Abstract in English:Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews) Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70) leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.
Abstract in English:The family Apocynaceae includes many medicinal species, such as Aspidosperma olivaceum Müll. Arg. and A. polyneuron Müll. Arg. The first, popularly known as "peroba-branca", is a source of indole alkaloids that are recognized for their antitumor activity. The second, known as "peroba-rosa", is used by some people for treating malaria. To contribute to the knowledge about Brazilian medicinal plants and potential vegetal drugs, a morpho-anatomical analysis of the leaves and stems of these tree species was carried out. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and stained using standard techniques. Histochemical tests were performed and the material was also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. Aspidosperma olivaceum and A. polyneuron are morphologically similar, both presenting alternate, simple, elliptic-lanceolate leaves. The leaves are hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata and have non-glandular trichomes. In the stem, there are peripheral phellogen, lignified fibers and some stone cells in the cortex and pith, as well as numerous gelatinous fibers near the phloem. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and laticifers are present in the leaves and stems. Unlike A. olivaceum, A. polyneuron also has cyclocytic stomata, predominantly unicellular non-glandular trichomes and a biconvex midrib with a sharper curve on the adaxial side. In addition, A. olivaceum differs because it has some idioblasts with phenolic content.
Abstract in English:Croton echioides Baill., Euphorbiaceae, is a small tree found in Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Its stem bark has been widely sold as an aphrodisiac and tonic, as a substitute for the roots of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth. Olacaceae, the Amazon Muira Puama or Marapuama, and C. echioides is characterized as the "Northeastern Marapuama". This contribution describes a morphoanatomical analysis and pharmacognostic study of stem bark of this species. The stem has a thick cortex with compound starch grains and laticifers; a sclerenchymatic sheath which consists of brachysclereids with large crystals externally to the phloem, and abundant fiber in the secondary xylem, as the main features of the species. The data obtained for water content (9.26±0.07%), water-soluble extractives (3.92±0.19%), total ash (1.24±0.06%) and acid-insoluble ash (0.16±0.01%), together with the chromatographic profile obtained by TLC, contribute to the quality control and standardization for the plant drug. The pharmacological screening indicated LD50 values above 500 mg/kg orally and equal to 500 mg/kg by the i.p. route, as well as some stimulant potential, depending on the dose.
Abstract in English:A convenient and sensitive GC-MS method was developed to identify thirteen sesquiterpenes and polyacetylenes (e.g. caryophyllene, γ-elemene, α-caryophyllene, β-selinene, isoledene, germacrene B, elixene, atractylone, hinesol, β-eudesmol, atrctylodin, atractylenolide II and acetylatractylodinol) in Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., Asteraceae. Among those compounds, four major components including atractylone, hinesol, β-eudesmol and atrctylodin were quantified with standards; contents of other components were estimated by using calibration curve of hinesol. In this study, we presented that the concentrations of those thirteen components varied drastically in A. lancea samples from different producing areas. Among those components, atractylenolide II and acetylatractylodinol were identified by GC-MS for the first time. A hierarchical clustering analysis based on relative peak areas of those thirteen components in total ion current (TIC) profiles was used to characterize A. lancea samples from different producing areas. Further clustering analysis showed that a simplified method with only four major bioactive components could be used to serve the same aim.
Abstract in English:Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover), is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg) were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin) was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.
Abstract in English:Pterodon emarginatus Vogel, Fabaceae, is a native aromatic tree distributed by central region of Brazil. Hydroalcoholic infusions of the seeds are used in folk medicine for their anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of this work was identified the chemical components and verify the cytotoxic effect of the essential oil (EO) from P. emarginatus seeds. Thus, the EO of P. emarginatus seeds was analyzed by GC/MS analysis followed by brine shrimp lethality test and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines and human peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMC). The cancer cell lines tested were C6 (rat glioma), MeWo (human melanoma), CT26.WT (mouse colon carcinoma), MDA (human breast cancer), A549 (human lung carcinoma), B16-F1 (mouse melanoma), CHO-K1 (hamster ovary cell) and BHK-21 (hamster kidney fibroblast). Eleven compounds were identified by GC and CG/MS analyses. The main compounds with concentrations higher than 5% were β-elemene (15.3%), trans-caryophyllene (35.9%), α-humulene (6.8%), germacrene-D (9.8%), bicyclo germacrene (5.5%) and spathulenol (5.9%). The EO of P. emarginatus seeds showed toxicity to Artemia salina (LC50 1.63 µg/mL) and was active against all the cell lines tested. The potent cytotoxic activity had IC50 values ranging from 24.9 to 47 µg/mL. However, EO (1-100 µg/mL) had less cytotoxicity in PBMCs isolated from a healthy subject. In summary, the present study showed the potential antiproliferative of the EO of P. emarginatus seeds.
