Association between Prenatal Care Adequacy Indexes and Low Birth Weight Outcome

Associação entre índices de adequação de cuidado prénatal e desfecho de baixo peso ao nascer

Conceição Christina Rigo Vale Nubia Karla de Oliveira Almeida Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues de Almeida About the authors

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the association between prenatal care (PNC) adequacy indexes and the low birth weigth (LBW) outcome.

Methods

A total of 368,093 live term singleton births in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) from 2015 to 2016 were investigated using data from the Brazilian Live Birth Information System (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos, SINASC, in Portuguese). Seven PNC adequacy indexes were evaluated: four developed by Brazilian authors (Ciari Jr. et al., Coutinho et al., Takeda, and an index developed and used by the Brazilian Ministry of Health - MS) and three by authors from other countries (Kessner et al., the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization index - APNCU, and the Graduated Prenatal Care Utilization Index - GINDEX). Adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the PNC adequacy indexes by means of multivariate logistic regression models using maternal, gestational and newborn characteristics as covariates.

Results

When the PNC is classified as “inadequate”, the adjusted odds ratios to the LBWoutcome increase between 42% and 132%, depending on which adequacy index is evaluated. Younger (15 to 17 years old) and older (35 to 45 years old) mothers, those not married, of black or brown ethnicity, with low schooling (who did not finish Elementary School), primiparous, with preterm births, as well as female newborns had increasing odds for LBW. The models presented areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between 80.4% and 81.0%, and sensitivity and specificity that varied, respectively, between 57.7% and 58.6% and 94.3% and 94.5%.

Conclusion

Considering all PNC adequacy indexes evaluated, the APNCU had the best discriminatory power and the best ability to predict the LBW outcome.

Keywords:
maternal and newborn health; low birth weight; prenatal care; perinatal epidemiology

Resumo

Objetivo

Investigar a associação entre diferentes índices de adequação do cuidado pré-natal (PN) e o desfecho de nascimentos com baixo peso (BP).

Métodos

Foram investigados 368.093 nascimentos ocorridos no estado do Rio de Janeiro entre 2015 e 2016, utilizando-se as informações do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc). Sete índices de adequação do cuidado PN foram avaliados: quatro propostos por autores nacionais (Ciari Jr et al., Coutinho et al., Takeda, e um índice atualmente em uso pelo Ministério da Saúde - MS), e três, por autores internacionais (Kessner et al., Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization index - APNCU, e Graduated Prenatal Care Utilization Index - GINDEX). As razões de chance ajustadas para BP foram estimadas considerando os índices de adequação do cuidado PN por meio de modelos de regressão logística, utilizando características maternas, da gravidez e do recém-nascido como variáveis de controle.

Resultados

As chances ajustadas para ocorrência de BP ao nascer aumentam de 42% a 132%, a depender do índice empregado, quando o cuidado PN é considerado inadequado. Mães entre 15 e 17 anos e entre 35 e 45 anos, sem companheiro, de cor parda ou preta, com ensino fundamental incompleto, e primíparas, com gestações pré-termo, além de bebês do sexo feminino são fatores de risco para os nascimentos com BP.

Conclusão

Entre os índices avaliados, o APNCU foi o que apresentou melhor poder discriminatório e capacidade de prever o desfecho de BP ao nascer.

Palavras-chave:
saúde materno-infantil; baixo peso ao nascer; cuidado pré-natal; epidemiologia perinatal

Introduction

Low birth weight (LBW, < 2,500 g) is considered an important risk factor for neonatal and postnatal mortality. Neonates with LBW have an increased risk of death during the first months and years of life, and a higher risk of health-related issues, such as hindered growth and development, damage to vision, learning difficulties, hyperactivity, and increased risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood.11 Institute of Medicine. Improving birth outcomes: meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington (DC): National Academies Press; 200322 Barker DJ. The developmental origins of chronic adult disease. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2004;93(446):26-33. Doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2004.tb00236.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2004...
As a consequence, LBW involves higher costs and a higher rate of use of the health system.33 Wehby GL, Murray JC, Castilla EE, Lopez-Camelo JS, Ohsfeldt RL. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil. Health Policy Plan. 2009;24(03):175-188. Doi: 10.1093/heapol/czp005
https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czp005...
The worldwide prevalence of LBW in 2015 was estimated as 14.6%, reaching 20.5 million newborns.44 UNICEF. Low birthweight [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 Feb 06]. Available from: https://data.unicef.org/topic/ nutrition/lowbirthweight/
https://data.unicef.org/topic/ nutrition...

Low birth weight is directly caused by preterm births (pregnancy duration < 37 weeks), fetal growth restriction, or by both processes simultaneously (resulting in the most severe cases).55 Kramer MS. Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment andmeta-analysis. BullWorld Health Organ. 1987;65 (05):663-73766 World Health Organization. Global nutrition targets 2025: low birthweight policy brief. Geneva: WHO; 2014 However, the causes of LBW are multifactorial, associated with genetic, demographic, psychosocial, obstetric and nutritional factors, with maternal morbidity during pregnancy, exposure to toxic substances, and adequacy of prenatal care (PNC).55 Kramer MS. Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment andmeta-analysis. BullWorld Health Organ. 1987;65 (05):663-737

