Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, Volume: 21, Issue: 1, Published: 2011
  • Access legislation on genetic resources patrimony and traditional knowledge

    Silva, Fernanda Álvares; Espindola, Laila Salmen
  • The tragedy of the common reviewers: the peer review process Original Articles

    Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino de

    Abstract in English:

    The peer review process is the dominant system adopted in science to evaluate the quality of articles submitted for publication. Various social players are involved in this process, including authors, editors and reviewers. Much has been discussed about the need to improve the scientific quality of what is published. The main focus of these discussions has been the work of the authors. However, the editors and reviewers also fulfill an important role. In this opinion article, we discuss some proposals to improve the peer review system, emphasizing the role of reviewers and editors.
  • Morpho-anatomical study of the leaf and stem of pau-alecrim: Holocalyx balansae Original Articles

    Ló, Stella M. S.; Duarte, Marcia R.

    Abstract in English:

    Holocalyx balansae Micheli belongs to the Fabaceae family and is called pau-alecrim in Portuguese. In folk medicine, it is indicated to treat heart, hepatic and digestive upsets, as well as being considered anti-septic and diaphoretic. This work aimed to study the morpho-anatomy of the leaf and stem of this native medicinal species, in order to increase knowledge of the Brazilian flora and to contribute to pharmacognostic quality control. Samples of mature leaves and young stems were fixed and either sectioned free-hand or embedded in glycol-methacrylate and sectioned by microtome, then stained. Microchemical tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The leaves are alternate, compound and paripinnate, and the leaflets have a lanceolate shape. Anomocytic and anisocytic stomata are found exclusively on the abaxial surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the midrib, in cross-section, is flat on both sides, showing one collateral vascular bundle, encircled by a sclerenchymatic and crystalliferous sheath. The rachis and petiole present a collateral vascular bundle with a centric arrangement. The stem presents phellogen localized superficially. In the vascular cylinder, there is a sclerenchymatic sheath and continuous phloem and xylem cylinders, both traversed by narrow rays. Prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are present in the leaf and stem.
  • Morpho-anatomy of Solanum pseudocapsicum Original Articles

    Sanghvi, Gaurav V.; Koyani, Rina D.; Patil, Vidya S.; Rajput, Kishore S.

    Abstract in English:

    Morpho-anatomical features in leaves, stems and unripe fruits of Solanum pseudocapsicum L., Solanaceae, were investigated by histological methods. Anatomically the plant may be characterised by the presence of uniseriate trichomes, anomocytic stomata, calcium oxalate needles in leaves while presence of oval to circular compound starch grains, angular vessels, vertically upright, uni-biseriate rays and intraxylary phloem with differentiation of internal cambium abutting marginal pith cells and protoxylem in transverse view. Development of distinct internal cambium may be considered as a characteristic feature for S. pseudocapsicum. Intraxylary secondary phloem was composed of sieve tube elements, companion cells and axial parenchyma cells.
  • A comparative study on analytical method of total alkaloids from cortex Phellodendri amurens by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) Original Articles

    Yang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Rusong

    Abstract in English:

    A pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) method with post-column detection cell has been developed for the analysis of total alkaloids of cortex Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Rutaceae. The separation of total alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, oatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, phellodendrine, candicine, menisperine) was optimized by compositions of the mobile phase, ionic strength of buffers, pH value, and applied voltage. Separation of total alkaloids was achieved within 11 min by using a mobile phase of Na2HPO4-citric acid solution-acetonitrile (pH 4.00; 3 mM) (60:40, v/v) and applying a voltage of -10 kV. This method showed satisfactory retention times and peak shapes. Meanwhile, a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has also been established for the separation of total alkaloids extracted from cortex Phellodendri amurens. Baseline separation of total alkaloids was achieved within 25 min by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid with 0.1 g sodium dodecanesulphonate per 100 mL (35:65, v/v). Compared to conventional RP-HPLC, pCEC led to higher column efficiency, less consumption of reagent, and shorter analysis time.
  • Essential oil composition and variability in Hyptis fruticosa Original Articles

    Franco, Clóvis R. P.; Alves, Péricles B.; Andrade, Daniela M.; Jesus, Hugo C. R. de; Silva, Eduardo J. S.; Santos, Esdras A. B.; Antoniolli, Ângelo R.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    Abstract in English:

    The composition of six samples of essential oil (EO) extracted from leaves, flowers and seeds of several plants of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. 1,8-Cineole, spathulenol, α-pinene, β-pinene were the major constituents. Ten constituents that have not been previously described in the composition of the oil of H. fruticosa were identified. Hydrocarbons sesquiterpenes represented the main group, followed by hydrocarbons monoterpenes. The results were submitted to Cluster Analysis which allowed three groups of EO to be distinguished with respect to the content of α-pinene/β-pinene, 1,8-cineole and spathulenol. Growth stages of the plants and geographical parameters seem to be important factors determining the variability of the oil. Sesquiterpenes were mainly produced in the seeds.
  • Chemical constituents of the volatile oil from leaves of Annona coriacea and in vitro antiprotozoal activity Original Articles

    Siqueira, Carlos A. T.; Oliani, Jocimar; Sartoratto, Adilson; Queiroga, Carmen L.; Moreno, Paulo R. H.; Reimão, Juliana Q.; Tempone, André G.; Fischer, Dominique C. H.

    Abstract in English:

    The essential oil of the leaves from Annona coriacea Mart., Annonaceae, was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. The oil yield was 0.05% m/m. Sixty compounds were identified, in a complex mixture of sesquiterpenes (76.7%), monoterpenes (20.0%) and other constituents (3.3%). Bicyclogermacrene was its major compound (39.8%) followed by other sesquiterpenes. Most of the monoterpenes were in low concentration (<1%). Only β-pinene and pseudolimonene presented the highest level of 1.6%. The volatile oil presented anti-leishmanial and trypanocidal activity against promastigotes of four species of Leishmania and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, showing to be more active against Leishmania (L.) chagasi (IC50 39.93 µ g/mL) (95% CI 28.00-56.95 µ g/mL).
  • Phytochemical study and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Cuscuta racemosa Original Articles

    Ferraz, Helena O.; Silva, Magali G.; Carvalho, Rui; Suffredini, Ivana B.; Kato, Edna T. M.; Arakaki, Fernanda; Bacchi, Elfriede M.

    Abstract in English:

    Cuscuta racemosa Mart. is a parasitic plant of the Convolvulaceae family, used in popular medicine as an anti-inflammatory and a diuretic, for stomach and hepatic disorders, and for treating fresh wounds. This plant is popularly known as "cipó-chumbo" and "fios-de-ovos". In this study, it was chemically investigated and tested for its antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. The flavonoid and tannin content of the dried plant were 2.79% and 2.01%, respectively. Furthermore, the 4'-methoxyquercetin flavanoid compound was isolated from the ethanolic fraction. The minimum inhibiting concentration in the antimicrobial test was 2.0 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus, and a DL50 of 0.231 mg/mL was obtained in the cytotoxicity experiment. The fraction directed to alkaloids was able to eliminate 100% of the brine shrimp used for the test.
  • Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Pelargonium odoratissimum Original Articles

    Andrade, Milene A.; Cardoso, Maria G.; Batista, Luís R.; Freire, Juliana M.; Nelson, David L.

    Abstract in English:

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pelargonium odoratissimum (L.) L'Hér., Geraniaceae, was determined and the antimicrobial activities against the Aspergillus flavus CML 1816, Aspergillus carbonarius CML1815 and Aspergillus parasiticus CMLA 817 fungi, as well the Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25 992 bacteria were evaluated. The essential oil was isolated by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and its constituents were identified and quantified by GC/MS and GC-FID analyses. In vitro bioanalytical testing was performed using a completely randomized design. The concentrations of essential oil employed ranged from 0.1 to 2 μL.mL-1 (in dimethyl sulfoxide) for the fungus species and from 1 to 500 μL.mL-1 for the bacteria. The diameters of the inhibition zones formed for bacteria and the mean diameters of mycelial growth in perpendicular directions for fungi were measured, followed by calculation of the percentage of inhibition. The essential oil from the leaves of P. odoratissimum furnished methyleugenol (96.80%), a phenylpropanoid. This essential oil inhibited the growth of fungi (100% inhibition) and exhibited a small effect on the bacteria at the concentrations tested.
  • Antioxidant activity and possible bioactive components in hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions from the seaweed Halimeda incrassata Original Articles

