Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, Volume: 22, Issue: 1, Published: 2012
  • The pharmacognosy and the research and development of herbal medicine: seeking the necessary approach

    Marques, Luis Carlos
  • Augmentation of catecholamine release elicited by an Eugenia punicifolia extract in chromaffin cells Articles

    Pascual, Ricardo de; Colmena, Inés; Rios, Cristobal de los; Rosa, Juliana M.; Correa-Leite, Paulo E.; Lima-Araújo, Kátia G.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Rocha, David R.; Gonzaga, Daniel T. G.; García, Antonio G.; Santos, Wilson C.; Gandía, Luis

    Abstract in English:

    Plant extracts of Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC., Myrtaceae, are used in Amazon region of Brazil to treat diarrhea and stomach disturbances, and as hypoglycemic medicine. We have recently shown that an aqueous extract of E. punicifolia augmented cholinergic neurotransmission in a rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. In this study, we investigated the effects of an E. punicifolia dichloromethane extract (EPEX) in a neuronal model of cholinergic neurotransmission, the bovine adrenal chromaffin cell. EPEX augmented the release of catecholamine triggered by acetylcholine (ACh) pulses but did not enhance ACh-evoked inward currents, which were inhibited by 30%. Since EPEX did not cause a blockade of acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase, it seems that EPEX is not directly activating the cholinergic system. EPEX also augmented K+-elicited secretion without enhancing the whole-cell inward calcium current. This novel and potent effect of EPEX in enhancing exocytosis might help to identify the active component responsible for augmenting exocytosis. When elucidated, the molecular structure of this active principle could serve as a template to synthesise novel compounds to regulate the exocytotic release of neurotransmitters.
  • Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry Articles

    Martins, Fabiano M.; Lima, Jamile F.; Mascarenhas, Ana Angélica S.; Macedo, Thayane P.

    Abstract in English:

    Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.
  • Are medicinal herbs safe? The opinion of plant vendors from Diadema (São Paulo, southeastern Brazil) Articles

    Lanini, Juliana; Duarte-Almeida, Joaquim M.; Nappo, Solange A.; Carlini, E. A.

    Abstract in English:

    Medicinal plants (MP) have been used world-wide for the treatment or prevention of health conditions and due to their natural origin; they have been historically considered harmless. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with an intentional sample of twenty plant vendors in the city of Diadema to explore their knowledge and beliefs on the safety and efficacy of MP. Different levels of perceptions about the safety of MP were found, varying from "completely safe" to "completely harmful". The majority of the interviewees declared that "if herbs have an effect, they are also likely to have a side effect", depending on many factors such as dosage, concomitant use of other drugs, characteristics of the plant material and consumer related factors, specially those related to pregnant women, children and elderly people. Thirty-nine unexpected events related to 21 species of MP were reported. One case of serious gastrointestinal disease related to the consumption of a contaminated "slim mixture" was also described. Adverse events and other problems that result from MP are relatively uncommon, but they are almost certainly underreported and occur more often than acknowledged. This study strengthens the call for further research and educational efforts into this complex area.
  • Medicinal plants at the Sítio do Gois, Apodi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil Articles

    Paulino, Renan da C.; Henriques, Gabrielly P. de S. A.; Moura, Olga N. S.; Coelho, Maria de Fatima B.; Azevedo, Rodrigo A. B.

    Abstract in English:

    Rural communities have accumulated knowledge about survival techniques in the midst of difficulties, such as ecological, economic or social, and one of the transformation spaces and extraction of resources to these communities is the natural vegetation and homegarden. The aim of this study was to list medicinal plants and characterize the use of these plants at the Sítio do Gois, Apodi-RN, Brazil. Open-interview, semi-structured and guided tours by local experts (field guide person, foresters, herb doctors, healers, farmers, housewives) were realized. Medicinal plants are distributed in 34 families, 46 genera and 52 species. The family with the greatest number of individuals was Lamiaceae (seven species). The species most mentioned were Amburana cearensis (77%) followed by 69% de citation of Myracrodruon urundeuva, Sideroxylon obtusifolium, Ximenia americana. Informants are aware of specific uses of native medicinal plants of the caatinga and homegardens. The most common preparations are teas and syrups, used part is the leaf and stem bark and great number of citations for disorders of the digestive and respiratory systems. The most important species with greater use agreement were A. cearensis M. urundeuva, S. obtusifolium and X. americana they deserve pharmacological studies and validation.
  • Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) essential oil Articles

    Sodré, Ana Carolina B.; Luz, José Magno Q.; Haber, Lenita L.; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Rodrigues, Carlos R.; Blank, Arie F.

