Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, Volume: 17, Issue: 3, Published: 2013
  • Cross-cultural adaptation and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test and MiniBESTest in the elderly and individuals with Parkinson's disease: application of the Rasch model Original Articles

    Maia, Angélica C.; Rodrigues-de-Paula, Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia C.; Teixeira, Raquel L. L.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Idosos e indivíduos com problemas neurológicos, como a doença de Parkinson (DP), apresentam déficits de equilíbrio que podem comprometer a mobilidade e independência. A avaliação do equilíbrio deve identificar a instabilidade e direcionar a intervenção. OBJETIVOS: Traduzir e adaptar transculturalmente o Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) e o MiniBESTest para o português-Brasil e analisar suas propriedades psicométricas. MÉTODO: Os testes foram traduzidos e adaptados para o português seguindo instruções padronizadas e foram submetidos à análise de confiabilidade teste-reteste (dez idosos; dez indivíduos com DP). As propriedades psicométricas foram avaliadas pela análise Rasch (35 idosos; 35 indivíduos com DP). RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de confiabilidade dos testes para itens e indivíduos variaram de 0,91 a 0,98, indicando estabilidade e possibilidade de reprodução das medidas em aplicações subsequentes. No BESTest, os índices de separação dos indivíduos (4,19) e dos itens (5,36) determinaram, respectivamente, seis níveis de habilidade de equilíbrio e sete níveis de dificuldade. No MiniBESTest, os índices dividiram os indivíduos (3,16) em quatro níveis de habilidade e os itens (6,41) em nove níveis de dificuldade. Dois itens do BESTest não se adequaram às expectativas do modelo, o que não comprometeu sua validade de constructo. No MiniBESTest não houve item errático. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados dão suporte à função de diagnóstico e triagem para o BESTest e MiniBESTest, respectivamente, e sugerem que as versões brasileiras apresentam adequada confiabilidade, validade de constructo, estabilidade das respostas e capacidade de discriminação entre diferentes níveis de habilidade do equilíbrio em idosos e indivíduos com DP.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: Older adults and individuals with neurological problems such as Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit balance deficits that might impair their mobility and independence. The assessment of balance must be useful in identifying the presence of instability and orient interventions. OBJECTIVE: To translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and MiniBESTest to Brazilian Portuguese and analyze its psychometric properties. METHOD: The tests were translated and adapted to Portuguese according to a standard method and then subjected to a test-retest reliability assessment (10 older adults; 10 individuals with PD). The psychometric properties were assessed by the Rasch model (35 older adults; 35 individuals with PD). RESULTS: The reliability coefficient of the tests relative to the items and subjects varied from 0.91 and 0.98, which is indicative of the stability and reproducibility of the measures. In the BESTest, the person (4.19) and item (5.36) separation index established six balance ability levels and seven levels of difficulty, respectively. In the MiniBESTest, the person (3.16) and item (6.41) separation index established four balance ability levels and nine levels of difficulty, respectively. Two items in the BESTest did not fit with the model expectations, but the construct validity was not compromised. No item in the MiniBESTest was erratic. CONCLUSIONS: The results corroborate the diagnostic and screening functions of the BESTest and MiniBESTest, respectively, and indicate that the Brazilian versions exhibit adequate reliability, construct validity, response stability, and capacity to distinguish among various balance ability levels in older adults and individuals with PD.
  • Prediction equations for maximal respiratory pressures of Brazilian adolescents Original Articles

    Mendes, Raquel E. F.; Campos, Tania F.; Macêdo, Thalita M. F.; Borja, Raíssa O.; Parreira, Verônica F.; Mendonça, Karla M. P. P.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: The literature emphasizes the need for studies to provide reference values and equations able to predict respiratory muscle strength of Brazilian subjects at different ages and from different regions of Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To develop prediction equations for maximal respiratory pressures (MRP) of Brazilian adolescents. METHOD: In total, 182 healthy adolescents (98 boys and 84 girls) aged between 12 and 18 years, enrolled in public and private schools in the city of Natal-RN, were evaluated using an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed®) according to a standardized protocol. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics 17.0 software, with a significance level of 5%. Data normality was verified using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and descriptive analysis results were expressed as the mean and standard deviation. To verify the correlation between the MRP and the independent variables (age, weight, height and sex), the Pearson correlation test was used. To obtain the prediction equations, stepwise multiple linear regression was used. RESULTS: The variables height, weight and sex were correlated to MRP. However, weight and sex explained part of the variability of MRP, and the regression analysis in this study indicated that these variables contributed significantly in predicting maximal inspiratory pressure, and only sex contributed significantly to maximal expiratory pressure. CONCLUSION: This study provides reference values and two models of prediction equations for maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and sets the necessary normal lower limits for the assessment of the respiratory muscle strength of Brazilian adolescents.
  • Chester step test: assessment of functional capacity and magnitude of cardiorespiratory response in patients with COPD and healthy subjects Original Articles

