Abstract in English:This study aimed to describe the morphoanatomy of the aerial vegetative organs of seven Smilax species, used in Brazilian folk medicine. Samples of leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. In the frontal view, the walls of the adaxial epidermis are straight in S. brasiliensis, S. cissoides, S. goyazana and sinuous in the other species. The walls of the epidermis on the abaxial surface are straight in S. brasiliensis, S. goyazana, S. rufescens, sinuous in S. campestris, S. fluminensis, S. oblongifolia, and wavy in S. cissoides. The stomata are paracytic in S. brasiliensis, S. goyazana, S. oblongifolia, and S. rufescens, anomocytic in S. cissoides, S. campestris; anisocytic and paracytic in S. fluminensis. The midrib has three vascular bundles that are individually wrapped by lignified cells in S. brasiliensis, S. cissoides, and S. fluminensis. In the other, the three vascular bundles are surrounded by a single lignified sheath. In the stems the vascular cylinder is surrounded by a sclerenchymatous ring with the exception of Smilax fluminensis, which has a starch sheath and internal layers of thin-walled cells.
Abstract in English:Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera, Asteraceae, is popularly known as cambará and cambara-de-folha-grande in Brazil. It is used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. Pharmacological studies revealed anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antibacterial and antiviral activities. The goal of this paper was to carry out morphological and anatomical studies in order to describe the aerial parts of G. polymorpha. The botanical material was collected, fixed, and prepared according to usual light and scanning electron microtechniques. The leaves are simple, oblong-lanceolate to elliptical-lanceolate in form with mucronate acute apex, rounded base, entire or slightly toothed margin, and short petiole. In transection, the epidermis is uniseriate along the leaf blade. A subepidermal layer next to the adaxial side is present. Anomocytic stomata are seen only on the abaxial surface. Capitate glandular trichomes and T-shaped non-glandular trichomes occur on the leaves. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and minor collateral vascular bundles are enclosed by a sheath of thick walled parenchymatic cells. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole has a circular shape. The epidermis of the stem consists of a single layer of cells with glandular and nonglandular trichomes. The vascular cylinder shows typical structure and perivascular fiber caps are next to the phloem.
Abstract in English:This research is part of a larger study of the Brazilian species that are commonly referred to as quinas and are usually used as substitute of Cinchona species. The purpose of the present study was the botanical characterization of the whole and powdered stem bark of Polyouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hil.) Tiegh., Ochnaceae, by morphological and anatomical description, and the analysis of its chemical profile. The external texture of the bark, the whitened pit in the inner bark and the presence of cristarque cells, as well as the shape and arrangement of other lignified cells, are the most important macroscopic and microscopic features for the characterization of the bark. Chlorogenic and cafeic acids were detected in the chemical analysis and can also be used in the identification of the bark.
Abstract in English:Leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli, Alismataceae, were exposed to different doses of γ-radiation (0.00, 1.00, 3.00, 5.00, 10.00, and 20.00 kGy) and the chemical composition of their essential oils was investigated. The extractive process of the essential oil was more favored when the leaves were irradiated. The essential oil components were identified by correlation between GC-FID data and retention parameters obtained from the Kováts method. Moreover, GC-MS analyses of the essential oils were correlated with fragmentation profiles in the NIST standard mass fragmentation data bank. The essential oil of E. macrophyllus contains biologically active constituents of different chemical classes. Acyclic monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes showed increase in concentration when the leaves were exposed to γ-radiation. On the other hand, the component concentrations of some chemical classes were lightly decreased, i.e., for bicyclic monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, carboxylic esters, and carotenoid derivatives.
Abstract in English:It is widely accepted that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid was found in all but one species. Additionally, some species contained docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid of the ω-6 series, was present in all studied macroalgae. Fucus spiralis L. exhibited the highest amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 and ω-6 series. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio in half of the studied species was lower than 1. This information reinforces the potential application of some brown macroalgae as dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Abstract in English:The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiï¬‚orine), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin) and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin). The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS) with those ones of the literature.