    Abstract in English:

    Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid) with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.
  • Antimycobacterial activity of the fractions and compounds from Scutia buxifolia Articles

    Boligon, Aline A.; Agertt, Vanessa; Janovik, Vanessa; Cruz, Ritiel C.; Campos, Marli M. A.; Guillaume, Dominique; Athayde, Margareth L.; Santos, Adair R. S. dos

    Abstract in English:

    The antimycobacterial activity of Scutia buxifolia Reissek, Rhamnaceae, leaves extracts and fractions were evaluated for the first time. Four compounds were identified, flavonoids (quercetin and quercitrin) and phenolic acids (gallic and caffeic acids) and quantified by HPLC-DAD. Promising anti-Mycobacterium smegmatis activity was observed with ethyl acetate extract (MIC 312.50 µg/mL) and their fractions (MIC values ranging from 78.12 to above 312.50 µg/mL). The fractions III and VI of S. buxifolia leaves showed a high level of activity against M. smegmatis (MIC 78.12 and 156.25 µg/mL, respectively), M. tuberculosis (MIC 156.25 µg/mL) and M. avium (MIC 312.50 µg/mL), whereas to the other fractions the values varied from 312.50 to 1250.00 µg/mL against these strains. The better MIC result was associated with two fractions that contain bigger amounts of quercetin, quercitrin, gallic and caffeic acids. The results provided evidence that the studied plants fractions might be potential sources of new antimicrobial drug.
  • Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and oxidative burst inhibition by the naphthoquinone 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin from Paepalanthus latipes Articles

    Kitagawa, Rodrigo Rezende; Bonacorsi, Cibele; Fonseca, Luiz Marcos da; Vilegas, Wagner; Raddi, Maria Stella Gonçalves

    Abstract in English:

    Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium recognized as the major cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers. Infection by H. pylori induces inflammatory responses and pathological changes in the gastric microenvironment. The host Keywords: immune cells (especially neutrophils) release inflammatory mediators and large 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with an increased Helicobacter pyloririsk of developing gastric cancer. In this study, we evaluated the anti-H. pylori and oxidative burst antioxidantactivitiesofa1,4-naphthoquinone-5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin. Paepalanthus latipes The antimicrobial activity was assessed using a spectrophotometric microdilution technique, and antioxidant activity was assessed by noting the effect of 5-methoxy3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin on the neutrophil oxidative burst using luminol-and lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence. The results showed that 5-methoxy-3,4dehydroxanthomegnin is a potent anti-H. pylori compound (MIC 64 µg/mL and MBC 128 µg/mL) and a strong antioxidant. 5-Methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin decreased luminol- and lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, with ED50 values of 1.58±0.09 µg/mL and 5.4±0.15 µg/mL, respectively, reflecting an inhibitory effect on the oxidative burst. These results indicate that 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin is a promising compound for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by H. pylori infection, such as gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric cancer, because reactive oxygen intermediates are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal injury induced by H. pylori infections.
  • Polysaccharides from the fungus Scleroderma nitidum with anti-inflammatory potential modulate cytokine levels and the expression of Nuclear Factor kB Articles

    Nascimento, Marília S.; Magalhães, Joedyson E. M.; Pinheiro, Thuane S.; Silva, Thayse Azevedo da; Coutinho, Leonam Gomes; Baseia, Iuri G.; Lima, Lucymara F. Agnez; Leite, Edda Lisboa

    Abstract in English:

    Several pharmacological properties are attributed to polysaccharides and glucans derived from fungi such as tumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activity. In this work, the anti-inflammatory potential of polysaccharides from the fungus Scleroderma nitidum and their possible action mechanism were studied. The effect of these polymers on the inflammatory process was tested using the carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema model and the sodium thioglycolate and zymosan-induced model. The polysaccharides from S. nitidum were effective in reducing edema (73% at 50 mg/kg) and cell infiltrate (37% at 10 mg/kg) in both inflammation models tested. Nitric oxide, a mediator in the inflammatory process, showed a reduction of around 26% at 10 mg/kg of body weight. Analysis of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines showed that in the groups treated with polysaccharides from S. nitidum there was an increase in cytokines such as IL-1ra, IL-10, and MIP-1β concomitant with the decrease in INF-γ (75%) and IL-2 (22%). We observed the influence of polysaccharides on the modulation of the expression of nuclear factor κB. This compound reduced the expression of NF-κB by up to 64%. The results obtained suggest that NF-κB modulation an mechanisms that explain the anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharides from the fungus S. nitidum.
  • Phythochemical screening and antimicrobial activity phythochemical of essential oil from Lippia gracillis Articles