The importance of PNC during pregnancy is well documented in the literature. Observational studies showed lower maternal and perinatal mortality when PNC was performed.77 Dowswell T, Carroli G, Duley L, et al. Alternative versus standard packages of antenatal care for low-risk pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(10):CD000934. Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000934.pub2
https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD00093...
However, there is little evidence concerning the effectiveness of the recommended routines with regard to the scope, frequency and timing of the medical visits.33 Wehby GL, Murray JC, Castilla EE, Lopez-Camelo JS, Ohsfeldt RL. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil. Health Policy Plan. 2009;24(03):175-188. Doi: 10.1093/heapol/czp005
https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czp005...
88 Carroli G, Villar J, Piaggio G, et al; WHO Antenatal Care Trial Research Group. WHO systematic review of randomised controlled trials of routine antenatal care. Lancet. 2001;357 (9268):1565-1570. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04723-1
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04...
Some studies have been carried out to evaluate and establish parameters of PNC utilization and quality requirements,99 Santos Neto ET, Oliveira AE, Zandonade E, Leal MdoC. Access to prenatal care: assessment of the adequacy of different indices. Cad Saude Publica. 2013;29(08):1664-1674. Doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00125612
https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X0012561...
using different criteria and PNC indexes to investigate pregnancy outcomes, including the occurrence of LBW.1010 Leal MdoC, Gama SGN, Ratto KMN, Cunha CB. [Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(Suppl 1):S63-S72. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000700007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...
1111 Silva EP, Lima RT, Costa MJC, Batista Filho M. [Development and application of a new index for assessment of prenatal care]. Rev PanamSalud Publica. 2013;33(05):356-362. Doi: 10.1590/s1020-49892013000500007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-4989201300...
1212 Silveira DS, Santos IS. [Adequacy of prenatal care and birthweight: a systematic review]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(05):1160-1168. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000500009 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...

On the other hand, the influence of PNC on birth weight is not a consensus among authors.1111 Silva EP, Lima RT, Costa MJC, Batista Filho M. [Development and application of a new index for assessment of prenatal care]. Rev PanamSalud Publica. 2013;33(05):356-362. Doi: 10.1590/s1020-49892013000500007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-4989201300...
Due to the use of different adequacy criteria, discrepancies are observed in the classification of PNC according to each specific index.99 Santos Neto ET, Oliveira AE, Zandonade E, Leal MdoC. Access to prenatal care: assessment of the adequacy of different indices. Cad Saude Publica. 2013;29(08):1664-1674. Doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00125612
https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X0012561...
In addition, inconsistencies have been reported between what was expected for some index categories and the observed outcomes.1111 Silva EP, Lima RT, Costa MJC, Batista Filho M. [Development and application of a new index for assessment of prenatal care]. Rev PanamSalud Publica. 2013;33(05):356-362. Doi: 10.1590/s1020-49892013000500007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-4989201300...
1313 GonzagaICA, SantosSLD, SilvaARV,CampeloV. [Prenatalcareandrisk factors associatedwith premature birth and lowbirthweight in the a capital in the Brazilian Northeast]. Cien Saude Colet. 2016;21(06): 1965-1974.Doi: 10.1590/1413-81232015216.06162015 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232015216...

The relationship between PNC and the occurrence of unwanted pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and requires further studies. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the association between different levels of adequacy of PNC and LBW, using data of singleton live births in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil, between 2015 and 2016.

Methods

Several countries maintain large databases with information on live births that provide subsidies for health system interventions, such as public policies on mother and newborn health. In Brazil, this information is recorded in the Live Birth Information System (Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos, SINASC, in Portuguese), which compiles obstetric, demographic and social characteristics of women in addition to date regarding the utilization of PNC. Nevertheless, the number of studies using data from the SINASC addressing LBW indexes is small.

The present research is based on SINASC data pertaining to the state of RJ.1414 Ministério da Saúde. Datasus. Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos - SINASC [Internet]. 2020. [cited 2020 Feb 26]. Available from: http://tabnet.datasus.gov.br/cgi/deftohtm.exe?-sinasc/cnv/nvuf.def
http://tabnet.datasus.gov.br/cgi/deftoht...
The research was restricted to hospital deliveries, single pregnancies, fetuses without anomalies, and pregnant women aged between 15 and 45 years. The study period (January 2015 to December 2016) was chosen based on the most recent data available at the time of the investigation.

The adequacy of PNC was assessed using indexes developed in Brazil (by Ciari Jr. et al.,1515 Ciari C Jr, Santos JLF, Almeida PAM. [Qualitative evaluation of prenatal care]. Rev Saude Publica. 1972;6(04):361-370. Doi: 10.1590/S0034-89101972000400005 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910197200...
Coutinho et al.,1616 Coutinho T, Teixeira MTB, Dain S, Sayd JD, Coutinho LM. [Adequacy of the prenatal care process among users of the Unified Health Care System in Juiz de Fora-MG]. Rev BrasGinecolObstet. 2003;25 (10):717-772. Doi: 10.1590/S0100-72032003001000004
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-7203200300...
Takeda,1717 Takeda S. Avaliação de unidade de atenção primária: modificação dos indicadores de saúde e qualidade da atenção [Dissertação]. Pelotas: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; 1993 and one proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS)1818 Ministério da Saúde. Portaria No. 569, de 1° de junho de 2000. Estabelece o Programa de Humanização no Pré-natal e Nascimento. Diário Oficial da União Sect.. 2000;1:4-6), as well as indexes proposed by international authors (the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index – APNCU,1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
and the Graduated Prenatal Care Utilization Index – GINDEX,2020 Alexander GR, Cornely DA. Prenatal care utilization: its measurement and relationship to pregnancy outcome. Am J Prev Med. 1987;3(05):243-253 and the one proposed by Kessner et al.2121 Kessner DM, Singer J, Kalk CE, Schlesinger ER. Infant death: an analysis by maternal risk and health care. Washington (DC): Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences; 1973). The criteria of all indexes are shown in Table 1. Their original definition criteria were maintained, with the exception of the index by Coutinho et al.1616 Coutinho T, Teixeira MTB, Dain S, Sayd JD, Coutinho LM. [Adequacy of the prenatal care process among users of the Unified Health Care System in Juiz de Fora-MG]. Rev BrasGinecolObstet. 2003;25 (10):717-772. Doi: 10.1590/S0100-72032003001000004
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-7203200300...
(in which a “conservative” approach was taken, using the 4th month as a reference instead of the 14th week, which was its original plan). The selection of indexes was conditioned to the availability of information on the database. Aspects concerning the quality of PNC were not considered, such as laboratory, clinical-obstetric, and imaging exams.2222 Ministérioda Saúde SecretariadeVigilância emSaúde Departamento de Vigilância deDoenças e Agravos nãoTransmissíveis e Promoção da Saúde [Health Brazil 2017: an analysis of the health situation and challenges to the achievementof the sustainable development goals]. Brasília (DF): Ministério da Saúde; 2018. Portuguese.2323 Hosmer DW Jr, Lemeshow S. Applied logistic regression. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley-Interscience; 20002424 Meyers LS, Gamst G, Guarino AJ. Applied multivariate research: design and interpretation. London: Sage; 2006