Abstract in English:Piper is a notable genus among Piperaceae due to their secondary metabolites such as lignans, amides, esters and long chain fatty acids used as anti-herbivore defenses with comparable effects of pyrethroids, that holds a promise in insect control, including malaria vectors such as Anopheles darlingi, the main vector in the North of Brazil. Methanolic extracts of Piper tuberculatum Jacq., Piperaceae, and P. alatabaccum Trel. & Yunck., Piperaceae, and some isolated compounds, i.e, 3,4,5-trimetoxy-dihydrocinamic acid, dihydropiplartine; piplartine, piplartine-dihydropiplartine and 5,5',7-trimetoxy-3',4'-metilenodioxiflavone were tested as larvicides against A. darlingi. The Lethal Concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of methanolic extracts were 194 and 333 ppm for P. tuberculatum and 235 and 401 ppm for P. alatabacum, respectively. Isolated compounds had lower LC values, e.g. the LC50 and LC90 of the piplartine-dihidropiplartine isolated from both plant species was 40 and 79 ppm, respectively.
Abstract in English:Plants represent the best and most extensively studied source of natural antioxidants. The present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-glycation properties of different concentrations of essential oils obtained from fruits and branchlets of Juniperus oblonga M. Bieb., Cupressaceae, using different assays. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation of the branchlets of male tree (BMT), branchlets of female tree (BFT) and fruits of J. oblonga. Compositional analysis of oils was performed using a gas chromatography-mass method. Antioxidant activity was assessed using linoleic acid peroxidation, peroxyl radical mediated hemolysis of red blood cells (RBC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation assays. Anti-glycation properties of oils were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Seventeen, eighteen and fifteen compounds were identified in the BMT, BFT and fruit oil, which represented 82.51, 55.69 and 96.89% of the total oils, respectively. α-Pinene was the major component of all three oils. All three oils possessed antioxidant effects against LDL oxidation, linoleic acid peroxidation and peroxyl radical mediated RBC hemolysis. Anti-glycation activities against hemoglobin and insulin glycation were also observed from all tested oils. Overall, there was no unique pattern of dose-dependence for the antioxidant properties of oils in different employed systems. The findings of this study suggest that essential oils from fruits and branchlets of J. oblonga possess antioxidant and anti-glycation properties. Therefore, these oils might be of therapeutic efficacy against diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Abstract in English:Trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate) biosynthesized from nicotinate is one of the metabolically active pyridine alkaloid, widely distributed in plant kingdom. In the present study trigonelline has been isolated from various plant parts and callus cultures of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, and was identified using TLC, GLC, GC-MS, which was comparable to that of the standard trigonelline. The trigonelline recovery was found to be maximum in the pods and minimum in flowers. In order to enhance the production of trigonelline in vitro grown cultures, different treatment doses of nicotinic acid (250, 500 and 750 mg L-1) were supplemented in the medium as precursor. Maximum increase (up to 1.10 fold) was observed in the treatment dose of 500 mg L-1 of nicotinic acid.
Abstract in English:The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae), mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm) and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v), respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.
Abstract in English:Leishmaniasis is an infection of viscera or tegument caused by protozoa Leishmania sp. The extensive period required for the treatment, which involves the use of toxic medicines, leads patients to drop treatment increasing the development of resistant forms of Leishmania sp. Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae, is a tropical plant native from America. Folk uses have been described for treatment of tumors, tetanus, rheumatism and malaria. This study evaluates the leishmanicidal activity of the essential oil of leaves from L. camara on promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi and L. amazonensis and its toxic effects on Artemia salina (brine shrimp test), macrophage cultures and BALB/c mice. The chemical composition was evaluated using the gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Thirty substances, mostly mono and sesquiterpenes were identified. The most representative constituents were: germacrene D (24.90%), farnesene derivatives (22%) and (E)-cariophylene (14.31%). Bioassays revealed a significant leishmanicidal activity of essential oil against L. amazonensis (IC50 0.25 µg/ mL) and a potential toxic effect on Brine shrimp (LC50 10 µg/mL) and macrophage assays (CC50 4 µg/mL), while there was no toxic manifestation on mice. The data show the relevant potential of L. camara as a source of medicine for leishmaniasis treatment.