    Bitu, Vanessa; Botelho, Marco Antônio; Costa, José G. M. da; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Veras, Helenicy N. H.; Martins, Karine T.; Lyra, Aarão; Coluchi, Giselle Gasparino; Ruela, Ronaldo Sousa; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Siqueira, Jullyana de Souza; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo J.

    Abstract in English:

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the fresh and dried leaves of Lippia gracillis Schauer, Verbenaceae, was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC⁄MS). The yield of essential oil extracted from the dried leaves was significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared to the fresh leaves. Seventeen components were identified. The monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons with 96.26% (w/w) of the total oil obtained of fresh leaves and 86.99% (w/w) of the total oil obtained of dried leaves were the principal compound groups. Thymol was observed dominant (44.42%; 21.3%), followed by carvacrol (22.21%; 21.30%), p-cymene (6.23%; 8.58%), α-pinene (5.65%; 19.42%), β-caryophyllene (5.61%; 3.57%) and other minor constitutes, respectively. Microbiological results obtained by agar diffusion method, micro dilution method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed that the essential oil has a relevant antimicrobial activity against E. coli (ATCC 10536), E. coli (Ec 27), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442), S. aureus (ATCC 12692) and S. aureus (Sa 358), with their inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm and the MIC ranging from 64 to 512 μg/mL.
  • Genotoxicity test of Maytenus rigida and Aristolochia birostris in the radicular meristem of the onion, Allium cepa Articles

    Mendes, Sandra S.; Andrade, Josivaldo A.; Xavier, Maria Aldirene; Secundo Junior, José A.; Pantaleão, Silmara M.; Estevam, Charles S.; Garcia, Carlos A.B.; Ferrari, Stephen F.

    Abstract in English:

    Medicinal plants are an important source of treatment for many ailments, although little is known of the potential genotoxic effects of most species. In the present study, two species from diverse and medicinally important genera - Maytenus rigida Mart., Celastraceae, and Aristolochia birostris Ducht, Aristolochiaceae - were analyzed to identify potentially significant secondary metabolites and the possible effects of their aqueous and alcoholic extracts on cell division in the onion root stem (genotoxicity test). The phytochemical testing revealed the presence of a number of potentially important secondary compounds in both species, including phenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and saponins. In the genotoxicity tests, no chromosomal abnormalities of any kind were observed in either species. In the case of M. rigida, a significant increase in mitotic activity was observed at the highest concentration. No significant tendency was recorded in A. birostris, although a considerable increase in the prophase was observed at all concentrations of the alcoholic extract. The triterpenoid content of both species may be especially important from a medicinal viewpoint, although recent findings on the carcinogenic potential of Aristolochia extracts demands caution in the interpretation of the results, and the need for further research.
  • Phototoxic and modulatory effects of natural products from the skin of Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) Articles

    Brito, Samuel V.; Ferreira, Felipe S.; Siqueira-Júnior, José P.; Costa, José G. M.; Almeida, Waltécio O.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    Abstract in English:

    The skin of amphibians possesses a large diversity of biologically active compounds that are associated with the natural defenses of these animals against pathogens. Five different extracts and fractions were obtained from the skin of Rhinella jimi: methanol extract (ME), methanol fractions (MF), chloroform extract of methanol extract (CF), aqueous alkaloid fraction (AAF) and aqueous non-alkaloid fraction (ANAF). All fractions were evaluated with respect to their antibiotic modifying activity in standard bacterial strains and multiresistant clinical isolates. Antagonism was detected with kanamycin and gentamicin when combined with substances obtained from the skin of R. jimi. Phototoxic activity was observed in the methanol and chlorophorm fractions, as well as the aqueous non-alkaloid fraction. The antagonistic action was apparently associated with the protection afforded by the bacterial populations that inhabit the skin of this amphibian, preventing colonization by pathogenic fungi. The phototoxic activity demonstrated by natural products from the skin of R. jimi showed an interruption of the bacterial growth after UV exposure. This could indicate an antibacterial effect activated by the UV light, opening a path for carrying the attack by pathogenic fungi, causing the disease related with the amphibian decline.
  • In vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil of Tagetes erecta Articles