Table 1
Indexes and criteria to assess the adequacy of prenatal care

Variables related to the mother (age, marital status, schooling, ethnicity, previous deliveries, live births or stillbirths, and occupation), the pregnancy (type, gestational age, and the Robson classification),2525 Guimarães EAA, Velásquez-Meléndez G. [Low birth weight determinants from the Born Alive National Surveillance System in Itaúna, Minas Gerais]. Rev Bras Saúde Mater Infant. 2002;2(03):283-290. Doi: 10.1590/S1519-38292002000300009 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-3829200200...
the delivery (“pilgrimage”, that is, travel from the municipality of residence to the city of birth, and place of birth) and the newborn (birth weight, gender, and presence of abnormalities) were used to characterize the studied population and the outcome variable, in addition to parameters related to PNC (start date and number of PNC consultations). The “occupation” variable, available in the database, was excluded from the modeling stage due to its large number of “not available” (NA) data.

Unreported or implausible cases were excluded, based on the following criteria: Robson classification > 10; number of PNC consultations > 42; mother's age ≤ 16 years and complete higher education; mother's age ≤ the sum of 12 plus the total number of previous births (live or still). The APNCU index (originally reported in the database) was recalculated based on the information provided by the database, and was called recalculated APNCU. The categorization of the variables is shown in Tables 2 and 3.

Table 2
Total frequency and frequency of low birth weight regarding maternal, pregnancy, delivery and newborn characteristics
Table 3
Total frequency and frequency of low birth weightregarding the prenatal care adequacy indexes

The association between the PNC adequacy indexes (independent variable) and LBW (dependent variable) was investigated using logistic regressions controlled by the following covariates: maternal age (15 to 17 years, 18 to 34 years, and 35 to 45 years), marital status (with or without partner), schooling (incomplete or complete Elementary School), ethinicity (white or non-white), parity (primiparous, 1 to 3 deliveries or more than 4 deliveries), gestational age (preterm, term or postterm) and newborn gender (female or male). We followed the categories originally proposed by the PNC adequacy indexes. For each independent variable, a simple logistic model was initially performed, with “birth weight” as a dependent variable (LBW, normal birth weight, or macrosomia). The aforementioned covariates were preselected from the literature1010 Leal MdoC, Gama SGN, Ratto KMN, Cunha CB. [Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(Suppl 1):S63-S72. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000700007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...
1111 Silva EP, Lima RT, Costa MJC, Batista Filho M. [Development and application of a new index for assessment of prenatal care]. Rev PanamSalud Publica. 2013;33(05):356-362. Doi: 10.1590/s1020-49892013000500007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-4989201300...
1212 Silveira DS, Santos IS. [Adequacy of prenatal care and birthweight: a systematic review]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(05):1160-1168. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000500009 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...
and included in the multiple modeling if they showed values of p < 0.20 in the preliminary bivariate analysis.2323 Hosmer DW Jr, Lemeshow S. Applied logistic regression. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley-Interscience; 2000

Adjusted Odds Ratios (ORs) for each index were calculated based on multiple regression models with the independent variables that showed statistical significance. Modeling was also carried out considering the interactions between the PNC adequacy indexes and the control variables, as well as the interactions between the mother's age and the parity variables.

The significance and predictive capacity of the models were assessed using the Global Significance Test (Omnibus test), model sensitivity and specificity.2424 Meyers LS, Gamst G, Guarino AJ. Applied multivariate research: design and interpretation. London: Sage; 2006 The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the optimal cutoff value for the prediction score (that is, the point which maximized model sensitivity and specificity. If the predicted probability was higher than the cutoff point, then the case was classified as LBW).2424 Meyers LS, Gamst G, Guarino AJ. Applied multivariate research: design and interpretation. London: Sage; 2006 The level of significance adopted was α = 0.05. All steps were performed using the R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) software, version 3.5.3, and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US) software, version 23.0.

Results

During the study period, 64% of live births in RJ referred to mothers aged between 21 and 34 years, 65% without a partner, 97% with complete Elementary School, 56% without an occupation (unemployed or NA), 54% self-declared brown, and 42% primiparous (Table 2). As for the births, 88% were from term pregnancies, 73% involved no pilgrimage, and 23% were group 5 in the Robson classification (with previous cesarean section, single pregnancy, cephalic presentation, and term pregnancy).

