1.8 times above the average and approached the range reported for passion fruit (3.09–4.37) (BRASIL et al., 2016 BRASIL, A.S.; SIGARINI, K.D.S.; PARDINHO, F.C.; FARIA, R.A.P.G.; SIQUEIRA, N.F.; PICANÇO, M. Avaliação da qualidade físico-química de polpas de fruta congeladas comercializadas na cidade de Cuiabá-MT. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.38, n.1, p.167-175, 2016. ). These fruits can be ideal for the fresh market where sweeter, less acidic fruits are preferred.

For ascorbic acid content were obtained mean of 72.16 mg 100 g-1, maximum and minimum values of 31.12 mg 100 g-1 and 139.38 mg 100 g-1, respectively.

Therefore, this parameter is highly variable in this species (Table 2). This data is larger than obtained by Vallilo et al. (2005) VALLILO, M.I.; GARBELOTTI, M.L.; OLIVEIRA, E.D.; LAMARDO, L.C.A. Características físicas e químicas dos frutos do cambucizeiro (Campomanesia phaea). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.27, n.2, p.241-244, 2005. and by Silva et al. (2012) SILVA, I.G.; CORREIA, A.D.F.K.; BIGARAN, J.T.; BAPTISTA, C.P.; DO CARMO, L.F.; SPOTO, M.H.F. Estudo de caracterização do fruto cambuci [Campomanesia phaea (O.Berg.) Landrum] e sua aplicação no processamento de geléia. Boletim do Centro de Pesquisa de Processamento de Alimentos, Curitiba, v.30, n.1, p.83-90, 2012. . They obtained values for cambuci fruit between 12.41 and 18.72 mg 100 g-1.

The high level of ascorbic acid surpasses those found in other Myrtaceae species such as red guava found in other Myrtaceae species such as red guava (80.6 mg 100 g-1) (TACO, 2011 TACO. Tabela brasileira de composição de alimentos. 4.ed. Campinas: NEPA-UNICAMP, 2011.161p. Disponível em: http://www.unicamp.br/nepa/taco/contar/taco_4_edicao_ampliada_e_revisada.pdf?arquivo=taco_4_versao_ampliada_e_revisada.pdf. Acesso em: 10 out. 2016.
http://www.unicamp.br/nepa/taco/contar/t...
). The Brazilian government recommends that adults consume 60 mg vitamin C per day. It is estimated that cambuci fruit weighing an average of 42.03 g provide 50.55% of daily ascorbic acid needs, so cambuci fruit could be an alternative of this bioactive compound for the population.

Total phenolic compounds levels in the cambuci fruit varied from 330.50 mg GAE 100 g-1 to 3,526.04 mg GAE 100 g-1 (Table 2). According to the classification proposed by Vasco et al. (2008) VASCO, C.; RUALES, J.; KAMAL-ELDIN, A. Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of major fruits from Ecuador. Food Chemistry, Barking, v.111, n.4, p.816-823, 2008. , cambuci fruits have a high concentration of phenolic compounds (> 500 mg GAE 100 g-1). We found 1,042.17 mg GAE 100 g-1, which is comparable to that of acerola (1,063.0 ±53.1 mg GAE 100 g-1 (RUFINO et al., 2010 RUFINO, M.S.M.; ALVES, R.E.; BRITO, E.S.; PÉREZ-JIMÉNEZ, J.; SAURA-CALIXTO F.; MANCINI-FILHO J. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of 18 non-traditional tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chemistry, Barking, v.121, n.4, p.996-1002, 2010. ). The content of total phenolic in the A56 was three times higher than reported for camu-camu fruits (1,176.0 ±14.8 mg GAE 100 g-1) (VASCO et al., 2008 VASCO, C.; RUALES, J.; KAMAL-ELDIN, A. Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of major fruits from Ecuador. Food Chemistry, Barking, v.111, n.4, p.816-823, 2008. ). These findings add cambuci fruit as an important source of phenolic compounds as camucamu and berries (DONADO-PESTANA et al., 2015 DONADO-PESTANA, C.M.; BELCHIOR T.; FESTUCCIA W.T.; GENOVESE M.I. Phenolic compounds from cambuci (Campomanesia phaea O.Berg) fruit attenuate glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation induced by a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Food Research International, Oxford, v.69, p.170-178, 2015. ).

The interest in phenolic compounds has increased among plant scientists and food industry, triggered by their beneficial health effects, as antioxidant and inflammatory properties (AMBRIZ-PÉREZ et al., 2016 AMBRIZ-PÉREZ, D.L.; LEYVA-LÓPEZ, N., GUTIERREZ-GRIJALVA, E.P., HEREDIA, J.B. Phenolic compounds: Natural alternative in inflammation treatment. A Review. Cogent Food &Agriculture, Seville, v.2, n.1, p.1131412, 2016. ).