    Tonuci, Ligia R. S.; Melo, Nathalya I. de; Dias, Herbert J.; Wakabayashi, Kamila A. L.; Aguiar, Gabriela P.; Aguiar, Daniela P.; Mantovani, André L. L.; Ramos, Rafael C.; Groppo, Milton; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Veneziani, Rodrigo C. S.; Cunha, Wilson R.; Silva Filho, Ademar A. da; Magalhães, Lizandra G.; Crotti, Antônio E. M.

    Abstract in English:

    The in vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil obtained from Tagetes erecta L. Asteraceae, leaves (TE-EO) collected in Brazil against Schistosoma mansoni worms are reported in this paper. The oil caused a significant decrease in the motor activity at 50 µg/mL as minimal concentration after 24 h. This oil also caused death of all the parasites and the separation of coupled pairs into individual male and female at 100 µg/mL after 24 h. The viability of adult worm groups treated with the TE-EO at 100 µg/mL was similar to that of groups treated with praziquantel (positive control). In addition, the oil promoted the inhibition of eggs development at all the tested concentrations. These data indicate that the TE-EO could be considered as a promising source for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.
  • Biological activities of the sulfated polysaccharide from the vascular plant Halodule wrightii Articles

    Silva, Juliana M. C.; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne L.; Costa, Leandro S.; Cordeiro, Sara L.; Costa, Mariana S. S. P.; Silva, Naisandra B.; Freitas, Maria L.; Scortecci, Katia Castanho; Leite, Edda L.; Rocha, Hugo A. O.

    Abstract in English:

    A sulfated polysaccharide (SPSG) was successfully isolated from seagrass Halodule wrightii Asch., Cymodoceaceae, and its antioxidant and anticoagulant activities were investigated. The data presented here showed that the SPSG is a 11 kDa sulfated heterogalactan with a sulfatation degree of 20.63% and it also contains glucose and xylose. SPSG antioxidant activities were evaluated using several in vitro assays and the anticoagulant activity was evaluated by aPTT and PT tests. These assays suggested that the SPSG possessed remarkable antioxidant properties in different in vitro assays and an outstanding anticoagulant activity 2.5-fold higher than that of heparin Clexane® in the aPTT test. This data represents the first reported on the sulfated polysaccharide biological activities from seagrass. These results indicate that SPSG can be considered in the future as a drug utilized in treating diseases from these systems.
  • The toxicity evaluation of Syzygium cumini leaves in rodents Articles

    Silva, Selma do N.; Abreu, Iracelle C.; Silva, Graciela Fernanda C.; Ribeiro, Rachel M.; Lopes, Adelson de S.; Cartágenes, Maria do Socorro de S.; Freire, Sônia Maria de F.; Borges, Antônio Carlos R.; Borges, Marilene Oliveira da R.

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, Myrtaceae, leaves in rodents. Acute toxicity was evaluated through the determination of a LD50 in mice and rats (up to 14 days). In mice, the oral administration (p.o.) of the HE (0.1 at 6 g/kg) did not cause any death. When administered by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) the HE (0.1 at 1 g/kg) caused death of the animals (LD50 of 0.489 g/kg). In rats, the HE (0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg, p.o.) did not cause any death, while by i.p., only the 2 g/kg dose was lethal to 67% of the animals. To evaluate chronic toxicity, groups of rats daily received the HE (0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 g/kg) through p.o., during 30, 90 or 180 days and the effects on behavior, body weight, feed consumed were measured. Histology, hematology and biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the treatment. After a 30-day treatment, the HE caused changes in some biochemical parameters. Histological examination of the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, stomach, intestine and pancreas showed normal architecture suggesting no morphological disturbances. These data may mean that the HE of S. cumini does not exert acute or chronic toxic effects by oral administration.
  • Toxicological evaluation of the João da Costa e Associações® on Beagle dogs Articles

    Magri, Ednéia G.; Neves, Fernando T. A.; Kaneshima, Edilson N.; Silva, José C.; Antunes, Vânia S.; Costa, Fabiano P.; Rocha, Orivaldo A.; Tagliati, Carlos A.; Marques, Luís C.