Abstract in English:The Piper species chemistry has been widely investigated and the phytochemical analyses have led to the isolation of a number of active compounds like alkaloids, terpenes and flavones among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of 2-[1-hydroxy-3-phenyl-(Z,2E)-2-propenylidene]-4-methyl-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione (DCPC), a cyclopentenedione derivative isolated from the roots of Piper carniconnectivum C. DC., Piperaceae. Leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was assessed, and the risk to host cell was assessed by measuring the cytotoxicity to peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice in vitro. L. amazonensis promastigotes and host macrophages were cultured in the presence of 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6 µg/mL of the cyclopentenedione derivative for up to 96 h. At the end of this period, the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were compared with those from untreated cultures. The IC50 for promastigotes was 4.4 µg/mL after 96 h of treatment with the derivative. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) against murine peritoneal macrophages was 129 µg/mL. These results indicate that DCPC is a promising molecule for the development of leishmanicidal drugs.
Abstract in English:Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, is used as anxiolytic plants in folk medicine by South-American indians, "caboclos" and river-dwellers. This work focused the evaluation of phenolic composition of hydroethanolic extract of S. guianensis through HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS/MS. The constituents exhibited protonated, deprotonated and sodiated molecules and the MS/MS fragmentation of protonated, deprotonated and sodiated molecules provided product ions with rich structural information. Vicenin-2 (apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside) was the main constituent found in S. guianensis together quercetin-3,7-di-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3,7di-O-rhamnoside. A commercial extract of Passiflora incarnata (Phytomedicine) was used as surrogate standard and also was analyzed through HPLC-DAD-ESI/ MS/MS, showing flavones C-glycosides as constituents, among them, vicenin-2 and vitexin. The main constituent was vitexin. Flavonols triglycosides was also found in low content in S. guianensis and were tentatively characterized as quercetin-3O-rutinoside-7-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-pentosyl-pentoside-7-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-O-pentosyl-pentoside-7-O-rhamnoside. Apigenin and kaempferol derivatives had been reported as anxiolytic agents. Flavonoids present in this extract were correlated with flavonoids reported as anxiolytics.
Abstract in English:This study was design to evaluate the anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus Olivier, Fabaceae (Av). The GC/MS analysis of essential oils of Av showed that aqueous extract contains thymol while hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester and phytol were found as major components of methanol and acetone extracts. The aqueous extract showed anti-candidal activity in the concentration 320 mg/mL using disc diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 160 mg/mL. To induce cutaneous candidiasis, the dorsum of immunocompromised guinea pigs was infected with Candida albicans and animals were divided into five groups (n=5 for each): NC, received a vehicle; PC, received topical ketoconazole 2% and three other groups which received topical 10, 20 and 40% aqueous extract of Av. On ninth day postinfection, skins were cultured and colony forming unite per gram (CFU/g) skin was recorded. Systemic candidiasis was obtained by intravenous inoculation of C. albicans, 4000 CFU/g body weight. Here, animals have been divided into five groups like cutaneous candidiasis but their medications have been delivered in drinking water for ten days before induction of infection. On second day postinfection, all internal tissues were taken for determining CFU/g tissue. The aqueous extract (40%) prevented heavy burden of C. albicans in tissues and skin in oral and topical application, respectively. The results indicate that Av represents a potential source of anti-candidal drug.
Abstract in English:Acute toxicity, antioxidant activity in vitro and general pharmacological effects of the flower crude ethanolic extract of Bellis perennis L., Asteraceae, a popular medicine used in South America, were investigated in mice. The oral route LD50 value was found 2.31 g/kg. Oral administration at doses 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of the extract neither caused significant changes in general behavior nor led to toxic symptoms. Anxiolytic-like properties were studied in the open field test and the possible antidepressant-like actions were evaluated in the forced swimming test (FST). There is a significant decrease in the number of crossings at all dosages mentioned above, but no sedative effects at any dosages when compared to controls. In the FST, the extract dosage of 150 mg/kg was effective in reducing immobility, along with a significant increase in swimming time. The ethanolic extract showed strong antioxidant potential in vitro, through the removal capacity against hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide as well as prevented the formation of reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBARS). Together, these results indicate that the ethanolic extract has effect on central nervous system, which might due to its antioxidant property, as demonstrated in vitro methods used. These results suggest that some of the components in ethanolic extract of B. perennis, such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids may have antioxidant, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties. Additional investigations are in progress.