    Novoa, Alexis Vidal; Andrade-Wartha, Elma R. S.; Linares, Adyary Fallarero; Silva, Ana Mara de O. e; Genovese, Maria Inês; González, Ana Elsa B.; Vuorela, Pia; Costa, Ariadna; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    Abstract in English:

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions, obtained from the marine algae Halimeda incrassata (J.Ellis) J.V.Lamouroux, Halimedaceae, were studied by using the ²-carotene-linoleate assay system. In case of hydrophilic fractions, the total phenolic compounds were quantified and two of their components were identified as salicylic and ferulic acids. From the lipophilic fraction, fatty acid composition was studied. The highest antioxidant activities values were found on the polar fractions containing phenolic acids. The total phenolics content on the hydrophilic fractions was 255 μg of gallic acid equivalents/g of fresh seaweed. To further characterize H. incrassata chemical composition, the total lipid content was quantified (7.4 mg per gram of dried algae) as well as the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ratio (1:1.46). In summary, this paper adds more convincing evidences in support of the antioxidant abilities of the lyophilized aqueous extract of Halimeda incrassata and it also relates this bioactivity, for the first time, with particular phenolic components of the extract. Altogether, these results represent another step towards the use of this natural product as drug candidates.
  • Bioactivity guided isolation and characterization of the phytoconstituents from the Tridax procumbens Original Articles

    Agrawal, Surendra S.; Talele, Gokul S.

    Abstract in English:

    Tridax procumbens L., Asteraceae, has been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for various ailments. Previous studies on the extracts of T. procumbens revealed remarkable immunomodulatory activity of TPEIF (T. procumbens ethanol insoluble fraction) extract. The dried methanol extract of T. procumbens was dissolved in distilled water, and then fractioned by re-extracting with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol subsequently. Immunomodulatory activities of these fractions were determined in vivo. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were also determined. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed the significant immunomodulary activity. However, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest total phenolic content. Therefore, ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to further separation by chromatographic methods. Two phytochemicals SA-3 and SA-4 were obtained by repeated purification in sufficient amount to screen them for the immunomodulatory activity by the in vivo models i.e. neutrophil adhesion and delayed type hypersensitivity. In addition, the n-butanol fraction was subjected to silica gel column chromatography (CC); SA-6 was isolated from it. Mice were treated with two doses of SA-3, SA-4 and SA-6 (2 and 4 mg/kg) for fifteen days. Immune responses to T-dependent antigen SRBCs were observed using parameters like DTH and Neutrophil adhesion. Overall, SA-4 and SA-6 showed dose relative immunostimulatory effect on in vivo immune functions in mice. From these results, it can be suggested that these compounds may be used as potential immunostimulators. The structures of isolated phytochemicals were determined by UV, IR, NMR, and MS spectroscopic methods.
  • Antiacetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activity of essential oils from six medicinal plants from Burkina Faso Original Articles

    Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Coulibaly, Ahmed Y.; Nebie, Roger C. H.; Zeba, Boukaré; Lamien, Charles E.; Lamien-Meda, Aline; Nacoulma, Odile G.

    Abstract in English:

    In this investigation, we evaluated essential oils from six medicinal plants from Burkina Faso for their antiacetylcholinesterase and antioxidant abilities. The chemotype of most active were also determined. The best antiacetylcholinesterase activities were recorded for the essential oils of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (IC50 18.98 µ g/mL) and Ocimum canum (IC50 36.16 µ g/mL). Their chemotype have been related to the 1,8-cineole one. Both essential oils demonstrated a linear mixed non competitive inhibition. The essential oil of Ocimum basilicum which belong to the linalool-eugenol chemotype exhibited the best radical scavenging activity (IC50 3.82 µ g/mL) and reducing power (531.75 mg AAE/g). In comparison with gallic and ascorbic acids, O. basilicum essential oil evidenced interesting antioxidant activities. The antiacetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities of essential oils were discussed in regard with their chemical composition.
  • Biological potential of Stillingia oppositifolia Original Articles