The antioxidant activity of cambuci fruit was measured based on their ability to scavenge DPPH free radical. A mean of 65.03 μmol Trolox g-1 in the fresh weight was obtained. Antioxidant activity varied from 29.83 to 199.78 μmol Trolox g-1 between evaluated fruits. Genovese et al. (2008) GENOVESE, M.I.; PINTO, M.S.; GONÇALVES, A.E.S.S.; LAJOLO, F.M. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of exotic fruits and commercial frozen pulps from Brazil. Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Valência, v.14, n.3, p.207-214, 2008. reported an average antioxidant activity of 7.6 μmol Trolox g-1 (FW) obtained from cambuci fruits. Some accessions were greater in antioxidant activity than blueberries which has a value of 191.8 μmol Trolox g-1 in the fresh weight (LUTZ et al., 2015 LUTZ, M.; HERNÁNDEZ, J.; HENRÍQUEZ, C. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in fresh and dry fruits and vegetables grown in Chile. CyTA-Journal of Food, Abingdon, v.13, n.4, p.541-547, 2015. ).

There was a significant negative correlation between peel percentage and pulp yield. This finding is expected since these factors are interrelated (Table 3). A moderate positive correlation was observed between the parameters that characterize fruit size, which indicates that fruit diameter is directly proportional to fruit height.

A moderate negative correlation between TA and the SSC/TA ratio was observed, which means that acidity is an important and predominant component of cambuci fruit flavor.

The physicochemical parameters of fruits greatly varied between accessions. Cambuci crops are not yet technified, so high variability was expected. We highlight the content of soluble solids, which ranged from 5.10 ºBrix to 11.00 ºBrix, and show the versatility and potential of using these fruits in natura and in processed products.

The results also strong indicated cambuci as a rich source of ascorbic acid, phenolic bioactive compounds, and with high antioxidant capacity.

We thank the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) – grant #2014/12606-3 (research funding), the Coordination of Personal Improvement in Superior Education (CAPES) for awarding the scholarship. We also thank the rural grower from Natividade da Serra-SP, Brazil, Paulo Nakanishi and his family for providing the cambuci fruit. We gratefully acknowledge the cooperation of the Forest Engineer Ivan Suarez da Mota from the Forest Institute during the early stages of this project.

Thanks to the Agronomist Engineer Horst Bremer Neto, Ph.D. from the Crop Science Department of the “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture - ESALQ/USP for the suggestions about the experimental design.

Table 1
Physical characteristics of cambuci fruits from 59 accessions of a commercial plantation located in Natividade da Serra-SP, Brazil.
Table 2
Chemical characteristics of cambuci fruits from 59 accessions of a commercial plantation located in Natividade da Serra-SP, Brazil.
Table 3
Correlation matrix between physical and chemical characteristics of 59 cambuci accessions of a commercial plantation located in Natividade da Serra-SP, Brazil.

