Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, Volume: 24, Issue: 1, Published: 2014
  • Ouratea genus: chemical and pharmacological aspects Review

    Fidelis, Queli C.; Ribeiro, Tereza A.N.; Araújo, Marcelo F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de

    Abstract in English:

    Ouratea and the other genera of the Ochnaceae family are a rich source of flavonoids and biflavonoids. These can be used as chemotaxonomic markers of Ouratea. Some biflavonoids, as well as extracts of the Ouratea species show important biological activities, such as antitumour, antiviral, vasodilation, antimicrobial and DNA topoisomerase inhibition. On the other hand species of this genus are used in folk medicine for gastric distress, dysentery, and diarrhea; as an astringent, a tonic, and for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. The information collected in this review attempts to summarise the phytochemical and biological activities studied in Ouratea species that may be helpful to guide researches, to undertake further investigation concerning the common properties of Ouratea species and evaluation as a source of active compounds.
  • Changes in the content of bioactive substances among Hypericum montbretii populations from Turkey Original Articles

    Cirak, Cuneyt; Radusiene, Jolita; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakstas, Valdas; Çamaş, Necdet

    Abstract in English:

    In the present study, we investigated the variation in the content of seventeen secondary metabolites among Hypericum montbretii Spach., Hypericaceae, populations from five different growing zones in Turkey for the first time.The plants were collected at full flowering, and after they were dried at room temperature, they were assayed for chemical contents by HPLC. Chemical constituents of plants varied significantly among populations except for 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid which was accumulated at similar levels. Plants from population - 1 yielded the highest amount of hypericin and pseudohypericin (1.27 and 2.97 mg/g, respectively) while hyperforin and adhyperforin accumulations were the highest in plants from population - 2 (6.64 and 1.24 mg/g, respectively). (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin were accumulated at significantly higher levels by plants of population - 4 (1.54 and 4.35 mg/g, respectively). The highest accumulation level of the rest compounds namely, chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, amentoflavone, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, avicularin and rutin was reached in plants from population-5 (2.64, 4.37, 2.35, 10.26, 3.52, 4.37, 1.55, 1.56 and 20.54 mg/g, respectively). The pronounced chemical diversity between populations is discussed to possibly be the result of different environmental, morphological and genetic factors.
  • Analysis of essential oils of Origanum vulgare from six production areas of China and Pakistan Original Articles

    Gong, HY.; Liu, WH.; LV, GY.; Zhou, Xiaoying

    Abstract in English:

    Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae, from six different production areas of China and Pakistan were analyzed via gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and examined for their volatile constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS). This procedure allowed the identification of 11 to 46 components among six production areas, representing 98.5% to 99.9% of the total oil extracted. The yields of the essential oil of the six production areas of O. vulgare ranged from 0.1 to 0.7%. The class of oxygenated monoterpenes was predominant in all the essential oils. However, samples S5 and S6 have high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (33.7 and 43.7%); while sample S6 is high on oxygenated sesquiterpene (32.9%). The principal component analysis of O. vulgare was employed to provide a comprehensive evaluation of essential oil components. The cluster analysis of O. vulgare was classified into three subsets, characterized according to the major essential oil components. The current study investigated the composition differences of essential oil among six production areas offering foundation for quality control, resource optimization, and clinical treatments.
  • Rapid identification of three varieties of Chrysanthemum with near infrared spectroscopy Original Articles

    Chen, Cun-wu; Yan, Hui; Han, Bang-xing

    Abstract in English:

    A total of 139 batches of Chrysanthemum samples were randomly divided into calibration set (92 batches) and prediction set (47 batches). The near infrared diffuses reflectance spectra of Chrysanthemum varieties were preprocessed by a first order derivative (D1) and autoscaling, and a modelwas built using partial least squares analysis. In this study, three Chrysanthemum varieties were identified, the accuracy rates in calibration sets of Dabaiju, Huju, and Xiaobaiju are 97.60, 96.65, and 94.70%, respectively; And 95.16, 86.11, and 93.46% accuracy rate in prediction sets was obtained. The research results demonstrate that the qualitative analysis can be conducted by machine learning combined with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, which provides a new method for rapid and non-invasive identification of Chrysanthemum varieties.
  • Assessment of free-radical scavenging activity of Gypsophila pilulifera: assay-guided isolation of verbascoside as the main active component Original Articles