    Cota, Betania Barros; Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Djalma M.; Siqueira, Ezequias P.; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M.; Cisalpino, Patrícia S.; Alves, Tânia M. A.; Zani, Carlos Leomar

    Abstract in English:

    Organic extracts from leaves and stems of Stillingia oppositifolia Baill. ex Müll. Arg., Euphorbiaceae, were screened for antifungal and cytotoxic properties. The extracts presented Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values around 250 µg.mL-1 against Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis, and around 63 µg.mL-1 for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. They were tested on three human cell lines (UACC-62, MCF-7, and TK-10), disclosing GI50 values, (concentration able to inhibit 50% of the cell growth) ranging from 50 to 100 µg.mL-1. Organic extract from stems furnished hexanic, dichloromethanic and aqueous phases after partition. Chromatographic fractionation of the hexanic soluble phase of the stems yielded aleuritolic acid 3-acetate, β-sitosterol, 3-epi-β-amyrin, β-amyrone and palmitic acid. These compounds showed antifungal and cytotoxic activities in the same range as the organic crude extract and low toxic effect against mononuclear cells obtained from human peripheral blood. This is the first report on chemical and biological potential of S. oppositifolia.
  • Antioxidant capacity and larvicidal activity of essential oil and extracts from Lippia grandis Original Articles

    Damasceno, Evelyn Ivana T.; Silva, Joyce Kelly R.; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A.; Sousa, Pergentino José C.; Maia, José Guilherme S.

    Abstract in English:

    The leaves and thin branches of Lippia grandis Schauer, Verbenaceae, are used for flavoring of food in the Brazilian Amazon, as substitute for oregano. In this study the constituents of the essential oil were identified and the antioxidant capacity and larvicidal activity of the oil and methanol extract and its sub-fractions were evaluated. A sensory evaluation was determined in view of absence of toxicity. The oil showed a yield of 2.1% and its main constituents were thymol (45.8%), p-cymene (14.3%), γ-terpinene (10.5%), carvacrol (9.9%) and thymol methyl ether (4.8%), totalizing 85%. The DPPH radical scavenging activity showed values for the EC50 between 9.0 and 130.5 µg mL-1 and the TEAC/ABTS values varied from 131.1 to 336.0 mg TE/g, indicating significant antioxidant activity for the plant. The total phenolic content ranged from 223.0 to 761.4 mg GAE/g, contributing to the antioxidant activity observed. The crude extracts inhibited the bleaching of β-carotene and the oil showed the greatest inhibition (42.5%). The oil (LgO, 7.6±2.4 µg mL-1) showed strong larvicidal activity against the brine shrimp bioassay. The sensory evaluation was highly satisfactory in comparison to oregano. The results are very promising for the use of L. grandis in seasoning and antioxidant products.
  • Antibacterial and antioxidant activities and acute toxicity of Bumelia sartorum Mart., Sapotaceae, a Brazilian medicinal plant Original Articles

    Ruela, Halliny S.; Leal, Ivana C. R.; Almeida, Michelle R. A. de; Santos, Kátia R. N. dos; Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Kuster, Ricardo M.

    Abstract in English:

    In order to validate the Bumelia sartorum Mart., Sapotaceae, traditional use for infection diseases, this study evaluates the antibacterial activity of the stem bark fractions against methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus strains by using the agar dilution method and reported as MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration). In addition, the DPPH scavenging activity of these fractions was measured and the chemical composition and acute toxicity of the active fraction were also determined. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract was chemically analyzed by LC/MS, direct ionization APCI/MS, ¹H NMR and 13C-NMR. All fractions, except butanol extract, presented high antioxidant activity, especially the methanol and the EtOAc extracts, which showed EC50 values (5.67 and 5.30 µg/mL, respectively) considerably lower than the Gingko-standard EGb 761® (38.58 µg/mL). The antibacterial activity against S. aureus strains was observed in EtOAc (MIC 256-512 µg/mL), which showed a very low toxicity. The chemical study of this fraction revealed the abundant presence of polyphenolic compounds. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities reported in this paper for EtOAc extract from B. sartorum and the low toxicity of this fraction opens the possibility that it could be helpful for the developing of new antibacterial agents for treating S. aureus infections.
  • Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa Original Articles

    Silva, Déborah S. B. S.; Garcia, Anuska C. F. S.; Mata, Samuel S.; Oliveira, Betejane de; Estevam, Charles S.; Scher, Ricardo; Pantaleao, Silmara M.