Abstract in English:Monensin A is an important commercially available natural product isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensins that shows antibiotic and anti-parasitic activities. This molecule has a significant influence in the antibiotic market, but until now there are no studies on putative metabolite formations. Bioorganic catalysts applying metalloporphyrins and mono-oxygen donors are able to mimic the cytochrome P450 reactions. This model has been employed for natural product metabolism studies affording several new putative metabolites and in vivo experiments confirming the relevance of this procedure. In this work we evaluated the potential of 10,15,20-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin metal(III) chloride [Fe(TFPP)Cl] catalyst models to afford a putative monensin A metabolite. Oxidation agents such as meta-chloroperoxy benzoic acid, iodosylbenzene, hydrogen peroxide 30 wt.% and tert-butyl hydroperoxide 70 wt.%, were used to investigate different reaction conditions, in addition to the analysis of the influence of the solvent. The quantification of total monensin A conversion and the structure of the new hydroxylated putative metabolite were proposed based on electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The porphyrin tested, afforded moderate conversions of monensin A in all reaction conditions and the selectivity was found to be dependent on the oxidation/medium employed.
Abstract in English:Oxalis corniculata L. (creeping wood sorrel) is medicinally important member of family Oxalidaceae, and is distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been used in different systems of traditional medications for different diseases. Corniculatin A, a new flavonoid glucoside, was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the whole plant along with luteolin, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, This is the first report of these compounds from this species. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data including mass and 2D NMR experiments.
Abstract in English:Sulfated polysaccharides derived from seaweed have shown great potential for use in the development of new drugs. In this study, we observed that a low-molecular-weight sulfated polysaccharide from Caulerpa racemosa, termed CrSP, could interact with secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. When native sPLA2 (14 kDa) was incubated with CrSP, they formed a molecular complex (sPLA2:CrSP) with a molecular mass of 32 kDa, approximately. Size exclusion chromatography experiments suggested that CrSP formed a stable complex with sPLA2. We belived that sPLA2 and SPCr are involved an ionic interaction between negatively charged CrSP and the positively charged basic amino acid residues of sPLA2, because this interaction induced significant changes in sPLA2 enzymatic and pharmacological activities. CrSP caused a significant increase in sPLA2 enzymatic and bactericidal activity and increased its edematogenic effect. A pharmacological assay showed that the myotoxic activity of sPLA2:CrSP is unrelated to its enzymatic activity and that sPLA2:CrSP may have a practical application as a natural antibacterial agent for use in humans and commercially raised animals.
Abstract in English:Many species from Croton genus have been used in traditional medicine and its pharmacological activities demonstrated. Croton argyrophyllus Kunth, Euphorbiaceae, is a shrub that grows in the flora of Northeastern Brazilian. The essential oil of C. argyrophyllus leaves was tested in rodents (10-100 mg/kg, p.o.) in classical models of inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw oedema and peritonitis) and its chemical constituents were determined by GC-MS/FID analysis. Nitric oxide radical-scavenging activity and lipidic peroxidation were determined to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the essential oil (0.001-100 µg/mL). Forty-two components were identified, among them, bicyclogermacrene (14.60%) and spathulenol (8.27%) were the most abundant ones. C. argyrophyllus essential oil reduced significantly the oedema (30 and 100 mg/kg, p<0.05) and, besides, reduced the carrageenan increase in mieloperoxidase activity (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p<0.001). The carrageenan-induced peritonitis was significantly reduced (p<0.001) by the essential oil (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg). The essential oil (100 mg/kg) reduces the total peritoneal lavage NOx- concentration (p<0.01). Nitric oxide radical generated from sodium nitroprusside was found to be inhibited by the essential oil (p<0.001). C. argyrophyllus essential oil was able to prevent Fe2+- or Fe2+ plus H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation (p<0.001). This study suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect of the essential oil of C. argyrophyllus observed in the present study can be related, at least in part, its antioxidant capacity.
Abstract in English:Eugenia jambolana Lam., Myrtaceae, is a widely distributed and traditionally well known plant in India. The root bark of the plant was extracted with ethanol and then successively fractionated into petroleum ether fraction, chloroform fraction, n-butanol fraction and methanol fraction. The extract and fractions of the plant material were evaluated for the antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced nociception test, and anti-inflammatory activity was screened by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet induced granuloma formation and adjuvant induced arthritis in rat models. The test materials showed the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect in dose dependent manner and the petroleum ether fraction was found to be most potent among the test materials. At 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. dose petroleum ether fraction significantly inhibited 54.28% writhing response and 73.77% formalin induced nociception in mice. The fraction with same dose showed significant 79.31% inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, 57.78% anti-proliferative effect and 77.93% inhibition of adjuvant induced arthritis. The bioactive petroleum ether fraction was then subjected to column chromatography which led to isolate three compounds, namely, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and lupeol. These compounds were characterized and identified by IR, ¹H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy.