    Chima, Navdeep K.; Nahar, Lutfun; Majinda, Runner R.T.; Celik, Sezgin; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    Abstract in English:

    Gypsophila pilulifera, Boiss & Heldr, Caryophyllaceae, is a perennial medicinal herb that grows in the southwestern region of Turkey. Except for only one report on the isolation of cytotoxic saponins from the underground parts of G. pilulifera, there are no published thorough phytochemical or bioactivity studies on this species. In the present study, the free-radical scavenging activity of extracts and fractions of the stems of G. pilulifera was evaluated, using a slightly modified and more precise version of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reported here for the first time. The DPPH assay-guided HPLC-PDA-purification of the active solid-phase extraction fraction (50% methanol in water) of the methanolic extract exhibited verbascoside as the main free-radical scavenger present in this species. The structure of this active compound was resolved by spectroscopy, and the free-radical scavenging potential of verbascoside was determined.
  • Synergistic antibacterial action of β-sitosterol-D-glucopyranoside isolated from Desmostachya bipinnata leaves with antibiotics against common human pathogens Original Articles

    Subramaniam, Shankar; Keerthiraja, Manikandaraja; Sivasubramanian, Aravind

    Abstract in English:

    Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf, Poaceae, or Kusha in Sanskrit, is a sacred grass used extensively in Indian Vedic practices. It is well known for its medicinal value and is used in traditional Indian medicine to treat microbial infection in combination with other herbs. An effort has been made to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds from the hydroalcoholic extract of D. bipinnata through bioassay guided fractionation, column chromatography. Their individual or combined antimicrobial properties were determined by the Resazurin Microtitre Assay, the checkerboard assay in combination with antibiotics, and by time kill curve analysis. β-Sitosterol-D-glucopyranoside was the bioactive compound identified to have the best antimicrobial activity (MIC 6-50 µg/ml) and it works synergistically with most antibiotics, especially with ciprofloxacin. Time kill curves showed that BS kills most of the pathogens within 5-10 h. To our knowledge at its best, this is the first time report of antibacterial synergy of β-sitosterol-D-glucopyranoside from D. bipinnata.
  • Determination of mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum aqueous extracts by Allium, Ames, and MTT tests Original Articles

    Eren, Yasin; Özata, Ahmet

    Abstract in English:

    Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of roots, stems and leaves of Limonium globuliferum Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, aqueous extracts were studied by Allium, Ames, and MTT tests. These are plant, bacterial and mammalian cell assays, respectively. The Allium test analyses showed that aqueous extracts of this species have dose-dependent toxicity and induce chromosomal anomalies based on defects in the spindle fibers. EC50 values of root stem and leaf aqueous extracts were 32.5, 50, and 50 g/l, respectively. It was observed that there was an inverse correlation between root growth and extract concentration. The lowest mitotic index value (22.72 %) was found in L. globuliferum root extract. As a result of the chromosome aberrations test, sticky chromosomes, anaphase bridges, laggard chromosomes, and anaphase-telophase disorders were highly detected especially in high concentration of the extract. In the Ames test, mutagenic effects were determined at all concentrations of stem and leaf aqueous extracts and only two concentrations of root extracts of L. globuliferum. Most of the extracts induced cytotoxic effects by the MTT test based on mitochondrial activity. Nevertheless, some of the extracts induced t cell proliferation.
  • Phytochemical study and antinociceptive effect of the hexanic extract of leaves from Combretum duarteanum and friedelin, a triterpene isolated from the hexanic extract, in orofacial nociceptive protocols Original Articles