    Abstract in English:

    The effects of the decoction of Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, were investigated using the root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., Amaryllidaceae. Ten concentrations of the aqueous extract (0.125 to 1.25%) of this medicinal plant were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. All concentrations showed root growth inhibition after 96 h treatment. Although there were no significant differences between the mitotic indexes of any concentration and the control, there were changes in the frequencies of cell stages at three different concentrations. Additionally, the presence of five different cells abnormalities was recorded: chromosome bridging, lagging chromosomes, chromosome fragments, disturbed metaphase and disturbed anaphase. These results suggest inhibitory and genotoxic activity of the decoction of E. velutina on Allium cepa.
  • Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of Achillea millefolium L., Asteraceae, aqueous extracts Original Articles

    Sousa, Saulo M.; Viccini, Lyderson F.

    Abstract in English:

    The yarrow, Achillea millefoilum L. is an important species of Asteraceae family with common utilization in folk medicine of many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from yarrow leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies, since studies of this nature do not exist for the yarrow extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72 h with different concentrations of yarrow aqueous extracts (5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/mL). The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index (MI), the seed germination and the root development of L. sativa. More yet, the extracts also induced chromosome aberrations (CA) and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa indicating precaution in the therapeutic use of A. millefolium and reinforcing the utilization of L. sativa in the screening of cytogenotoxic substances once that this species showed a good sensibility to the extract application.
  • Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae, oil Original Articles

    Favacho, Hugo A. S.; Oliveira, Bianca R.; Santos, Kelem C.; Medeiros, Benedito J. L.; Sousa, Pergentino J. C.; Perazzo, Fabio F.; Carvalho, José Carlos T.

    Abstract in English:

    The oil of the fruits of Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae (OEO), was evaluated in models of inflammation and hyperalgesia in vivo to study its effects on these conditions. The experimental models contained the writhing test in mice, rat paw edema, granuloma test in rats, vascular permeability in rats, cell migration to the peritoneal cavity in rats and ear erythema induced by croton oil in mice. Doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of OEO were administered orally. The observed number of writhes was inhibited by 33.67, 45.88 and 55.58%, respectively. OEO produced a dose-dependent effect, with linear correlation coefficient R=0.99 (y=0.0219x+23.133), and the median effective dose found was 1226.8 mg/kg. The oral administration of 1226.8 mg/kg of OEO inhibited carrageenan-induced edema by 29.18% (p<0.05) when compared to the control group. The daily administration of OEO for six days inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue by 36.66% (p<0.01). In ear erythema induced by croton oil, OEO presented a significant inhibition (37.9%). In the vascular permeability test, treatment with OEO decreased the response to histamine, inhibiting vascular permeability by 54.16%. In carrageenan-induced peritonitis, OEO reduced the number of neutrophils migrating compared to the control group by 80.14%. These results suggested that OEO has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, probably of peripheral origin and linked to prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibition.
  • Anxiolytic-like and sedative effects of Hydrocotyle umbellata L., Araliaceae, extract in mice Original Articles

    Rocha, Fábio F.; Almeida, Cláudio S.; Santos, Rafael T. dos; Santana, Suely A.; Costa, Elson A.; Paula, José R. de; Vanderlinde, Frederico A.

    Abstract in English:

    The plant Hydrocotyle umbellata L., Araliaceae (water pennywort), is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine to reduce anxiety. This work investigates the anxiolytic-like effects of the ethanol extract from H. umbellata subterraneous parts as well as the extract's other putative central nervous system effects that could justify its common use. Oral dosing of the extract (0.3 and 1 g/kg) clearly showed an anxiolytic-like profile in the elevated plus maze test where it increased the percentage of entries into and the time spent in the open arms of the maze. In the marble-burying test, the extract induced anxiolytic-like effects only at a dose of 1 g/kg, which also causes mild sedative properties in other models. The sedated state was characterized by a slight reduction in spontaneous exploratory activity during the open field test and a potentiating of pentobarbital-induced hypnosis. No signs of motor impairment were detected in the rota rod or chimney tests. The extract did not show antidepressant properties in mice as assessed by the forced swimming test. These results support the use of H. umbellata in Brazilian folk medicine as an anxiolytic and contribute to the scientific knowledge of this possible phytotherapeutic resource.
  • Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, in tests for adaptogenic activity Original Articles