    Karloh, Manuela; Corrêa, Krislainy S.; Martins, Letícia Q.; Araujo, Cintia L. P.; Matte, Darlan L.; Mayer, Anamaria F.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A avaliação da capacidade funcional em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) tem sido realizada por métodos simples, de fácil aplicação e que mimetizam as atividades cotidianas, como o teste step Chester (TChester). OBJETIVOS: Investigar se o TChester é capaz de diferenciar a capacidade funcional e a magnitude da resposta cardiorrespiratória de pacientes com DPOC e de indivíduos saudáveis e comparar com a resposta cardiorrespiratória induzida pelos testes de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6min) e Shuttle (TShuttle). MÉTODO: Participaram dez pacientes com DPOC (64±10 anos, volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo - VEF1 de 38,1±11,8% do predito) e dez saudáveis (63±7 anos, IMC de 24,5±3,1 e VEF1 de 95,8±18,0% do predito) que realizaram avaliação da função pulmonar, estado e capacidade funcional. RESULTADOS: O grupo DPOC obteve pior desempenho nos três testes, quando comparado ao controle (TChester 2,1±0,9 vs 4,1±1,1 níveis completos; TC6min: 435±105,1 vs 593±87,3 m; TShuttle 251±84,6 vs 436±55,4 m; p<0,05). O TChester correlacionou-se com o TShuttle e com o TC6min (r=0,67 e 0,83, respectivamente; p<0,05). Não se observaram diferenças na frequência cardíaca (FC) e dispneia nos níveis do TChester entre os grupos (p>0,05). A SpO2 apresentou-se mais reduzida no grupo DPOC já no primeiro nível do TChester (p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: O TChester é válido na avaliação da capacidade funcional de pacientes com DPOC, sendo capaz de diferenciá-los de indivíduos saudáveis, induzindo similar demanda cardiovascular e maior dessaturação nos pacientes com DPOC.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: the assessment of functional capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been performed by simple and easy to apply methods that mimic everyday activities, such as the Chester step test (TChester). OBJECTIVES: to investigate whether TChester is able to differentiate functional capacity and the magnitude of cardiorespiratory response of patients with COPD from healthy subjects; and to compare it with the cardiorespiratory response induced by shuttle test (TShuttle) and six-minute walk test (6MWT). METHOD: 10 patients with COPD (64±10 years, and forced expiratory volume at the first second - FEV1 38.1±11.8% predicted) and 10 healthy subjects (63±7 years, and FEV1 of 95.8±18.0% predicted) underwent evaluation of pulmonary function, functional status and capacity (6MWT, TShuttle and TChester). RESULTS: COPD patients had worst performance in all tests, when compared to healthy subjects (TChester 2,1±0,9 vs. 4,1±1,1 completed levels; TC6min: 435±105,1 vs. 593±87,3 m; TShuttle 251±84,6 vs. 436±55,4 m; p<0.05). TChester correlated with TShuttle and 6MWT (r =0.67 and 0.83, respectively, p<0.05). There were no differences in heart rate and dyspnea in TChester levels between groups (p>0.05). SpO2 was lower in COPD patients since the first TChester level (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: TChester is valid in the assessment of functional capacity of COPD patients, being able to distinguish them from healthy subjects, inducing similar cardiovascular demand and greater desaturation in COPD patients.
  • Late morbidity in upper limb function and quality of life in women after breast cancer surgery Original Articles