    Abstract in English:

    A toxicological study was performed in Beagle dogs treated for 180 days with the product João da Costa e Associações. Were used six males and six females distributed in control and treated groups (n=3). We used a dose of 566 mg/kg of the product according to preclinical study in rodents. The animals were weighed and evaluated by clinical and laboratory aspects. The product did not cause mortality or alter the normal behavior of animals, but interfered with the weight gain on males in the middle phase of the treatment. The group treated had a lower incidence of clinical abnormalities compared to control, checked by veterinary consultations. Laboratory data showed elevated blood glucose levels perhaps due to the high amount of sucrose present in the product; about the histopathological data no significant change was found. We conclude that the product Joao da Costa and Associações, at the dose tested, has low toxicity in Beagle dogs treated chronically.
  • Sulfated fucans extracted from algae Padina gymnospora have anti-inflammatory effect Articles

    Marques, Cybelle Teixeira; Azevedo, Tarciana C. G. de; Nascimento, Marília S.; Medeiros, Valquíria P.; Alves, Luciana G.; Benevides, Norma M. B.; Rocha, Hugo A. O.; Leite, Edda Lisboa

    Abstract in English:

    Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted with acetone from brown algae Padina gymnospora. The fraction precipitated with 1.5 volumes of acetone (F1.5) purified in Sephadex G-75 was characterized by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance of 13C and ¹H, through which the presence of sulfate groups on the C4 of α-L-fucose could be observed. This polysaccharide showed that an MW of 25,000 Da was effective in reducing leukocyte influx into the peritoneal cavity in mice at 10 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg body weight, causing a decrease of 60 and 39%, respectively. In the present study, it was observed that this fucan has anti-inflammatory properties but no cytotoxic action, indicating its potential use in the pharmaceutical industry.
  • Effects of the topical application of an ethyl acetate fraction from Vernonia scorpioides on excisional wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus in rats Articles

    Kreuger, Maria Regina Orofino; Farias, Bruna Gonçalves; Moreira, Janaína; Blind, Luise Zozula; Amoah, Solomon Kweku Sagoe; Leite, Andreia Siqueira; Biavatti, Maique Weber; van Hoof, Tom; D'Herde, Katharina; Cruz, Alexandre Bella

    Abstract in English:

    We investigated the healing process on excisional wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus in rats, treated with 50 µL of ethyl acetate III from Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers., Asteraceae, rifamycin diethylamide B 25 mg, or saline. The lesions were measured daily and after seven days were surgically removed and histologically processed. The results indicate a favorable action of the EAIII, demonstrated by the increased wound contraction, smaller area of necrotic tissue, good development of granulation tissue, extensive extracellular matrix deposition and epithelial regeneration. This sub-fraction was phytochemically investigated in parallel studies, revealing the presence of sesquiterpene lactones (glaucolides and hirsutinolides) such as diacethylpiptocarphol and related hirsutinolides, flavonoids and cinnamic acid derivatives and also a new polyacetylene, which have been previously published. Results support the effectiveness of V. scorpioides antimicrobial activity in infected wound healing in rats.
  • Antidiarrheal activity of Solanum asterophorum in mice Articles

    Silva, Polyana Cristina Barros; Clementino Neto, José; Silva, Anne Dayse S. da; Silva, Karoline de Melo e; Silva, Tania Maria S.; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    Abstract in English:

    Several species of Solanum are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from roots (Sast-MeOH R) and leaves (Sast-MeOH L) of Solanum asterophorum Mart., Solanaceae, in mice. Sast-MeOH R was shown to significantly and dose-relatedly inhibit the frequency of both solid (ED50 309.6±28.5 mg/kg) and liquid (ED50 152.1±32.5 mg/kg) stools. Conversely, Sast-MeOH L significantly inhibited solid stool frequency only when dosed at 500 and 750 mg/kg (48.7±7.4 and 42.3±9.8%, respectively), but also significantly and dose-relatedly inhibited liquid stools (ED50 268.4±35.2 mg/kg). Thus, Sast-MeOH R was twice as potent as Sast-MeOH L in diarrhea inhibition. Neither extracts (when dosed up to 500 mg/kg) inhibited intestinal transit. However, both extracts significantly and dose-relatedly inhibited intestinal fluids, and Sast-MeOH R (ED50 38.3±10.4 mg/kg) was again twice as potent as Sast-MeOH L (ED50 78.6±6.4 mg/kg). Results suggest that antidiarrheal effects of Sast-MeOH R and Sast-MeOH L involve changes on intestinal secretion. In addition, active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity may be more concentrated in the roots of this species. However further studies are needed to elucidate the action mechanism involved in this activity.
  • Mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of Spiranthera odoratissima (Manacá) Articles