    Bezerra, Andréia G.; Mendes, Fúlvio R.; Tabach, Ricardo; Carlini, Elisaldo A.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the present study was to assess whether Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, (TD), plant known in popular medicine as tonic and aphrodisiac, has other effects that are characteristic of an adaptogen substance, such as improvement of the memory and reduction of the damage caused by stress. We carried out an initial screening to detect a possible toxicity of the plant. In that phase of the study we used tests of observational screening; evaluation of acute toxicity; measurement of motor activity and motor coordination, and sleeping time induced by pentobarbital, and observed that the extract presented low toxicity and no stimulant or depressant effect on the animals. We then performed specific tests for the evaluation of an adaptogen effect. TD did not protect the stomach of the animals from the formation of ulcers, neither did it alter the plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone of the animals submitted to immobilization and cold. As regards the evaluation of memory in passive avoidance, TD did not inhibit scopolamine-induced amnesia. Additionally, the hydroalcoholic extract presented low antioxidant activity in vitro. In the models used, TD produced no changes in relation to a possible adaptogen effect.
  • Antifungal activity of the extract of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, against yeasts of the genus Candida isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus Original Articles

    Shinobu-Mesquita, Cristiane S.; Bertoni, Thâmara A.; Guilhermetti, Eliana; Svidzinski, Terezinha I. E.

    Abstract in English:

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and is treated empirically with topical or systemic antifungals. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possible antifungal action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, on yeasts in this population. Samples were collected from HIV-positive patients who attended the Laboratory for Teaching and Research in Clinical Analysis at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá for routine exams. The isolated yeasts were identified at the genus and species levels through classical methodology. Next, tests of microdilution in broth were carried out to determine the profile of susceptibility of these yeasts towards the hydroalcoholic extract of C. zedoaria, following methodology standardised by the CLSI (2002). A total of 53 yeasts were identified, 49 of them C. albicans, two C. tropicalis and two C. glabrata. These yeasts were inhibited by low concentrations of the extract of C. zedoaria (between 1.95 and 15.63 μg/mL). In addition, 7.82 μg/mL inhibited 90% of the yeasts. Our results indicate a potent antifungal action for C. zedoaria and suggest more detailed studies with a view towards the practical application of this phytomedicine in topical pharmaceutical forms for the treatment of oral candidosis or candidiasis.
  • Assessment of hepatoprotective effect of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem., Bignoniaceae, on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats Original Articles

    Patel, Krishna N.; Gupta, Gajendra; Goyal, Manoj; Nagori, B. P.

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of the present study was to validate the hepatoprotective activity of bark of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem., Biognoniaceae, against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatic damage. Chloroform soluble fraction (Fraction-I), acetone soluble fraction (Fraction-II), methanol soluble fraction (Fraction-III) and methanol insoluble fraction (Fraction-IV) of ethanolic extract of bark of T. undulata were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatic damage using biochemical, morphological, functional and histopathological studies. The methanol soluble fraction (Fraction-III) was most potent among the four fractions studied in detail. Fraction-III showed significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatic damage as evident by normalization of substantially elevated levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBil), decreased level of total protein (TP), increased wet liver weight and volume, increased thiopentone sodium induced sleeping time and abnormal histopathology. Present study showed that the Fraction-III of ethanolic extract of bark of T. undulata significantly restores physiological integrity of hepatocytes. Fraction-III did not show any sign of toxicity up to oral dose of 1500 mg/kg in mice.
  • Antiasthmatic and antiallergic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa Original Articles

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Z. A.; Singh, P.; Khatanglakar, V.; Bhujbal, S.S.