Regarding birth weight, it was normal in 87% of the cases, and low in 7.44%. The prevalence of LBW was higher in mothers aged 15 to 17 and 35 to 45 years, without a partner, with lower schooling, self-declared black, and primiparous or with more than four previous deliveries. It was also more frequent in preterm pregnancies and in female newborns. Most births were classified as having undergone “adequate PNC” in the indexes. The highest frequency of LBW was in the category “inadequate” on the Ciari Jr. et al.1515 Ciari C Jr, Santos JLF, Almeida PAM. [Qualitative evaluation of prenatal care]. Rev Saude Publica. 1972;6(04):361-370. Doi: 10.1590/S0034-89101972000400005 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910197200...
(10.33%), Kessner et al.2121 Kessner DM, Singer J, Kalk CE, Schlesinger ER. Infant death: an analysis by maternal risk and health care. Washington (DC): Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences; 1973 (9.15%), MS1818 Ministério da Saúde. Portaria No. 569, de 1° de junho de 2000. Estabelece o Programa de Humanização no Pré-natal e Nascimento. Diário Oficial da União Sect.. 2000;1:4-6 (12.79%), Takeda1717 Takeda S. Avaliação de unidade de atenção primária: modificação dos indicadores de saúde e qualidade da atenção [Dissertação]. Pelotas: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; 1993 (13.75%) and Coutinho et al.1616 Coutinho T, Teixeira MTB, Dain S, Sayd JD, Coutinho LM. [Adequacy of the prenatal care process among users of the Unified Health Care System in Juiz de Fora-MG]. Rev BrasGinecolObstet. 2003;25 (10):717-772. Doi: 10.1590/S0100-72032003001000004
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-7203200300...
(11.18%) indexes; and in the “no PNC” and “inadequate” categories in the GINDEX2020 Alexander GR, Cornely DA. Prenatal care utilization: its measurement and relationship to pregnancy outcome. Am J Prev Med. 1987;3(05):243-253 (15.94% and 10.12% respectively). The exception was the APNCU1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
index, with higher proportions of LBW in the “no PNC”, “inadequate” and “adequate plus” categories (15.94%, 10.03% and 14.40% respectively) (Table 3).

Table 4 presents the results of the logistic regression models (reference categories with OR = 1.00) for each studied PNC adequacy index. Considering all indexes, the risk factors for LBW were: young mothers (aged 15 to 17 years, except for the Takeda1717 Takeda S. Avaliação de unidade de atenção primária: modificação dos indicadores de saúde e qualidade da atenção [Dissertação]. Pelotas: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; 1993 index), and mothers older than 35 years of age, without a partner, with incomplete elementary school, not white, primiparous, with preterm births and female newborns.

The adequacy of the PNC proved to be a significant variable with adjusted ORs of 1.34 and 2.52 for the “no PNC” category (APNCU1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
and GINDEX2020 Alexander GR, Cornely DA. Prenatal care utilization: its measurement and relationship to pregnancy outcome. Am J Prev Med. 1987;3(05):243-253 respectively), an OR adjusted from 1.42 to 2.32 for the “inadequate” category (all indexes), and an OR adjusted from 1.10 to 1.35 for the “intermediate” category (Kessner et al.,2121 Kessner DM, Singer J, Kalk CE, Schlesinger ER. Infant death: an analysis by maternal risk and health care. Washington (DC): Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences; 1973 GINDEX2020 Alexander GR, Cornely DA. Prenatal care utilization: its measurement and relationship to pregnancy outcome. Am J Prev Med. 1987;3(05):243-253 and APNCU1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
). In addition, the “adequate plus” category of the APNCU1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
index also presented an increased risk of LBW (Table 4), but the same did not occur for the “intensive” category of the GINDEX2020 Alexander GR, Cornely DA. Prenatal care utilization: its measurement and relationship to pregnancy outcome. Am J Prev Med. 1987;3(05):243-253 index. No interactions were detected between the PNC adequacy indexes and the control variables, and between mother's age and parity variables.

The models presented areas under the ROC curve between 80.4% and 81.0%, and sensitivity and specificity that varied, respectively, between 57.7% and 58.6%, and 94.3% and 94.5%. The optimal cutoff value for the prediction score was 0.30. All models were statistically significant according to the global significance test used (data not shown).

Table 4
Adjusted odds ratios (OR) of logistic regression models of nacional and international PNC adequacy indexes

Discussion

Although there are several indexes to assess the adequacy of the PNC, their use actually lacks concrete epidemiological evidence. The present study used a large birth database from the state of R, from January 2015 to December 2016, in order to access the level of adequacy of the PNC and to investigate it as a risk factor for the outcome of LBW. Moreover, the proportion of LBW was calculated according to characteristics pertaining to the mother, , the pregnancy, the delivery, and the newborn.