Abstract in English:Several species of Croton have been described with biological activities, mainly due to diterpenes, alkaloids and/or other secondary metabolites. These activities account for the traditional use of Croton species to treat certain diseases in South America, Asia and Western Africa. The crude methanol extracts obtained from leaves and steam bark of Croton dichrous Müll. Arg., C. erythroxyloides Baill., C. myrianthus Müll. Arg. and C. splendidus Mart. ex Colla were tested for antiproliferative activity against ten human cancer cell lines. Chemical analyses of all extracts were carried out by GC/MS and HPLC/MS/MS. The leaf extract obtained from C. erythroxyloides showed potent activity against PC-3 (prostate) and OVCAR-3 (ovary) cell lines. Lupeol is suggested to be involved in such activity. Tiliroside, an acyl-glycosilated flavonoid ubiquitous in all tested extracts, seems to play an important role in the observed moderate activity of most extracts against the leukemia K562 cell lineage.
Abstract in English:This paper presents an investigation on the cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell from dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water extracts, and hexane and chloroform fractions from green, brown and red algae collected at Riacho Doce Beach, north coast of Alagoas, Brazil, against the cancer cells K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia), HEp-2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma) and NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma) through the MTT colorimetric method. The dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction of Hypnea musciformis showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 (3.8±0.2 µg.mL-1 and 6.4±0.4 µg.mL-1, respectively). Dichloromethane extracts of Dictyota dichotoma (16.3±0.3 µg.mL-1) and the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (6.0±0.03 µg.mL-1) and chloroform fraction of P. gymnospora (8.2±0.4) were more active against HEp-2 as well as ethanol extracts of P. gymnospora (15.9±2.8 µg.mL-1) and chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (15.0±1.3 µg.mL-1) against the cell NCI-H292. The constituents with higher anticancer action are present in the extracts of dichloromethane and chloroform and in the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis, Digenea simplex, P. gymnospora, and D.dichotoma. In the case of the seaweed S. vulgare, the anticancer constituents are present in the aqueous extract.
Abstract in English:Abarema cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & J.W. Grimes, Fabaceae, is a native species of Brazil popularly known as "barbatimão", frequently found along the north coast of the state of Bahia. Local communities make an infusion from its stem bark, which is used to treat several diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of A. cochliacarpos extracts in mice Mus musculus. The bark infusion and hydroalcoholic extract were administered nasogastrically into two groups of eight animals (four male and four female each). After 45 days all mice were killed and the livers were collected for further histological analysis. Hepatic steatosis, congestion of the hepatic vessels and medicinal plantspresence of macrophages and lymphocytes infiltrates in the liver, were observed in both steatosis group of animals, additionally animals that received the stem bark infusion presented an accumulation of pigments. None of the animals belonging to the negative control group showed any of the symptoms described above. In conclusion, the hydroalcoholic extract and infusion of A. cochliacarpos stem bark were proven to cause intoxication in mice. The hepatotoxicity of the infusion was more aggressive in females. Further studies are necessary to isolate compounds responsible for the toxic characteristics of A. cochliacarpos.
Abstract in English:Current therapeutic for the treatment of anxiety is associated with a wild variety of side effects. The traditional use of plant extract to health care can indicate an important source of new pharmaceuticals. Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, Fabaceae, is a plant commonly employed in the Brazilian folk medicine to treat inflammatory conditions. Nevertheless, despite its popular use there are no studies related to its possible neuropharmacological effect. Here, we investigated the possible anxiolytic effect of the extract of B. virgilioides after acute and sub-chronic treatment in mice. The aqueous extract from the stem barks of B. virgilioides (20, 200 or 400 mg/kg) was orally administered, and its anxiolytic effect was evaluated in the elevated plus maze, open-field and rota-rod tests. Diazepam was employed as standard drug. The aqueous extract treatment was effective in inducing anxiolytic effects with single acute treatment, a phenomenon that remained after chronic treatment. However, no changes in spontaneous locomotor activity or myorelaxant effect after aqueous extract treatment. The extract was either safe with no deaths in mice treated orally with 1000 mg/kg. These findings suggest that the aqueous extract from the stem barks of Bowdichia virgilioides has an acute and sub-chronic anxiolytic-like effect without compromising motor activity, demonstrating an advantage regarding to antidepressant drugs.