Abstract in English:The garlic (Allium sativum L., Amaryllidaceae) has been popularly used in the treatment of diabetes and cardiac complications. In the present work, we have studied the possible mechanisms, sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) selectivity of allicin in diabetic hypertensive rats. Diabetic hypertension was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) followed by daily administration of dexamethasone (10 µg/kg, s.c.). Different parameters, blood pressure and blood glucose levels were studied in the rats weekly up to eight weeks. Allicin (8 mg/kg, p.o.) shows potent antidiabetic (*p<0.001) as well as antihypertensive effect (**p<0.001, *p<0.01). It may act as a vasodilator by hyperpolarizing the membrane of normal vascular smooth muscle cells. The hyperpolarization in vascular smooth muscle occurs due to K+ channel opener activity. Antihypertensive effect of allicin is inhibited by glibenclamide, nonselective SUR blocker while combination of allicin with nateglinide, selective SUR1 blocker exerted synergistic antihypertensive effect. The results indicates that allicin is effective in the treatment of diabetic hypertension; through a mechanism that might involve selective opening of SUR2.
Abstract in English:Wistar rats (n=20) were divided in two groups: G1 received 2 mg/kg of GBE (Ginkgo biloba extract 761), whereas G2 received the same volume of a sodium chloride solution (0.9%), both for 10 days. After a 7-day interval, the treatment was repeated for 8 days. Urine volume and food and water intake were measured daily during this protocol. Histological assessments were performed. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in food and water intake of animals during treatment with GBE. Animals who received GBE had a smaller urine volume and increase of weight with a significance difference (p<0.05) during the first and second exposure period. No histological alteration was observed in tissues, except for the kidney of the experimental group, which revealed a higher concentration of red cells in the glomerulus with a strong staining for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The introduction of GBE (therapeutic dose) in health rats may promote alterations in the physiology of the kidney, but no sufficient to modify the glomerulus architecture, including at ultra structural level (electron microscopy).
Abstract in English:Synadenium grantii Hook f., Euphorbiaceae, is popularly known as leitosinha or janaúba. The diluted latex (18 drops/L of water) is commonly used in the south of Brazil to treat gastric disturbances. This study evaluated phytochemical screening and toxicity using Artemia salina Leach of crude bark extract and also latex. The toxicity and the anti-ulcer activity of S. grantii latex were also tested in rats. Phytochemical results showed presence of tannins, terpenes, unsaponificable substances, coumarins and anthraquinones in the crude bark extract and terpenes in the latex. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis demonstrated the presence of diterpene tigliane esters in the latex, identified as 12-deoxyphorbol-13-(2-metilpropionate) and phorbol 12,13,20-triacetate. The toxicity results using A. salina presented CL50 26.58μg/mL and CL50 778.66μg/mL, for the latex and the crude bark extract respectively. The toxicological hepatic parameters of the diluted latex were not different to the control group (p<0.05). The eosinophils cells showed an increase in both the diluted and pure latex groups. The pure latex showed gastric protection of 90% (p<0.05) and the diluted latex showed 6% compared to the negative control. Therefore, our data indicate that S. grantii latex, under research conditions presented gastric protection. Pure latex showed more toxicity than the diluted latex.
Abstract in English:The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous root extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L.) Wight & Arn., Fabaceae, was investigated in normal and neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ)-induced non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats and compared with glibenclamide as a reference standard. Two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of the extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles and changes in body weight were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats while serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, magnesium, protein, albumin and glycogen, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in kidney and liver were evaluated additionally in diabetic rats. Treatment with extract at both dose levels was found to exhibit antidiabetic activity, with the higher dose showing more significant activity.