    Barbosa, Daniela B. M.; Nascimento, Marcus V. M.; Lino, Roberta C.; Magalhães, Marta R.; Florentino, Iziara F.; Honório, Tereza C. D.; Galdino, Pablinny M.; Bara, Maria Teresa F.; Paula, José R. de; Costa, Elson A.

    Abstract in English:

    Acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, formalin-induced pain, croton oil-induced ear edema, vascular permeability tests and phospholipase A2 activity assay were used to study the analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activity of the hydromethanolic fraction of ethanolic extract from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil., Rutaceae, leaves (HMF) and its subfraction (sub-Fr10-28). HMF and sub-Fr10-28 reduced the leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test; sub-Fr10-28 reduced the pain reaction time in the second phase of formalin-induced pain, as well as the ear edema and vascular permeability. Both HMF and sub-Fr10-28 inhibited the phospholipase A2 activity. These results suggest that the analgesic effect of this plant could be, in part, due to an anti-inflammatory action produced by the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity.
  • Antiulcer effect of epoxy-carvone Articles

    Siqueira, Bruna P. J.; Menezes, Crislaine T.; Silva, Jaciara P.; Sousa, Damião P. de; Batista, Josemar S.

    Abstract in English:

    Epoxy-carvone is a monoterpene present in essential oils of various plants. It is a derivative of carvone, which has an epoxy group instead of the α- and β-unsaturated ketone group present in carvone. As recent studies have shown that several alcohol terpenes and compounds containing α, β-unsaturated ketone groups present antiulcer effect, the main of the present study was to evaluate the antiulcer effect of epoxy-carvone. The models of ulcers induced by ethanol and indomethacin were used in this study. Epoxy-carvone at the dose of 1 mg/kg did not present antiulcer effect against ulcer induced by ethanol, but at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg it presented gastroprotective effect in both ulcer models. Epoxy-carvone also did not affect the gastric secretion in the pylorus ligation test. Moreover, pretreatment with indomethacin or L-nitroarginine methyl ester did not reverse the gastroprotection produced by this monoterpene. This study showed that epoxy-carvone presents antiulcer effect and suggests that this effect does not involve either antisecretory activity or increase of the nitric oxide and prostaglandin synthesis.
  • Anti-inflammatory and opioid-like activities in methanol extract of Mikania lindleyana, sucuriju Articles

    Vanderlinde, Frederico A.; Rocha, Fabio F.; Malvar, David C.; Ferreira, Raquel T.; Costa, Elson A.; Florentino, Iziara F.; Guilhon, Giselle M. S. P.; Lima, Thereza C. M. de

    Abstract in English:

    Mikania lindleyana DC., Asteraceae (sucuriju), grows in the Amazon region, where is frequently used to treat pain, inflammatory diseases and scarring. This study was carried out to investigate phytochemical profile accompanied by in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory screening of n-hexane (HE), dichloromethane (DME) and methanol (ME) extracts obtained from the aerial parts of the plant. The oral administration of ME (0.1, 0.3, 1 g/kg) caused a dose-related reduction (16.2, 42.1 e 70.2%) of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing while HE and DME (1 g/kg, p.o.) were ineffective. In the hot plate test, ME (300 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the latency of heat stimulus between 30 and 120 min and inhibited the first (45%) and second (60%) phases of nociception in the formalin test. The antinociception induced by ME or positive control fentanyl (150 µg/kg, s.c.) in hot plate and formalin tests was prevented by naloxone (3 mg/kg, s.c.). When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, ME (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg, p.o.) impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 46.8, 59.4 and 64.8% respectively, while positive control dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c.), inhibited leukocyte migration by 71.1%. These results indicate that the antinociception obtained after oral administration of methanol extract of M. lindleyana involves anti-inflammatory mechanisms accompanied with opioid-like activity which could explain the use of the specie for pain and inflammatory diseases.
  • Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts and fractions from Erythrina mulungu Articles