Abstract in English:The present research was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Ficus mollis Vahl, Moraceae, against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance. Wistar albino rats were treated with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) for ten days to induce insulin sensitivity. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of F. mollis were evaluated by using two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight p.o.). The day 11 all rats were sacrificed and serum was collected for biochemical estimation, liver and pancreas were excised for histopathology. Administration of dexamethasone shows hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia due to insulin resistance. Ethyl acetate extract of F. mollis reverted the hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia caused by dexamethasone in a dose dependent manner. The changes were further confirmed by histopathological report. The extract effect was compared with reference standard glibenclamide, which shows a similar effect. From these findings it has been concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of Ficus mollis offered significant protection against dexamethasone induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia.
Abstract in English:The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion (p<0.05) and reduced mortality. The aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg dose reduced hind limb tonic extension phase of maximal electroshock induced convulsion induced convulsion in mice (p<0.05). The pretreated aqueous extract of D. triflorum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue (p<0.001). The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.
Abstract in English:The flowers of the Chiliotrichum diffusum (G. Forst.) Kuntze, Asteraceae, have long been used in traditional medicine and rituals. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of a decoction of the flowers were evaluated and a phytochemical analysis was performed by HPLC-DAD. In order to evaluate the antinociceptive activity, the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and hot plate tests were used. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenaninduced rat paw oedema. The decoction induced a significant anti-inflammatory effect (inhibition of 56.0% at 3 h) and produced significant inhibition on nociception in the acetic acid test (ED50 35 mg/kg i.p.; ED50 709 mg/kg p.o.). In the hot plate test, the antinociceptive activity of the extract employed at 500 mg/kg i.p. was significantly suppressed by pretreatment with naloxone (5 mg/kg). HPLC analysis showed the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, afzelin, quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol. The decoction of C. diffusum proved to have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects that may be related to the presence of the flavones, flavonols and phenolic acids identified. The opiod system seems to be involved in the mechanism of antinociception of the extract.
Abstract in English:The acute effect of crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of Musa x paradisiaca L., Musaceae, leaves on glycemia, serum insulin secretion and glycogen content in an in vivo approach was evaluated. In addition, the in vitro effect on disaccharidases activity and albumin glycation was studied. The crude extract and fractions, n-butanol and aqueous residual, reduced glycemia and increased liver glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats, inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products in vitro. Also, a significant increase in insulin secretion and muscle glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats was observed with oral administration of the n-butanol fraction. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of rutin in crude extract and fractions of M. x paradisiaca leaves as the major compound. These beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for M. x paradisiaca leaves and the presence of rutin as the major compound indicate potential anti-diabetic properties, since previous studies have been reported that rutin can modulate glucose homeostasis.
Abstract in English:Today, one of the trends of the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food market is the development of products with components of natural origin, rationally exploiting biodiversity. Brazilian population makes secular use of medicinal plants including andiroba, whose oil is used in folk medicine as febrifuge, pain-relieving, anti-parasitic, anti-allergic as well as insect repellant. The present study attempts to evaluate the profile of utilization of andiroba by analyzing the patenting trends based on information collected on the databases of the World Intellectual Property Organization, European Patent Office and Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property in the period from 1990 to 2011. The following parameters were analyzed: chronological aspect of the applications, countries of priority, international patent classification, technologies and actors in the technological platform. The temporal analysis of the applications shows an evident increase despite a discontinuous evolution of the number of applications. Pharmaceutical, chemical and cosmetic areas were identified as the main areas for commercial application of the plant. Brazil is the country with the largest number of applications even though the majority of the patent technologies are already in public domain, indicating that the technological information contained in these documents could be used for research and investment in several areas.