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of study was antiasthmatic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., Simaroubaceae. Traditionally or in Indian system of medicine, A. excelsa is used in the treatment of asthma, cough, colic pain, cancer, diabetes and also used as antispasmodic, antifertility, bronchodilator. Stem bark of A. excelsa already reported for its potential against asthma. The pollens of Ailanthus excelsa reported allergic in nature and the time of collection of leaves were important in this study, generally the flowering stage of plant was avoided for the collection due to maximum chance of pollens at that time. Methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa was evaluated using in vitro goat tracheal chain preparation model and in vivo- Milk induced leucocytosis, eosinophilia, Clonidine induced catalepsy in mice model while Passive paw anaphylaxis and Clonidine induced mast cell degranulation in rat model. The extract showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, quassonoids and test was also positive for alkaloids and steroids. The extract also showed the presence of quercetin which is flavonoid and detected on the preparative TLC plate with the help of standard quercetin. Dose response studies of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa Roxb. were conducted at 100 µg mL-1 in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg kg-1 p.o. in vivo models. The treatment with methanolic extract of A. excelsa at different dose level showed the significant (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001) antiasthmatic activity. Inhibition or decrease the release of inflammatory mediators potentiates the antiasthmatic as well as antiallergic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of A. excelsa.
  • Evaluation of antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich., Urticaceae, root extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Original Articles

    Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Bafna, Mayur; Kim, Hae-Ran; You, Young-Han; Seo, Sung-Yum

    Abstract in English:

    The potential role of 80% methanolic extract of Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich., Urticaceae, root in the treatment of diabetes, along with its antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects, was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Preliminary screening of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenolics and flavonoids. The animal study was conducted with variable doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract for 21 days in diabetic rats. A significant effect was observed at a dose of 500 mg/kg, which was comparable to the standard drug, glibenclamide. Administration of the extract at a 500 mg/kg dose resulted in a significant reduction of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urine sugar and urine ketone levels in diabetic rats in comparison with the diabetic control group. Additionally, this dose significantly increased body weight, hemoglobin, plasma total protein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver glycogen content, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase levels in diabetic rats at the end of 21 days of treatment. Therefore, dietary supplementation with Boehmeria nivea root extract could be beneficial for correcting hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and enhancing the antioxidant defense system.
  • Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq., Rubiaceae, extract shows hypoglycemic effect and eases oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats Original Articles

    Alam, Mohammad A.; Subhan, Nusrat; Chowdhury, Sadia A.; Awal, Mohammad A.; Mostofa, Mahbub; Rashid, Mohammad A.; Hasan, Choudhury M.; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    Abstract in English:

    The hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq., Rubiaceae, a Bangladeshi medicinal plant, was studied for its potential hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant property in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract induced significant reduction in serum glucose, and transaminases, e.g. aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatases (ALP), activities. Significant changes in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), peroxidase and catalase levels during the experimental period were also observed. The results established that the hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of A. cadamba possesses hypoglycemic property and is able to protect liver and brain from oxidative damages caused by diabetes.
  • Antinociceptive, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of Cleome viscosa leaves Original Articles

    Bose, Utpal; Bala, Vaskor; Ghosh, Tarak Nath; Gunasekaran, Karthikeyan; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur

    Abstract in English:

    The methanol extract of the dried leaves of Cleome viscosa L., Cleomaceae, was investigated for its possible antinociceptive, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities in animal models. The extract produced significant writhing inhibition in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice at the oral doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (p<0.001) comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium at the dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight (p<0.001). The crude extract produced the most prominent cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 28.18 μg/mL and LC90 112.20 μg/mL). The extract of C. viscosa L. exhibited significant in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Shigella sonnie, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Streptococcus epidermidis, Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus with the zones of inhibition ranging from 10.76 to 16.34 mm. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine and its further investigation.
  • Self-organizing maps and VolSurf approach to predict aldose reductase inhibition by flavonoid compounds Original Articles

    Scotti, Luciana; Fernandes, Mariane B.; Muramatsu, Eric; Pasqualoto, Kerly F. M.; Emereciano, Vicente de P.; Tavares, Leoberto C.; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da; Scotti, Marcus T.