The rate of LBW in RJ was similar to that of other Brazilian studies,2525 Guimarães EAA, Velásquez-Meléndez G. [Low birth weight determinants from the Born Alive National Surveillance System in Itaúna, Minas Gerais]. Rev Bras Saúde Mater Infant. 2002;2(03):283-290. Doi: 10.1590/S1519-38292002000300009 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-3829200200...
2626 Giglio MRP, Lamounier JA, Morais Neto OL, César CC. [Low birth weight in a cohort of newborns in Goiânia-Brazil in 2000]. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2005;27(03):130-136. Doi: 10.1590/S0100-72032005000300006 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-7203200500...
2727 Goldenberg P, FigueiredoMdoC, Silva RdeS. [Adolescent pregnancy, prenatal care, and perinatal outcomes in Montes Claros,Minas Gerais, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2005;21(04):1077-1086. Doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2005000400010 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200500...
2828 Minuci EG, Almeida MF. [Birth weight intra-urban differentials in the city of São Paulo]. Rev Saude Publica. 2009;43(02):256-266. Doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102009005000011
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200900...
lower than that of studies performed in countries with a lower level of development (such as India2929 Nair NS, Rao RSP, Chandrashekar S, Acharya D, Bhat HV. Sociodemographic and maternal determinants of low birth weight: a multivariate approach. Indian J Pediatr. 2000;67(01):9-14. Doi: 10.1007/BF02802625
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02802625...
and Tanzania3030 Kamala BA, Mgaya AH, Ngarina MM, Kidanto HL. Predictors of low birth weight and 24-hour perinatal outcomes at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a five-year retrospective analysis of obstetric records. Pan AfrMed J. 2018;29:220. Doi: 10.11604/pamj.2018.29.220.15247
https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.29.22...
), and higher than that of studies performed in countries like Spain, the United States, China and Canada.33 Wehby GL, Murray JC, Castilla EE, Lopez-Camelo JS, Ohsfeldt RL. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil. Health Policy Plan. 2009;24(03):175-188. Doi: 10.1093/heapol/czp005
https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czp005...
2121 Kessner DM, Singer J, Kalk CE, Schlesinger ER. Infant death: an analysis by maternal risk and health care. Washington (DC): Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences; 1973 In general, the identified frequency of cases with adequate PNC according to the Kessner et al.,2121 Kessner DM, Singer J, Kalk CE, Schlesinger ER. Infant death: an analysis by maternal risk and health care. Washington (DC): Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences; 1973 APNCU1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
and GINDEX2020 Alexander GR, Cornely DA. Prenatal care utilization: its measurement and relationship to pregnancy outcome. Am J Prev Med. 1987;3(05):243-253 indexes was lower than that reported in other countries,3030 Kamala BA, Mgaya AH, Ngarina MM, Kidanto HL. Predictors of low birth weight and 24-hour perinatal outcomes at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a five-year retrospective analysis of obstetric records. Pan AfrMed J. 2018;29:220. Doi: 10.11604/pamj.2018.29.220.15247
https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.29.22...
3131 Paz-Zulueta M, Llorca J, Sarabia-Lavín R, et al. The role of prenatal care and social risk factors in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatalmorbidity: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2015;10(03):e0120765. Doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0120765
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal...
3232 Bell JF, Zimmerman FJ. Selection bias in prenatal care use by Medicaid recipients. Matern Child Health J. 2003;7(04):239-252. Doi: 10.1023/a:1027323618314
https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1027323618314...
3333 Huang A, Wu K, Zhao W, Hu H, Yang Q, Chen D. Attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China: A follow-up study based onMaternal andNewborn'sHealthMonitoring System. Midwifery. 2018;57:26-31. Doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2017.10.018
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2017.10.0...
3434 Heaman MI, Newburn-Cook CV, Green CG, Elliott LJ, Helewa ME. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:15. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-15
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-8-15...
as well as in Brazil.1010 Leal MdoC, Gama SGN, Ratto KMN, Cunha CB. [Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(Suppl 1):S63-S72. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000700007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...
1111 Silva EP, Lima RT, Costa MJC, Batista Filho M. [Development and application of a new index for assessment of prenatal care]. Rev PanamSalud Publica. 2013;33(05):356-362. Doi: 10.1590/s1020-49892013000500007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-4989201300...
3535 do Carmo Leal M, da Gama SG, da Cunha CB. [Consequences of sociodemographic inequalities on birthweight]. Rev Saude Publica. 2006;40(03):466-473. Doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102006000300015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200600...

The frequency of cases with adequate PNC according to the Kessner et al.2121 Kessner DM, Singer J, Kalk CE, Schlesinger ER. Infant death: an analysis by maternal risk and health care. Washington (DC): Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences; 1973 index was close to the one detected in another Brazilian study,1111 Silva EP, Lima RT, Costa MJC, Batista Filho M. [Development and application of a new index for assessment of prenatal care]. Rev PanamSalud Publica. 2013;33(05):356-362. Doi: 10.1590/s1020-49892013000500007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-4989201300...
but different from that of international studies with similar data3030 Kamala BA, Mgaya AH, Ngarina MM, Kidanto HL. Predictors of low birth weight and 24-hour perinatal outcomes at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a five-year retrospective analysis of obstetric records. Pan AfrMed J. 2018;29:220. Doi: 10.11604/pamj.2018.29.220.15247
https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.29.22...
3232 Bell JF, Zimmerman FJ. Selection bias in prenatal care use by Medicaid recipients. Matern Child Health J. 2003;7(04):239-252. Doi: 10.1023/a:1027323618314
https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1027323618314...
that used this index as a criterion to assess PNC. Considering the adequacy criterion of the APNCU1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
index, the current study presented results on the “adequate” and “adequate plus” categories only similar to those of another Brazilian study,1111 Silva EP, Lima RT, Costa MJC, Batista Filho M. [Development and application of a new index for assessment of prenatal care]. Rev PanamSalud Publica. 2013;33(05):356-362. Doi: 10.1590/s1020-49892013000500007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/s1020-4989201300...
demonstrating a lower proportion of adequacy than other studies published nationwide and internationally.1010 Leal MdoC, Gama SGN, Ratto KMN, Cunha CB. [Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(Suppl 1):S63-S72. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000700007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...
3131 Paz-Zulueta M, Llorca J, Sarabia-Lavín R, et al. The role of prenatal care and social risk factors in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatalmorbidity: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2015;10(03):e0120765. Doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0120765
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal...
3333 Huang A, Wu K, Zhao W, Hu H, Yang Q, Chen D. Attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China: A follow-up study based onMaternal andNewborn'sHealthMonitoring System. Midwifery. 2018;57:26-31. Doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2017.10.018
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2017.10.0...
3434 Heaman MI, Newburn-Cook CV, Green CG, Elliott LJ, Helewa ME. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:15. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-15
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-8-15...
Still, regarding the GINDEX,2020 Alexander GR, Cornely DA. Prenatal care utilization: its measurement and relationship to pregnancy outcome. Am J Prev Med. 1987;3(05):243-253 the present work showed percentages on the “adequate” and “intensive” PNC criteria respectively, similar3131 Paz-Zulueta M, Llorca J, Sarabia-Lavín R, et al. The role of prenatal care and social risk factors in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatalmorbidity: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2015;10(03):e0120765. Doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0120765
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal...
and lower3333 Huang A, Wu K, Zhao W, Hu H, Yang Q, Chen D. Attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China: A follow-up study based onMaternal andNewborn'sHealthMonitoring System. Midwifery. 2018;57:26-31. Doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2017.10.018
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2017.10.0...
than those of studies performed in other countries.