  • AL-DUAIS, M.; MÜLLER, L.; BÖHM, V.; JETSCHKE, G. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolics of Cyphostemma digitatum before and after processing: use of different assays. European of Food Research and Technology, Heidelberg, v.228, n.5, p.813-821, 2009.
  • AMBRIZ-PÉREZ, D.L.; LEYVA-LÓPEZ, N., GUTIERREZ-GRIJALVA, E.P., HEREDIA, J.B. Phenolic compounds: Natural alternative in inflammation treatment. A Review. Cogent Food &Agriculture, Seville, v.2, n.1, p.1131412, 2016.
  • AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 19th ed. Gaithersburg, 2012. 1015p.
  • BIANCHINI, F.G.; BALBI, R.V.; PIO, R.; SILVA, D.F.; PASQUAL, M.; VILAS BOAS, E.V.B. Caracterização morfológica e química dos frutos de cambucizeiro. Bragantia, Campinas, v.75, p.10-18, 2016.
  • BRASIL, A.S.; SIGARINI, K.D.S.; PARDINHO, F.C.; FARIA, R.A.P.G.; SIQUEIRA, N.F.; PICANÇO, M. Avaliação da qualidade físico-química de polpas de fruta congeladas comercializadas na cidade de Cuiabá-MT. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.38, n.1, p.167-175, 2016.
  • COMIOTTO, A.; FACHINELLO, J.C.; HOFFMANN, A.; PORTELLA MACHADO, N.; GALARÇA, S.P.; BETEMPS, D.L. Vigor, floração, produção e qualidade de pêssegos 'Chimarrita' e 'Maciel' em função de diferentes porta-enxertos. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.42, n.5, p.788-794, 2012.
  • DONADO-PESTANA, C.M.; BELCHIOR T.; FESTUCCIA W.T.; GENOVESE M.I. Phenolic compounds from cambuci (Campomanesia phaea O.Berg) fruit attenuate glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation induced by a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Food Research International, Oxford, v.69, p.170-178, 2015.
  • GENOVESE, M.I.; PINTO, M.S.; GONÇALVES, A.E.S.S.; LAJOLO, F.M. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of exotic fruits and commercial frozen pulps from Brazil. Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Valência, v.14, n.3, p.207-214, 2008.
  • INSTITUTO AUÁ. Empreendimentos socioambiental. Rota do Cambuci. Osasco, 2017. Disponível em: http://www.aua.org.br/ Acesso em: 15 jul. 2017.
    » http://www.aua.org.br/
  • LADANIYA, M.S. Citrus fruit: biology, technology and evaluation. San Diego: Elsevier, 2008. 576p.
  • LIMA, J.S.S.; CASTRO, J.M.C.; SABINO, L.B.S.; LIMA, A.C.S.; TORRES, L.B.V. Physicochemical properties of Gabiroba (campomanesia lineatifolia) and Myrtle (blepharocalyx salicifolius) native to the mountainous region of Ibiapaba-CE, Brazil. Revista Caatinga, Mossoró, v.29, n.3, p.753-757, 2016.
  • LORENZI, H.; SARTORI, S.F.; BACHER, L.B.; LACERDA, M.T.C. Frutas brasileiras e exóticas cultivadas. Nova Odessa: Instituto Plantarum, 2006. 640p.
  • LUTZ, M.; HERNÁNDEZ, J.; HENRÍQUEZ, C. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in fresh and dry fruits and vegetables grown in Chile. CyTA-Journal of Food, Abingdon, v.13, n.4, p.541-547, 2015.
  • MEDEIROS, S.A.F.; YAMANISHI, O.K.; PEIXOTO, J.R.; PIRES, M.C.; JUNQUEIRA, N.T.V.; RIBEIRO J.G.B.L. Caracterização físico-química de progênies de maracujá-roxo e maracujá-azedo cultivados no Distrito Federal. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.31, n.2, p.492-499, 2009.
  • RUFINO, M.S.M.; ALVES, R.E.; BRITO, E.S.; PÉREZ-JIMÉNEZ, J.; SAURA-CALIXTO F.; MANCINI-FILHO J. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of 18 non-traditional tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chemistry, Barking, v.121, n.4, p.996-1002, 2010.
  • SANCHES AZEVEDO, M.C.; SILVA, R.R.E.; JACOMINO, A.P.; GENOVESE, M.I. Physicochemical variability of cambuci fruit (Campomanesia phaea) from the same orchard, from different locations and at different ripening stages. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, London, v.97, n.2, p.526-535, 2017.
  • SILVA, I.G.; CORREIA, A.D.F.K.; BIGARAN, J.T.; BAPTISTA, C.P.; DO CARMO, L.F.; SPOTO, M.H.F. Estudo de caracterização do fruto cambuci [Campomanesia phaea (O.Berg.) Landrum] e sua aplicação no processamento de geléia. Boletim do Centro de Pesquisa de Processamento de Alimentos, Curitiba, v.30, n.1, p.83-90, 2012.
  • SILVA, L.M.R.; FIGUEIREDO, E.A.T.; RICARDO, N.M.P.S.; VIEIRA, I.G.P.; FIGUEIREDO, R.W.; BRASIL, I.M.; GOMES, C.L. Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chemistry, Barking, v.143, p.398-404, 2014.
  • SOUNIS, E. Bioestatística: princípios fundamentais, metodologia estatística, aplicação às ciências biológicas. 2.ed. São Paulo: McGraw-Hill, 1975. 230p.
  • STATSOFT. Statistica (data analysis software system). Version 7.0. 2015. Disponível em: http://www.statsoft.com Acesso em: 12 mar. 2015.
    » http://www.statsoft.com
  • STROHECKER, R.; HENNING, H.M. Analisis de vitaminas: métodos comprobados. Madrid: Paz Montalvo, 1967. 428p.
  • TACO. Tabela brasileira de composição de alimentos. 4.ed. Campinas: NEPA-UNICAMP, 2011.161p. Disponível em: http://www.unicamp.br/nepa/taco/contar/taco_4_edicao_ampliada_e_revisada.pdf?arquivo=taco_4_versao_ampliada_e_revisada.pdf Acesso em: 10 out. 2016.
    » http://www.unicamp.br/nepa/taco/contar/taco_4_edicao_ampliada_e_revisada.pdf?arquivo=taco_4_versao_ampliada_e_revisada.pdf
  • VALLILO, M.I.; GARBELOTTI, M.L.; OLIVEIRA, E.D.; LAMARDO, L.C.A. Características físicas e químicas dos frutos do cambucizeiro (Campomanesia phaea). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.27, n.2, p.241-244, 2005.
  • VASCO, C.; RUALES, J.; KAMAL-ELDIN, A. Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of major fruits from Ecuador. Food Chemistry, Barking, v.111, n.4, p.816-823, 2008.
  • WOISKY, R.G.; SALATINO, A. Analysis of propolis: some parameters and procedure for chemical quality control. Journal of Apicultural Research, Cardiff, v.37, p.99-105, 1998.
  • WU, D.; SUN, D.W. Colour measurements by computer vision for food quality control–A review. Trends in Food Science &Technology, Cambridge, v.29, n.1, p.5-20, 2013.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2018

History

  • Received
    25 Sept 2017
  • Accepted
    19 Jan 2018
Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n , 14884-900 Jaboticabal SP Brazil, Tel.: +55 16 3209-7188/3209-7609 - Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil
E-mail: rbf@fcav.unesp.br