    Assis, Márcia R.; Marx, Angela G.; Magna, Luis A.; Ferrigno, Iracema S. V.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O câncer de mama é a neoplasia maligna mais frequente na população feminina brasileira. Nos últimos anos, houve grande evolução das técnicas cirúrgicas e aumento do número de cirurgias conservadoras da mama, entretanto a morbidade imediata ou tardia após a cirurgia, sob a forma de comprometimento funcional e dor, ainda é um significativo problema clínico. OBJETIVO: Verificar a relação entre o comprometimento funcional tardio do membro superior e a qualidade de vida de mulheres submetidas à cirurgia do câncer de mama. MÉTODO: Participaram da pesquisa 81 mulheres com tempo decorrido de cirurgia variando entre um a cinco anos. Realizou-se levantamento das queixas referidas pelas pacientes em relação ao membro superior e foram aplicados os questionários Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) e European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQC-30 e BR23). RESULTADOS: A correlação entre o escore DASH e o tempo decorrido de cirurgia demonstrou que, quanto maior este último, maiores são as dificuldades de funcionalidade dos membros superiores das pacientes entrevistadas (r=0,459; p<0,0001). Houve correlação estatisticamente significativa entre o escore DASH e a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde. CONCLUSÃO: O comprometimento funcional tardio apresentou impacto significativo na função do membro superior, na vida cotidiana e na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde das mulheres que foram submetidas à cirurgia do câncer de mama.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Brazilian women. In recent years, there has been great progress in and an increasing number of breast-conserving surgical techniques; however, immediate or late morbidity after surgery, in the form of functional impairment and pain, remains a significant clinical problem. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between late upper limb functional impairment and the quality of life in women subjected to breast cancer surgery. METHOD: A total of 81 women participated in the study, with the length of time since surgery ranging from one to five years. A survey of upper limb complaints reported by patients was conducted, and the questionnaires Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQC-30 and BR23) were applied. RESULTS: The correlation between the DASH score and the length of time since surgery determined that the longer the time since surgery, the greater the difficulties in functionality of the upper limb (r=0.459; p<0.0001). A statistically significant correlation was observed between the DASH score and health-related quality of life. CONCLUSION: Late functional impairment had a significant impact on upper limb function in everyday life and health-related quality of life for women who underwent breast cancer surgery.
  • Effect of tibiotarsal joint inflammation on gene expression and cross-sectional area in rat soleus muscle Original Articles

    Ramírez, Carolina; Russo, Thiago L.; Delfino, Gabriel; Peviani, Sabrina M.; Alcântara, Carolina; Salvini, Tania F.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: Joint inflammation is a common clinical problem in patients treated by physical therapists. The hypothesis of this study is that joint inflammation induces molecular and structural changes in the soleus muscle, which is composed mainly of slow-twitch muscle fibers. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of tibiotarsal joint inflammation on muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), gene expression levels (atrogin-1, MuRF1, MyoD, myostatin, p38MAPK, NFκB, TNF-alpha), and TNF-alpha protein in the soleus muscle. METHOD: Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 periods (2, 7 and 15 days) and assigned to 4 groups (control, sham, inflammation, and immobilization). RESULTS: In the inflammation group at 2 days, MuRF1 and p38MAPK expression had increased, and NFκB mRNA levels had decreased. At 7 days, myostatin expression had decreased. At 7 and 15 days, this group had muscle fiber CSA reduction. At 2 days, the immobilization group showed increased atrogin-1, MuRF1, NFκB, MyoD, and p38MAPK expressions and reduced muscle fiber CSA. At 7 and 15 days, myostatin mRNA levels had increased, and the CSA had decreased. The sham group showed increased p38MAPK and myostatin expressions at 2 and 7 days, respectively. No changes occurred in TNF-alpha gene or protein expression. CONCLUSION: Acute joint inflammation induces gene expression related to the proteolytic pathway without reduction in muscle fiber CSA. Chronic joint inflammation induced muscle atrophy without up-regulation of important genes belonging to the proteolytic pathway. Thus, muscle adaptation may differ according to the stage of joint inflammation, which suggests that the therapeutic modalities used by physical therapists at each stage should also be different.
  • Reproducibility of step tests in patients with bronchiectasis Original Articles