    Abstract in English:

    Aldose Reductase (AR) is the polyol pathway key enzyme which converts glucose to sorbitol. High glucose availability in insulin resistant tissues in diabetes leads into an accumulation of sorbitol, which has been associated with typical chronic complications of this disease, such as neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. In this study, 71 flavonoids AR inhibitors were subjected to two methods of SAR to verify crucial substituents. The first method used the PCA (Principal Component Analysis) to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics in the molecules that would be essential for the activity, employing VolSurf descriptors. The rate obtained explained 53% of the system total variance and revealed that a hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance in the molecules is required, since very polar or nonpolar substituents decrease the activity. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) was also employed to determine key substituents by evaluating substitution patterns, using NMR data. This study had a high success rate (85% accuracy in the training set and 88% accuracy in the test set) and showed polihydroxilations are essential for high activity and methoxylations and glicosilations primarily at positions C7, C3' and C4' decrease the activity.
  • Technological development of aqueous extracts from Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex K. Schum., Rubiaceae, (mulateiro) using factorial design Original Articles

    Costa, Leidyana M. da; Santos, Viviane A. dos; Ohana, Débora T.; Lima, Emerson S.; Pereira, Maria de M.; Souza, Tatiane P. de

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of the present work is to characterize the vegetal raw material of the Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex K. Schum., Rubiaceae, known as "mulateiro", and to evaluate the influence of extractive parameters for attainment of standardized aqueous extractive solutions. The physical-chemical characterization of the samples was performed using pharmacopoeic and not pharmacopoeic methodologies. A 2³ factorial design was used to evaluate the influence of extraction techniques (infusion/decoction), drug: solvent ratio (2.5 and 7.5%), and extraction time (5 and 15 min) on the total tannin content of aqueous extractive solutions from C. spruceanum. The extractive solution that showed higher total tannin and dry residue content had their physical-chemical characteristics determined. The results suggest that an aqueous extractive solution from rinds of C. spruceanum barks with higher tanning yield (9.9 g%), must be standardized using decoction as extraction methodology, with 2.5% of vegetal drug for an extraction time of 15 min. The results of the physical-chemical characterization suggest that environmental factors modify the properties of this species and, therefore, they can influence the quality and security of a product derived from this medicinal plant.
  • Antihypertensive effect of methanolic extract of Passiflora nepalensis Short Communication

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Verma, Neelesh Kumar; Shrestha, Bhupendra; Gauthaman, Karunakaran

    Abstract in English:

    The present study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of methanolic extract of the whole plant of Passiflora nepalensis Walp., Passifloraceae, (MPN) in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats. The blood pressure, pulse pressure, and heart rate fell dose-dependently in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats after intravenous administration of 75, 150, and 225 mg/kg MPN, suggesting that MPN possesses antihypertensive, hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects. The effect at doses of 150 and 225 mg/kg of MPN were more pronounced than that of 75 mg/kg body weight. Thus, the present study reveals that MPN exerts antihypertensive effect against renal hypertension.
  • Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) peel Short Communication

    Oliveira, Susy Mary Souto de; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S.; Siqueira-Junior, José P.; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima F. de Melo

    Abstract in English:

    In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants) as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance to norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-inhibitory mango peel extract concentration. Although the extract did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC>2048 µg/mL), it modulated the activity of antibiotics, i.e. in combination with antibiotics (at 512 µg/mL), a four-fold reduction in the MIC values for tetracycline and erythromycin was observed. The results presented here indicates that mango peel could serve as a source of potential adjuvant of antibiotics which add value to this mango by-product.
  • Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae Review

    Victório, Cristiane P.

    Abstract in English:

    Plants containing bioactive substances have increasingly become the object of research studies, particularly those plants with therapeutic value. Many species of the genus Alpinia provide a variety of medicinal properties, such as, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith and A. purpurata (Vieill) K. Schum, which have a significant presence in Brazil. These species have been commercialized in the food and cosmetic industries. However, their greatest importance arises from the medicinal properties of their essential oils containing flavonoids, terpenoids and kavalactones which have been used in folk medicine to treat, for example, arterial hypertension and inflammatory processes. In addition, such species are also used in multidisciplinary studies, including phytochemistry, ethnobotany and biology, indicating the key pharmacological role of this genus in everyday life. Therefore, this work aims to present a bibliographic review of the genus Alpinia and its significance in therapeutic applications.
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