Adequacy of the PNC was an important risk factor for LBW, appearing as a significant variable in all models. Among the Brazilian indexes (Table 4), the Takeda1717 Takeda S. Avaliação de unidade de atenção primária: modificação dos indicadores de saúde e qualidade da atenção [Dissertação]. Pelotas: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; 1993 index showed the best discriminatory capacity (highest adjusted OR for “inadequate” PNC), followed by the MS1818 Ministério da Saúde. Portaria No. 569, de 1° de junho de 2000. Estabelece o Programa de Humanização no Pré-natal e Nascimento. Diário Oficial da União Sect.. 2000;1:4-6 and Coutinho et al.1616 Coutinho T, Teixeira MTB, Dain S, Sayd JD, Coutinho LM. [Adequacy of the prenatal care process among users of the Unified Health Care System in Juiz de Fora-MG]. Rev BrasGinecolObstet. 2003;25 (10):717-772. Doi: 10.1590/S0100-72032003001000004
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-7203200300...
indexes. The Ciari Jr. et al.1515 Ciari C Jr, Santos JLF, Almeida PAM. [Qualitative evaluation of prenatal care]. Rev Saude Publica. 1972;6(04):361-370. Doi: 10.1590/S0034-89101972000400005 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910197200...
index was the national index with the lowest discriminatory capacity. Regarding the MS1818 Ministério da Saúde. Portaria No. 569, de 1° de junho de 2000. Estabelece o Programa de Humanização no Pré-natal e Nascimento. Diário Oficial da União Sect.. 2000;1:4-6 index, the results differ from those of a previous work,3636 Kale PL, Lordelo CVM, Fonseca SC, et al. [Adequacy of birth weight for gestational age according to INTERGROWTH-21st curve and factors associatedwith the small forgestational age].CadSaudeColet.2018;26 (04):391-399. Doi: 10.1590/1414-462X201800040400 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-462X2018000...
also performed with data from the state of RJ, which found no association between the level of PNC and the size of the newborns according to gestational age. Furthermore, the lack of studies using the Ciari Jr. et al.,1515 Ciari C Jr, Santos JLF, Almeida PAM. [Qualitative evaluation of prenatal care]. Rev Saude Publica. 1972;6(04):361-370. Doi: 10.1590/S0034-89101972000400005 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910197200...
Coutinho et al.1616 Coutinho T, Teixeira MTB, Dain S, Sayd JD, Coutinho LM. [Adequacy of the prenatal care process among users of the Unified Health Care System in Juiz de Fora-MG]. Rev BrasGinecolObstet. 2003;25 (10):717-772. Doi: 10.1590/S0100-72032003001000004
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-7203200300...
and Takeda1717 Takeda S. Avaliação de unidade de atenção primária: modificação dos indicadores de saúde e qualidade da atenção [Dissertação]. Pelotas: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; 1993 indexes made a direct comparison with similar studies impossible.

With regard to the international indexes (Table 4), the APNCU1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
index presented the highest adjusted OR for the “inadequate” category, showing the highest discriminatory power relatively to the GINDEX2020 Alexander GR, Cornely DA. Prenatal care utilization: its measurement and relationship to pregnancy outcome. Am J Prev Med. 1987;3(05):243-253 and Kessner et al.2121 Kessner DM, Singer J, Kalk CE, Schlesinger ER. Infant death: an analysis by maternal risk and health care. Washington (DC): Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences; 1973 indexes. However, the APNCU1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
presented a U-shaped pattern, indicating a greater risk of LBW among mothers with a high number of PNC visits (the “adequate plus” category). This result can be explained by a bias in the definition of this index, since higher-risk pregnancies, in which the number of observed visits is greater than expected, are assigned to a “better PNC” level.3737 Koroukian SM, Rimm AA. The "Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization" (APNCU) index to study low birth weight: is the index biased? J Clin Epidemiol. 2002;55(03):296-305. Doi: 10.1016/s0895-4356(01)00471-1
https://doi.org/10.1016/s0895-4356(01)00...

The maternal age categories in the present study were used to identify a possible influence of early (adolescent women) or late (women over 35 years of age) maternity on the outcome. This influence was detected for the 15 to 17 and 35 to 45 age groups, with the exception to the Takeda1717 Takeda S. Avaliação de unidade de atenção primária: modificação dos indicadores de saúde e qualidade da atenção [Dissertação]. Pelotas: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; 1993 index model, in which the 15 to o17 age group was not statistically significant. Regarding this variable, a U-shape pattern was observed in six of the seven models. Adolescent mothers are physically immature and have lower weight and height than older mothers, they can ingest an insufficient amount of calories, and, due to possibly unwanted pregnancies, may come to seek PNC later.1010 Leal MdoC, Gama SGN, Ratto KMN, Cunha CB. [Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(Suppl 1):S63-S72. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000700007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...
2525 Guimarães EAA, Velásquez-Meléndez G. [Low birth weight determinants from the Born Alive National Surveillance System in Itaúna, Minas Gerais]. Rev Bras Saúde Mater Infant. 2002;2(03):283-290. Doi: 10.1590/S1519-38292002000300009 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-3829200200...
2626 Giglio MRP, Lamounier JA, Morais Neto OL, César CC. [Low birth weight in a cohort of newborns in Goiânia-Brazil in 2000]. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2005;27(03):130-136. Doi: 10.1590/S0100-72032005000300006 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-7203200500...
2727 Goldenberg P, FigueiredoMdoC, Silva RdeS. [Adolescent pregnancy, prenatal care, and perinatal outcomes in Montes Claros,Minas Gerais, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2005;21(04):1077-1086. Doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2005000400010 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200500...
2828 Minuci EG, Almeida MF. [Birth weight intra-urban differentials in the city of São Paulo]. Rev Saude Publica. 2009;43(02):256-266. Doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102009005000011
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200900...
3434 Heaman MI, Newburn-Cook CV, Green CG, Elliott LJ, Helewa ME. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:15. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-15
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-8-15...
3838 ReichmanNE, Teitler JO. Timing ofenhanced prenatal care and birth outcomes in New Jersey's HealthStart program. Matern Child Health J. 2005;9(02):151-158. Doi: 10.1007/s10995-005-4905-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-005-4905-...
With respect to mothers older than 35 years of age, complications of undesirable outcomes (such as preeclampsia) during pregnancy are more likely, leading to preterm births and intrauterine growth restriction, which consequently lead to LBW newborns.55 Kramer MS. Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment andmeta-analysis. BullWorld Health Organ. 1987;65 (05):663-737