    Camargo, Anderson A.; Lanza, Fernanda C.; Tupinambá, Thaiz; Corso, Simone D.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: The step test has been used to assess exercise capacity in patients with chronic respiratory disease; however, its use has not been described with regard to patients with bronchiectasis (BCT). OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the reliability of the Chester step test (CST) and the modified incremental step test (MIST) and also correlated these tests with pulmonary function, heart rate (HR), and distance walked during the 6-min walk test (6-MWT). METHOD: On separate days, 17 patients randomly underwent two CSTs, two MISTs, and two 6-MWTs. Number of steps (NOSs), HR, and perceived exertion were recorded immediately before and after these tests. RESULTS: NOSs were similar across CSTs (124±65 and 125±67) and MISTs (158±83 and 156±76). Differences were not found across the CSTs and MISTs with regard to HR (138±25 bpm and 136±27 bpm), SpO2 (91±5% and 91±3%), perceived exertion (dyspnea=4 [3-5] and 4 [2-4.5]) and fatigue (4 [2-6] and 4 [3-5]). The CST was significantly briefer than the MIST (6.0±2.2 min and 8.6±3.0 min) and had fewer associated NOS (125±67 and 158±83). NOSs were correlated with FEV1, the 6-MWD, and HR for both tests. CONCLUSIONS: The CST and MIST are reliable in patients with BCT. Patients tolerated the MIST more than the CST. Better lung function and 6-MWT scores predicted the greater NOSs and greater peak HR.
  • Treatment time of ultrasound therapy interferes with the organization of collagen fibers in rat tendons Original Articles

    Farcic, Thiago S.; Baldan, Cristiano S.; Cattapan, Carla G.; Parizotto, Nivaldo A.; João, Silvia M. A.; Casarotto, Raquel A.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: The application time of therapeutic ultrasound is an infrequently studied dosimetric variable that affects tissue repair. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different treatment times of therapeutic ultrasound (US) on the organization of collagen fibers in the tendons of rats. METHOD: Forty Wistar rats were selected (300±45 g), and the rats were divided into five groups (n=8 for each group): Control, without tenotomy or any treatment; tenotomy group, with tenotomy and without treatment; US groups (US1, US2, and US3), subjected to tenotomy and treated with US for one, two, or three minutes per area of the transducer, respectively. The animals were sacrificed on the 12th post-operative day, and the tendons were surgically removed for analyses of the collagen fiber organization by means of birefringence analysis. RESULTS: The collagen fibers exhibited better aggregation and organization in the US3 group compared with the tenotomy group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that US applied for three minutes per treated area improves the organization of collagen fibers during rat tendon repair.
  • Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and analysis of the psychometric properties of the lower extremity functional scale (LEFS): LEFS- BRAZIL Original Articles

    Pereira, Ligia M.; Dias, Josilainne M.; Mazuquin, Bruno F.; Castanhas, Luiza G.; Menacho, Maryela O.; Cardoso, Jefferson R.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of questionnaires in Brazilian Portuguese to evaluate patient-reported lower limb function. OBJECTIVE: To translate, cross-culturally adapt to the Brazilian population, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS). METHOD: The LEFS was translated by two independent assessors and back-translated to English. Then, the LEFS-Brazil was tested on 20 patients who answered the questionnaire in the cross-cultural adaptation phase. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, 100 patients answered the questionnaire. The reliability was tested by two independent assessors. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item from Health Survey (SF-36) was used as the criterion method for construct validity. The sensitivity to change was tested for four consecutive weeks. RESULTS: The internal consistency was α = 0.96. The intra-observer reliability was CCI (intraclass correlation coefficient) = 0.96 and CCI interobserver = 0.98; the Bland and Altman mean difference (r=0.82, physical role r=0.57, emotional role r=0.43 and mental health r=0.33. The LEFS was responsive when comparing the mean of the first week to the second, third and fourth weeks and comparing the second to the fourth week. The cut-off point was 11, and the area under the receiving operator curve was 0.96 95% CI [0.88;0.99], with sensitivity = 0.96, 1-specificity = 0 and standard error = 0.02. ) intra-observer = -1.52 and interobserver = 0.46. The correlation between the LEFS and SF-36 in the first week was the following: physical function CONCLUSION: The LEFS-Brazil is reliable, valid and responsive.
  • Interferential electrical stimulation improves peripheral vasodilatation in healthy individuals Original Articles

    Santos, Francisco V.; Chiappa, Gaspar R.; Vieira, Paulo J. C.; Umpierre, Daniel; Ribeiro, Jorge P.; Cipriano, Gerson