Abstract in English:In the present study, the ethanolic root extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC., Fabaceae, (EDG), have been studied in various acute and chronic ulcer mouse models. Oral administration of root extract, significantly decrease the ulcer index and lesion number in a dose dependent manner against ethanol induced acute gastric ulcer in mice. In gastric ulcerated animal that received high dose of 150 mg/kg EDG, the mucosa showed no ulceration with slight focal congestion and the glands appeared normal. Pylorus ligated mice, pretreated with EDG showed significant decrease in ulcerous activity under chronic condition. The highest dose (150 mg/kg) of the extract provoked a marked increase in protein and glutathione levels, when compare to control. Furthermore, gastric juice, free acidity and total acid output were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner at p<0.05 level. Our results indicate that the EDG possess gastroprotective activity and increasing regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa and thus safe for human use.
Abstract in English:Several studies have implicated the involvement of poor glycemic control and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the development of diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication affecting more than 50% of diabetic patients. However, lack of understanding of the underlying etiology, development of tolerance, inadequate relief and possible toxicity associated with classical analgesics warrant the investigation of the novel agents. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oryzanol (OZ), a commercially-important potent antioxidant component isolated from from crude rice bran oil (cRBO), in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. After eight weeks, diabetic rats developed neuropathy which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia) and increased nociceptive behavior during the formalin test. This was accompanied by decreased motor coordination based on the evaluation of neuromuscular strength. Na+ K+ ATPase, a biochemical marker associated with the development of diabetic neuropathy, was significantly inhibited in the sciatic nerve of diabetic animals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly elevated in diabetic rats, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. Chronic treatment with oryzanol (OZ) (50 and 100 mg/kg) per oral (p.o.) and standard drug glibenclamide (Gl) (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the behavioral as well as biochemical changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. The findings provide experimental evidence to the protective effects of OZ on hyperglycemia-induced thermal hyperalgesia and oxidative stress which might be responsible for diabetes induced nerve damage.
Abstract in English:The species of the genus Lychnophora, Asteraceae, are popularly known as "arnica" and are native from Brazilian savana (Cerrado). They are widely used in Brazilian folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, to treat bruise, pain, rheumatism and for insect bites. For evaluation of acute toxicity, the ethanolic extract was given to albino female and male mice. In open-field test, the extract of Lychnophora trichocarpha (Spreng.) Spreng. (0.750 g/kg) induced a significant inhibition of the spontaneous locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of the animals were observed 1 and 4 h after administration. In traction test, the same dose reduced the muscular force 1 h after administration. The exploratory behavior reduced significantly in the group that received 0.50 g/kg, 1 and 4 h after administration of the extract. The animals that received the doses of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 g/kg did not show any change of blood biochemical parameters comparing to control group and showed some histopathological changes such as congestion and inflammation of kidney and liver. The dose of 1.5 g/kg caused the most serious signs of toxicity. Histopathological changes observed was hemorrhage in 62.5% and pulmonary congestion in 100% of the animals. Brain and liver congestion was found in 62.5% of the animals.
Abstract in English:The use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a commonplace practice and can be of significant help to different laboratories with quality control, especially those that work with plant extracts and phytotherapeutics. This study evaluated ten species of plants (Schinus terebinthifolius; Arctium lappa; Trichilia catigua; Camellia sinensis; Mikania glomerata; Croton echioides; Achyrocline satureioides; Heteropterys aphrodisiaca; Plantago major; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) that are commonly sold by compounding pharmacies, using TLC with reference substances and pharmacopoeic physical and chemical tests (loss on drying, level of extractives, and total ash content). The results showed that the ten species showed losses on drying consonant with the literature. The level of extractives for two species and total ash for five species were also consonant with the literature, and those of the other species were established in this study. The semipurified extracts of the ten species were assayed by TLC, and the analysis with the use of reference substances proved to be effective, in addition to being practical, simple, versatile, and economically viable.
Abstract in English:The Passifloraceae family is extensively used in native Brazilian folk medicine to treat a wide variety of diseases. The problem of flavonoid extraction from Passiflora was treated by application of design of experiments (DOE), as an experiment with mixture including one categorical process variable. The components of the binary mixture were: ethanol (component A) and water (component B); the categorical process variable: extraction method (factor C) was varied at two levels: (+1) maceration and (-1) percolation. ANOVA suggested a cubic model for P. edulis extraction and a quadratic model for P. alata.These results indicate that the proportion of components A and B in the mixture is the main factor involved in significantly increasing flavonoid extraction. In regard to the extraction methods, no important differences were observed, which indicates that these two traditional extraction methods could be effectively used to extract flavonoids from both medicinal plants. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the extract by ORAC method showed that P. edulis displays twice as much antioxidant activity as P. alata. Considering that maceration is a simple, rapid and environmentally friendly extraction method, in this study, the optimized conditions for flavonoid extraction from these Passiflora species is maceration with 75% ethanol for P. edulis and 50% ethanol for P. alata.