Parity was also significant in the models pointing to a protective effect of previous pregnancies.1010 Leal MdoC, Gama SGN, Ratto KMN, Cunha CB. [Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(Suppl 1):S63-S72. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000700007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...
2727 Goldenberg P, FigueiredoMdoC, Silva RdeS. [Adolescent pregnancy, prenatal care, and perinatal outcomes in Montes Claros,Minas Gerais, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2005;21(04):1077-1086. Doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2005000400010 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200500...
2828 Minuci EG, Almeida MF. [Birth weight intra-urban differentials in the city of São Paulo]. Rev Saude Publica. 2009;43(02):256-266. Doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102009005000011
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200900...
3434 Heaman MI, Newburn-Cook CV, Green CG, Elliott LJ, Helewa ME. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:15. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-15
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-8-15...
3838 ReichmanNE, Teitler JO. Timing ofenhanced prenatal care and birth outcomes in New Jersey's HealthStart program. Matern Child Health J. 2005;9(02):151-158. Doi: 10.1007/s10995-005-4905-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-005-4905-...
3939 Simkhada B, Teijlingen ER, PorterM, Simkhada P. Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature. J Adv Nurs. 2008;61(03):244-260. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04532.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007...
However, the curvilinear effect of this covariate and the increased risk of LBW among mothers with high parity (more than four deliveries) was not evidenced in the present study, in contrast to what has been reported by some authors.2929 Nair NS, Rao RSP, Chandrashekar S, Acharya D, Bhat HV. Sociodemographic and maternal determinants of low birth weight: a multivariate approach. Indian J Pediatr. 2000;67(01):9-14. Doi: 10.1007/BF02802625
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02802625...
3131 Paz-Zulueta M, Llorca J, Sarabia-Lavín R, et al. The role of prenatal care and social risk factors in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatalmorbidity: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2015;10(03):e0120765. Doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0120765
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal...
Marital status was also a significant variable in the models, as mothers without a partner had increased risk of LBW.2727 Goldenberg P, FigueiredoMdoC, Silva RdeS. [Adolescent pregnancy, prenatal care, and perinatal outcomes in Montes Claros,Minas Gerais, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2005;21(04):1077-1086. Doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2005000400010 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200500...
3434 Heaman MI, Newburn-Cook CV, Green CG, Elliott LJ, Helewa ME. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:15. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-15
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-8-15...
3939 Simkhada B, Teijlingen ER, PorterM, Simkhada P. Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature. J Adv Nurs. 2008;61(03):244-260. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04532.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007...
Previous studies indicated that married women tend to seek PNC earlier than mothers without a partner.3939 Simkhada B, Teijlingen ER, PorterM, Simkhada P. Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature. J Adv Nurs. 2008;61(03):244-260. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04532.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007...

The average chance of a non-white mother to give birth to a LBW newborn was greater than that of white mothers (in the present study, 99.6% of mothers classified as non-white were brown or black). This variable was significant in all models, and is convergent with other studies.1010 Leal MdoC, Gama SGN, Ratto KMN, Cunha CB. [Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(Suppl 1):S63-S72. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000700007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...
3838 ReichmanNE, Teitler JO. Timing ofenhanced prenatal care and birth outcomes in New Jersey's HealthStart program. Matern Child Health J. 2005;9(02):151-158. Doi: 10.1007/s10995-005-4905-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-005-4905-...
Other authors,3535 do Carmo Leal M, da Gama SG, da Cunha CB. [Consequences of sociodemographic inequalities on birthweight]. Rev Saude Publica. 2006;40(03):466-473. Doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102006000300015
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910200600...
however, reported the association between black or brown skin color and the LBW outcome only for the group with the lowest schooling, emphasizing the correlation between the health and social conditions of the population.