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: Interferential electrical stimulation (IES), which may be linked to greater penetration of deep tissue, may restore blood flow by sympathetic nervous modulation; however, studies have found no association between the frequency and duration of the application and blood flow. We hypothesized that 30 min of IES applied to the ganglion stellate region might improve blood flow redistribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IES on metaboreflex activation in healthy individuals. METHOD: Interferential electrical stimulation or a placebo stimulus (same protocol without electrical output) was applied to the stellate ganglion region in eleven healthy subjects (age 25±1.3 years) prior to exercise. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), calf blood flow (CBF) and calf vascular resistance (CVR) were measured throughout exercise protocols (submaximal static handgrip exercise) and with recovery periods with or without postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO+ and PECO -, respectively). Muscle metaboreflex control of calf vascular resistance was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve when circulation was occluded from the area under the curve from the AUC without circulatory occlusion. RESULTS: At peak exercise, increases in mean blood pressure were attenuated by IES (p<0.05), and the effect persisted under both the PECO+ and PECO- treatments. IES promoted higher CBF and lower CVR during exercise and recovery. Likewise, IES induced a reduction in the estimated muscle metaboreflex control (placebo, 21±5 units vs. IES, 6±3, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Acute application of IES prior to exercise attenuates the increase in blood pressure and vasoconstriction during exercise and metaboreflex activation in healthy subjects.
  • Body composition, muscle strength and quality of active elderly women according to the distance covered in the 6-minute walk test Original Articles

    Vilaça, Karla H. C.; Alves, Natália M. C.; Carneiro, José A. O.; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K. C.; Moriguti, Julio C.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: Changes arising from the aging process, particularly changes in body composition, contribute to the functional decline of the elderly. OBJECTIVE: To compare the body composition and muscle strength, mobility and quality in active elderly women according to the distance walked during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). METHOD: The study included 77 active elderly women aged 65 to 80 years, who were divided into tertiles (A, B and C) according to the distance covered in the 6MWT. We performed anthropometric and clinical evaluations. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Handgrip strength (HGS) was measured with a portable dynamometer (Saehan), and knee extension strength (KES) was measured with the one repetition maximum test (1-RM). Functional mobility was assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and body balance was assessed by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Muscle quality was defined by the ratio between muscle strength (kgf) and muscle mass (kg). RESULTS: The group that walked the shortest distance in the 6MWT had a higher BMI (A=30.8±7.0, B=27.2±4.2 and C=25.9±3.5 kg/m2), greater amount of fat mass (A=31.3±10.7, B=25.9±6.7 and C=23.81±6.46 kg) lower HGS (A=21.8±5.1, B=22.1±3.5 and C=25.5±5.1 kgf), lower knee extension strength (A=30.6±10.9, B=40.4±12.5 and C=47.2±10.1 kgf), lower arm muscle quality (A=10.1±3.7, B=11.6±2 and C=12.7±2.2 kg) and lower leg muscle quality (A=1.78±1, B=2.84±0.98 and C=3.31±0.77 kg). There was no significant difference between muscle mass (p=0.25) and lean mass (p=0.26). CONCLUSION: Body fat has a negative influence on functional performance, even among active elderly women.
  • Functional and cognitive changes in community-dwelling elderly: Longitudinal study Original Articles

    Figueiredo, Carolina S.; Assis, Marcella G.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O processo de envelhecimento associado à ampliação da expectativa de vida da população pode acarretar um aumento da prevalência e incidência de doenças e de prejuízos à funcionalidade. A dependência física e o comprometimento cognitivo podem impedir o desempenho de atividades, gerando uma sobrecarga de cuidados para a família e para o sistema de saúde. OBJETIVO: Comparar as mudanças funcionais e cognitivas em idosos ocorridas num período de seis meses. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo observacional longitudinal, com uma amostra de 167 idosos, selecionados a partir do banco de dados da Rede de Estudos da Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros do polo da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG). Os participantes responderam ao Miniexame do Estado Mental (MEEM), ao Índice de Katz, a Escala de Lawton e Brody e a questões relativas à Atividade Avançada de Vida Diária (AAVD). Os dados foram analisados com modelos de regressão multivariada. RESULTADOS: Observou-se diminuição da capacidade funcional nas Atividades Instrumentais de Vida Diária (AIVD), p=0,002, e, nas Atividades Básicas de Vida Diária (ABVD), p=0,038, em algumas atividades específicas. Morar sozinho (OR=2,53; IC=1,09:5,87) e condição de trabalho (OR=2,52; IC=1,18:5,41) associaram-se a mudança nas AIVD. Não houve diferença significativa no período de tempo do acompanhamento, na pontuação da AAVD, p=0,163, e do MEEM, p=0,059. Observou-se que os indivíduos com melhor cognição eram mais independentes nas AAVD e nas AIVD. CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados revelam perfis específicos de perda e de estabilidade na funcionalidade de idosos comunitários.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between aging and increased life expectancy in the overall population likely contributes to a higher frequency rate and incidence of illnesses and functional disabilities. Physical dependence and cognitive impairment might hinder the performance of activities and result in an overload of care duties for the patient's family and the healthcare system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the functional and cognitive changes exhibited by the elderly over a 6-month period. METHOD: This longitudinal and observational study was conducted in a sample of 167 elderly people, who were selected from the database of the Network of Studies on Frailty in Brazilian Elderly, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG. The participants submitted to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Katz Index, Lawton and Brody's scale and responded to items on Advanced Activities of Daily Living (AADLs). We analyzed the data using multivariate regression models. RESULTS: The participants' functional capacity exhibited reduced performance of specific instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), p=0.002, and basic activities of daily living (BADLs), p=0.038. Living alone (odds ratio (OR), 2.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-5.87) and work status (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.18-5.41) were associated with changes in the IADLs. The scores in the AADL scale (p=0.163) and MMSE (p=0.059) did not exhibit any significant difference during the study period. The participants with better cognitive function were more independent in their performance of AADLs and IADLs. CONCLUSION: The results depict specific patterns of loss and stability of functional capacity in community-dwelling elderly.
  • 30º inclination in handles of plastic boxes can reduce postural and muscular workload during handling Original Articles