    Quintans, Jullyana S.S.; Costa, Emmanoel V.; Tavares, Josean F.; Souza, Thais T.; Araújo, Silvan S.; Estevam, Charles S.; Barison, Andersson; Cabral, Analúcia G.S.; Silva, Marcelo S.; Serafini, Mairim R.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    Abstract in English:

    Combretum duarteanum Cambess, Combretaceae, is a plant widely distributed in Northeastern Brazil and, in folk medicine, stems and leaves are used for pain treatment. We investigated the antinociceptive effects of the hexanic extract of leaves from C. duarteanum and of friedelin, its main compound, in formalin-, glutamate- and capsaicin- induced orofacial nociception models. In order to isolate friedelin from the hexanic extract, flash chromatography technique was used. Male mice (n = 8/group) were pretreated with hexanic extract, friedelin, morphine or vehicle, before the injection of algogen agents into the right upper lip (perinasal area). The test of formalin-induced orofacial nociception showed that hexanic extract and friedelin significantly reduced nociception (p < 0.001) in both phases of testing. In the glutamate and capsaicin-induced orofacial nociception tests, pre-treatment with hexanic extract produced a significant reduction of orofacial nociception (p < 0.001) at all doses tested.The results suggest the hexanic extract and friedelin possess antinociceptive effects in models of orofacial nociception in rodents.
  • Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin Original Articles

    Dantas, Camila G.; Nunes, Tássia L.G.M.; Nunes, Tâmara L.G.M.; Paixão, Ailma O. da; Reis, Francisco P.; Júnior, Waldecy de L.; Cardoso, Juliana C.; Gramacho, Kátia P.; Gomes, Margarete Z.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field), catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze), depression (forced swimming test) and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control) or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol).The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol.These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.
  • The sarsaparilla market in the state of São Paulo (Brazil) and the challenges of cultivation Original Articles

    Soares, Marli K.M.; Martins, Aline R.; Montanari Junior, Ilio; Figueira, Glyn M.; Zucchi, Maria I.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (188.3 g) is significantly higher than those of other species (28.3-79.6 g). The study demonstrated that high genetic diversity among the Smilax brasiliensis plants belonging to the CPQBA germplasm bank, which was confirmed by the results of the genotyping study that used a SSR marker on S. brasiliensis. The high consumption of sarsaparilla and the low yield of young plants cultivated from seeds with high genetic variability reinforce the need for further studies on the production of Smilax species.
  • Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal Original Articles

    Carvalho, Ana C.B.; Santos, Ligia A.; Silveira, Dâmaris

    Abstract in English:

    The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.
  • Herbalists, traditional healers and pharmacists: a view of the tuberculosis in Ghana Original Articles

    Amoah, Solomon K.S.; Sandjo, Louis Pergaud; Bazzo, Maria Luiza; Leite, Silvana N.; Biavatti, Maique Weber

    Abstract in English:

    This paper is the result of a visit by Brazilian researchers to Ghana, with the aim of improving understanding of the relationship between traditional healers and conventional health practices, specifically in relation to tuberculosis. Through this exploratory visit, this group of researchers promoted by the Edital Pro Africa (CNPq) had an opportunity to learn about, reflect on, and discuss the different social, economic and cultural realities and contexts that have led to the different health conditions and forms of healthcare in Ghana. Besides the direct relationship between the social and economic conditions of the country and the health of its population, it was also concluded that there is a clear distancing, in the Ghanaian reality, between the traditional healers and the conventional system, in terms of culture and modes of operation, each constituting isolated systems with little or no collaboration between them.The visit enabled us to see the difficulties involved in managing TB, including diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and co-infection with HIV. The majority of patients with TB only go to hospital after several attempts at self-medication, due to the non-specificity of the principal symptoms, and also to the trust in the traditional medicine. Initiatives to encourage research into medicinal plants in Ghana are seeking partnerships with developed countries, but not always with clear or secure national interests. For the traditional healers, there are high hopes that the information gathered by researchers from the local universities, on the plants and traditional methods they use, will result in affirmation and recognition of their practices, but they complain strongly that they receive no feedback on the research carried out.
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