The present study used the mother's schooling as a proxy variable, in order to capture the socioeconomic risk factor of LBW, and this variable appeared as statistically significant in all models. The mother's schooling is crucial to her ability to understand the importance of the PNC, so women with higher schooling tend to start PNC earlier and use it more than mothers with lower schooling.1010 Leal MdoC, Gama SGN, Ratto KMN, Cunha CB. [Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(Suppl 1):S63-S72. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000700007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...
1313 GonzagaICA, SantosSLD, SilvaARV,CampeloV. [Prenatalcareandrisk factors associatedwith premature birth and lowbirthweight in the a capital in the Brazilian Northeast]. Cien Saude Colet. 2016;21(06): 1965-1974.Doi: 10.1590/1413-81232015216.06162015 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232015216...
2525 Guimarães EAA, Velásquez-Meléndez G. [Low birth weight determinants from the Born Alive National Surveillance System in Itaúna, Minas Gerais]. Rev Bras Saúde Mater Infant. 2002;2(03):283-290. Doi: 10.1590/S1519-38292002000300009 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-3829200200...
2727 Goldenberg P, FigueiredoMdoC, Silva RdeS. [Adolescent pregnancy, prenatal care, and perinatal outcomes in Montes Claros,Minas Gerais, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2005;21(04):1077-1086. Doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2005000400010 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200500...
2929 Nair NS, Rao RSP, Chandrashekar S, Acharya D, Bhat HV. Sociodemographic and maternal determinants of low birth weight: a multivariate approach. Indian J Pediatr. 2000;67(01):9-14. Doi: 10.1007/BF02802625
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02802625...
3434 Heaman MI, Newburn-Cook CV, Green CG, Elliott LJ, Helewa ME. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:15. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-15
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-8-15...
Finally, it was also observed that female newborns had an increased chance of having LBW.2525 Guimarães EAA, Velásquez-Meléndez G. [Low birth weight determinants from the Born Alive National Surveillance System in Itaúna, Minas Gerais]. Rev Bras Saúde Mater Infant. 2002;2(03):283-290. Doi: 10.1590/S1519-38292002000300009 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-3829200200...
2626 Giglio MRP, Lamounier JA, Morais Neto OL, César CC. [Low birth weight in a cohort of newborns in Goiânia-Brazil in 2000]. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2005;27(03):130-136. Doi: 10.1590/S0100-72032005000300006 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-7203200500...
2727 Goldenberg P, FigueiredoMdoC, Silva RdeS. [Adolescent pregnancy, prenatal care, and perinatal outcomes in Montes Claros,Minas Gerais, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2005;21(04):1077-1086. Doi:10.1590/S0102-311X2005000400010 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200500...

These present results highlight the importance of the adequacy of PNC on the LBW outcome. Among the evaluated indexes, the APNCU1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
had the larger discriminatory capacity, even higher than that of the index presently used by the MS1818 Ministério da Saúde. Portaria No. 569, de 1° de junho de 2000. Estabelece o Programa de Humanização no Pré-natal e Nascimento. Diário Oficial da União Sect.. 2000;1:4-6. However, as mentioned, caution is needed when interpreting results attributed to high-risk pregnancies, since these are assigned to the “adequate plus” category in this index. The control variables showed similar ORs among the models.

The present study had as limitations the lack of information regarding the risk factors relevant to the aLBW outcome, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, drug use and malnutrition during pregnancy,1010 Leal MdoC, Gama SGN, Ratto KMN, Cunha CB. [Use of the modified Kotelchuck index in the evaluation of prenatal care and its relationship to maternal characteristics and birth weight in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004;20(Suppl 1):S63-S72. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2004000700007 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X200400...
2525 Guimarães EAA, Velásquez-Meléndez G. [Low birth weight determinants from the Born Alive National Surveillance System in Itaúna, Minas Gerais]. Rev Bras Saúde Mater Infant. 2002;2(03):283-290. Doi: 10.1590/S1519-38292002000300009 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-3829200200...
3131 Paz-Zulueta M, Llorca J, Sarabia-Lavín R, et al. The role of prenatal care and social risk factors in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatalmorbidity: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2015;10(03):e0120765. Doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0120765
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal...
3434 Heaman MI, Newburn-Cook CV, Green CG, Elliott LJ, Helewa ME. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:15. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-15
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-8-15...
3636 Kale PL, Lordelo CVM, Fonseca SC, et al. [Adequacy of birth weight for gestational age according to INTERGROWTH-21st curve and factors associatedwith the small forgestational age].CadSaudeColet.2018;26 (04):391-399. Doi: 10.1590/1414-462X201800040400 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-462X2018000...
3838 ReichmanNE, Teitler JO. Timing ofenhanced prenatal care and birth outcomes in New Jersey's HealthStart program. Matern Child Health J. 2005;9(02):151-158. Doi: 10.1007/s10995-005-4905-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-005-4905-...
as well as the occurrence of gestational problems, and previous preterm births and/or LBW infants.1313 GonzagaICA, SantosSLD, SilvaARV,CampeloV. [Prenatalcareandrisk factors associatedwith premature birth and lowbirthweight in the a capital in the Brazilian Northeast]. Cien Saude Colet. 2016;21(06): 1965-1974.Doi: 10.1590/1413-81232015216.06162015 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232015216...
2626 Giglio MRP, Lamounier JA, Morais Neto OL, César CC. [Low birth weight in a cohort of newborns in Goiânia-Brazil in 2000]. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2005;27(03):130-136. Doi: 10.1590/S0100-72032005000300006 Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-7203200500...
2929 Nair NS, Rao RSP, Chandrashekar S, Acharya D, Bhat HV. Sociodemographic and maternal determinants of low birth weight: a multivariate approach. Indian J Pediatr. 2000;67(01):9-14. Doi: 10.1007/BF02802625
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02802625...
Additionally, as mentioned, the analyses referred only to the quantitative aspects of PNC, as no information was available regarding its quality (such as laboratory and imaging tests). Moreover, (although frequently used to this end) the, Sinasc database was not developed for research purposes, and the studied data were not obtained under controlled conditions.

Conclusion

Finally, the results suggest that special attention should be given to the APNCU1919 KotelchuckM. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposedAdequacyof Prenatal CareUtilization Index.Am J PublicHealth. 1994;84(09):1414-1420.Doi: 10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414
https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.84.9.1414...
index, which had the best discriminatory power/ability to predict the LBW outcome among the indexes studied. Therefore, it is suggested that its criteria should be considered the basis for the development of public health policies pertaining to the mother and newborn. In addition, young and older mothers, without a partner, of brown or black ethnicity, with incomplete elementary school, as well as primiparous women, preterm pregnancies, and female newborns were identified as “increased risk” in all models, with large increases for LBW in the “inadequate” PNC category, which should be taken into account in the development of strategies to increase and improve PNC coverage.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    18 June 2021
  • Date of issue
    Apr 2021

History

  • Received
    29 May 2020
  • Accepted
    08 Dec 2020
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