    Silva, Luciana C. C. B.; Oliveira, Ana B.; Silva, Danilo C.; Paschoarelli, Luis C.; Coury, Helenice J. C. G.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O manuseio de materiais está ainda presente nos setores industriais e é associado a lesões na coluna lombar e membros superiores. A inserção de alças em caixas industriais é uma forma de reduzir os riscos relacionados à tarefa, porém a posição e a angulação das alças, que são fatores importantes para o conforto e segurança durante o manuseio, são ainda pouco investigadas objetivamente. OBJETIVOS: Comparar o manuseio de uma caixa comercial e de protótipos com alças e avaliar seus efeitos na postura de membros superiores, atividade elétrica muscular e percepção de agradabilidade em diferentes empunhaduras durante manuseio entre diferentes alturas. MÉTODO: Trinta e sete voluntários saudáveis avaliaram as alças dos protótipos que possibilitavam mudança nas posições (superior e inferior) e angulações (0°, 15° e 30º). Os movimentos dos punhos, cotovelos e ombros foram avaliados por meio da eletrogoniometria e inclinometria. A atividade elétrica muscular dos extensores do punho, bíceps braquial e porção superior do trapézio foi avaliada por um eletromiógrafo portátil. Os registros de movimento e atividade elétrica muscular foram sincronizados. Aspectos subjetivos de agradabilidade foram avaliados por meio de uma escala visual analógica. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Os protótipos com alças inclinadas em 30° apresentaram as melhores avaliações de agradabilidade, posturas mais neutras de punho, menores níveis de atividade eletromiográfica do trapézio superior e menores ângulos de elevação dos braços. Os diferentes métodos de medida se mostraram complementares para a avaliação dos membros superiores durante as tarefas de manuseio.

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: The handling of materials, which occurs in the industrial sector, is associated with lesions on the lumbar spine and in the upper limbs. Inserting handles in industrial boxes is a way to reduce work-related risks. Although the position and angle of the handles are significant factors in comfort and safety during handling, these factors have rarely been studied objectively. OBJECTIVE: To compare the handling of a commercial box and prototypes with handles and to evaluate the effects on upper limb posture, muscle electrical activity, and perceived acceptability using different grips while handling materials from different heights. METHOD: Thirty-seven healthy volunteers evaluated the handles of prototypes that allowed for changes in position (top and bottom) and angle (0°, 15°, and 30°). Wrist, elbow, and shoulder movements were evaluated using electrogoniometry and inclinometry. The muscle electrical activity in the wrist extensors, biceps brachii, and the upper portion of the trapezius was measured using a portable electromyographer. The recorded data on muscle movements and electrical activity were synchronized. Subjective evaluations of acceptability were evaluated using a visual analog scale. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The prototypes with handles at a 30° angle produced the highest acceptability ratings, more neutral wrist positions, lower levels of electromyographic activity for the upper trapezius, and lower elevation angles for the arms. The different measurement methods were complementary in evaluating the upper limbs during handling.
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