Abstract in English:This study was perfomed to assess the in vitro effect of oil from the seed of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) on Felicola subrostratus (Burmeister, 1838) (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae). Six hundred specimens of F. subrostratus from neighborhood of Jordão, Recife-PE, Brazil, were collected by hand directly from the fur of cats infested naturally. The lice were transported in plastic recipients to the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals of the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Brazil) for the immersion test. Four dilutions of andiroba oil (100, 50, 25 and 10%) in distilled water were tested, using Tween 80 as dispersant; two control groups (one with distilled water and the other with monosulfiram) were also formed; four replicates were performed, with 25 specimens for each dilution, totaling 100 lice per treatment. After the test, the insects were kept at room temperature and observed for mortality rates for 72 h. The biological activity of the product achieved 100% mortality of the insects in the first hour at concentrations of 100 and 50% and in the third hour at concentrations of 25 and 10%. The results demonstrate the possibility of controlling F. subrostratus throught the use of oil extracted from andiroba seeds.
Abstract in English:Chemical study of three medicinal plants: from leaves of Piper renitens (Miq.) Yunck, Piperaceae, and Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, and from flowers of Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze, Amaranthaceae, resulted in isolation of nine compounds: three steroids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol from P. renitens and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from A. brasiliana, the diterpene kaurane ent-kauran-16α,17-diol from P. renitens, two derivatives kaempferol-methylether, kumatakenine (kaempferol-3,7-dimethylether) and kaempferol-3,7,3'-trimethylether from S. guianensis and three flavones, crysoeriol (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone), tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone) and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone from A. brasiliana. Compounds structures were determinate using 1D and 2D ¹H NMR and 13C spectral data, mass and IR spectra, comparing with literature data.
Abstract in English:Sophora is a genus of the Fabaceae family, contains about 52 species, nineteen varieties, and seven forms that are widely distributed in Asia, Oceanica, and the Pacific islands, in the family Fabaceae of herbaceous (Sophora flavescens Aiton) to trees (Sophora japonica L.). More than fifteen species in this genus have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicines. In the last decades the use of this genus in traditional Chinese drugs has led to rapid increase in the information available on active components and reported to posses various pharmacological/therapeutic properties. The paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, the biological activities and the correlated chemical compounds of genus Sophora, Fabaceae. More than 300 compounds has been isolated, among them major are quinolizidine alkaloids particularly matrine and oxymatrine and flavonoids particularly prenylated and isoprenylated flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies and clinical studies demonstrated that these chemical constituens possess wide reaching pharmacological actions like anti oxidant, anticancer, anti-asthamatic, anti-neoplastic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antidote, anti pyretic, cardiotonic, antinflammatory, diuretic and in the treatment of skin diseases like eczema, colitis and psoriasis.
Abstract in English:Species of the genus Lantana, belonging to the family Verbenaceae, is among the various species studied scientifically. These species are mainly native to the tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. Currently, they are present in various countries, where they are often grown as ornamental plants. For decades, species of Lantana have been of great interest for phytochemical, biological and pharmacological studies, which have been recently intensified. The components isolated from different species of Lantana cited in the literature constitute the focus of this review. Information ethnopharmacology of Lantana, as well as the activities of their different phytochemicals are discussed. In this review, it was observed that the genus Lantana has been widely studied in relation to its phytochemical components and terpenoids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids are the more common secondary metabolites in Lantana. All these aspects, considered in this review, allow an evaluation of the ethnopharmacological potential of Lantana for the utilization of the large biomass of these plants.
Abstract in English:Chrysobalanaceae is a family composed of seventeen genera and about 525 species. In Africa and South America some species have popular indications for various diseases such as malaria, epilepsy, diarrhea, inflammations and diabetes. Despite presenting several indications of popular use, there are few studies confirming the activities of these species. In the course of evaluating the potential for future studies, the present work is a literature survey on databases of the botanical, chemical, biological and ethnopharmacological data on Chrysobalanaceae species published since the first studies that occurred in the 60's until the present day.
Abstract in English:Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders), central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.