    Oliveira, Mariana S. G. de; Aquino, Anansa B. de; Silva, Daniel L. da; Aquino, Pedro G. V.; Santos, Mariana S.; Porfírio, Anne P. R.; Sant'Ana, Antônio E. G.; Santos, Bárbara V. O.; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna S.; Araújo-Júnior, João X. de

    Abstract in English:

    Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth., Fabaceae, popularly known as mulungu, is used for the treatment of insomnia and disorders of the central nervous system. This study examined the antinociceptive effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts (HAE), the ethyl acetate and chloroformic fractions from E. mulungu in four experimental models of nociception using laboratory mice. The extracts and fractions were administered orally to mice at doses of 100 mg/kg. Inhibition of abdominal contractions were observed for all the extracts and fractions tested, as compared to controls. All extracts and fractions from E. mulungu reduced the nociception activity produced by formalin in the 2nd phase. In the hot plate test no significant effect was observed for any extract or fraction. In the peritonitis test induced by Zymosan, all of the tested extracts and the chloroformic fraction, except for the ethyl acetate phase, reduced cell migration of the peritoneal cavity. We concluded that E. mulungu shows antinociceptive effects, which are independent of the opioid system.
  • Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the flowers of Pyrostegia venusta in mice Articles

    Veloso, Clarice C.; Cabral, Layla D. M.; Bitencourt, Andressa D.; Franqui, Lidiane S.; Santa-Cecília, Flávia V.; Dias, Danielle F.; Soncini, Roseli; Vilela, Fabiana C.; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    Abstract in English:

    Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers, Bignoniaceae, is native to the Brazilian Cerrado and popularly known as "cipó-de-são-joão". In Brazilian folk medicine, the flowers of P. venusta are used as a general tonic and a treatment for diarrhea, vitiligo, cough, and common infections and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. Nevertheless, there are still no studies on its possible anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. The P. venusta hydroethanolic extract (PvHE) was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis induced by lipopolysaccharide, acetic acid-induced writhing, and formalin-induced paw-licking tests in Swiss male mice. PvHE at doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect. PvHE reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan and inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity. The extracts showed antinociceptive activity in acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests. Our results showed that the PvHE demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive action in mice. All the anti-inflammatory actions obtained are also suggested to due the presence of acacetin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside.
  • Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea Articles

    Lima, Sandrine Maria A.; Araújo, Larissa Cardoso C.; Sitônio, Marília Maria; Freitas, Ana Carina C.; Moura, Sirlene L.; Correia, Maria Tereza S.; Malta, Diana Jussara N.; Gonçalves-Silva, Teresinha

    Abstract in English:

    Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf). In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg) produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg) inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.
  • In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of red clover Trifolium pratense dry extract Articles

    Ramos, Graziele P.; Apel, Miriam A.; Morais, Cláudia B. de; Ceolato, Paula C.; Schapoval, Elfrides E. S.; Dall'Agnol, Miguel; Zuanazzi, José A. S.

    Abstract in English:

    Red clover Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae, contains four isoflavones, mainly formononetin and biochanin A, and in smaller concentrations, daidzein and genistein. These compounds have gained a lot interest due to its human health benefits, such as estrogenic and progestogenic activities, antioxidant, anti-cancer and others. The objective of this study was to determine in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of red clover dry extract. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was assayed by the technique using the Boyden chamber method, evaluating the leukocyte migration inhibition (chemotaxis). The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was tested by a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test. The results of anti-inflammatory in vitro test showed that there was a significant inhibition of leukocyte migration at the concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 10 and 5 µg/mL of red clover dry extract, these doses resulted in 94.73, 95.39, 94.73, 84.68 and 78.75% of inhibition for each dose, respectively. The anti-inflammatory in vivo test resulted in a significant activity in both tested doses (100 and 50 mg/kg of red clover dry extract) and at each tested time. The average percentage of edema inhibition was 63.37%. The findings of this study suggested that red clover extract might be suitable for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
  • Phytochemical screening, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil of Myrcia pubiflora in mice Articles

    Andrade, Gilmara S.; Guimarães, Adriana G.; Santana, Marilia T.; Siqueira, Rosana S.; Passos, Luiz O.; Machado, Samísia M. F.; Ribeiro, Adauto de S.; Sobral, Marcos; Almeida, Jackson R. G. S.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    Abstract in English:

    This report aimed to investigate the chemical composition and possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from fresh leaves of Myrcia pubiflora DC., Myrtaceae (EOMP), through different experimental tests. The essential oil of M. pubiflora (EOMP) was obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC-MS, and tested at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (i.p.) in three different tests of nociception (acetic acid-induced writhing test, formalin test, and hot plate test) and one test of inflammation (leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity) in order to evaluate the motor activity in mice treated with EOMP. The major component of EOMP was caryophyllene oxide (22.16%). This oil significantly reduced the number of writhes in an acetic acid test and the time spent licking the paw at the second phase of the formalin test. Furthermore, EOMP inhibited the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity. However, administration of EOMP did not alter reaction time in the hot plate test, and did not affect the motor coordination test. These results indicate antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of EOMP probably mediated via inhibition of inflammatory mediator synthesis or other peripheral pathway.
  • Triterpenes and flavonoids from the roots of Mauritia flexuosa Short Communication

    Koolen, Hector H. F.; Soares, Elzalina R.; Silva, Felipe M. A. da; Souza, Antonia Q. L. de; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Souza, Afonso D. L. de

    Abstract in English:

    Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, is an endemic species of South America. This species was studied with the intent to isolate the constituents of its roots. After the fractionation of the n-hexane and methanolic extracts from the roots of M. flexuosa, six triterpenes were obtained: friedelin, taraxerone, lupenyl acetate, lupenone, betulin and betulinic acid, along with three flavonoids: rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. All the compounds were identified by analysis of NMR and MS data and comparison with the literature. All those compounds are been reported for the first time in Mauritia, and the chemosystematic significance of the flavonoids isolated in this genus is discussed.
  • Bioactivity and potential therapeutic benefits of some medicinal plants from the Caatinga (semi-arid) vegetation of Northeast Brazil: a review of the literature Review

    Silva, Maria I. G.; Melo, Carla T. V. de; Vasconcelos, Leonardo F.; Carvalho, Alyne M. R. de; Sousa, Francisca C. F.

    Abstract in English:

    Medicinal plants have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years all over the world. In this sense, information from Brazilian ethnic groups on folk medicine have contributed to the discovery of pharmacological activities from various plant-derived agents potentially leading to the innovative drugs. The Caatinga (semi-arid) vegetation is a highly threatened biome, covering a vast area in northeastern Brazil and has suffered from strong human influence for many decades. Many plants species found in the Caatinga have been widely used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Thus, the present review aims to disseminate to the scientific community some known species of medicinal plants found in the Caatinga that have been studied and analyzed in pharmacological scientific assays. Among the species that stood out for their local importance and multiplicity of uses were: Amburana cearensis (umburana-de-cheiro), Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico-branco), Anacardium occidentalis L. (cajueiro), Bauhinia forficata Link (mororó), Cissus sicyoides L. (insulina-vegetal), Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (aroeira-do-sertão) and Zingiber officinalis L. (gengibre). The present study shows that several herbal constituents from Caatinga plants, whose pharmacological actions have been well characterized, may be relevant candidates for future and innovative therapeutic development.
  • Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review Review

    Araujo, Marcio A. R.; Libério, Silvana A.; Guerra, Rosane N. M.; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce S.; Nascimento, Flávia R. F.

    Abstract in English:

    Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters), terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.
  • Chemical constituents and biological activities of species of Justicia: a review Review

    Corrêa, Geone M.; Alcântara, Antônio F. de C.

    Abstract in English:

    The Acanthaceae family is an important source of therapeutic drugs, and the ethnopharmacological knowledge of this family requires urgent documentation as several of its species are near extinction. Justicia is the largest genus of Acanthaceae, with approximately 600 species. The present work provides a review addressing the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus Justicia. In addition, the biological activities of compounds isolated from the genus are also covered. The chemical and pharmacological information in the present work may inspire new biomedical applications for the species of Justicia, considering atom economy, the synthesis of environmentally benign products without producing toxic by-products, the use of renewable sources of raw materials, and the search for processes with maximal efficiency of energy.
Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Universidade Federal do Paraná, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Rua Pref. Lothario Meissner, 632 - Jd. Botânico, 80210-170, Curitiba, PR, Brasil, Tel/FAX (41) 3360-4062 - Curitiba - PR - Brazil
E-mail: revista@sbfgnosia.org.br