First trimester fasting glycemia and risk factors of pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of maternal and fetal repercussions and glycemic control in women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) using a fasting glucose of 85 mg/dL in the first trimester as a cut-off point and to correlate it with risk factors. METHODS: The medical records of pregnant women followed in the outpatient antenatal high-risk service (PNAR) of HRAN from January 2011 to March 2012 were reviewed and those women diagnosed with GDM were selected for contact and for prenatal card verification. We collected data of age, parity, fasting glucose during the first quarter, the value of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), Body Mass Index (BMI), mode of delivery, form of control, effects and fetal risk factors for GDM. Statistical analysis was performed using the PSPP 0.6.2 software and consisted of descriptive analysis of frequencies, χ2 test for categorical variables, Student's t-test for independent samples, and Pearson test for correlations, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: From 408 pregnant women enrolled, 105 were diagnosed with GDM and 71 had complete records or answered to the contact in order to provide the missing information. The GDM-fasting <85 (fasting glucose <85 mg/dL at the first prenatal visit, in the first trimester) group consisted of 29 (40.8%) women and the GDM-fasting >85 (fasting glucose >85 mg/dL at the first prenatal visit, in the first trimester) consisted of 42 (59.1%) women. It was observed that few patients (five in the GDM-fasting <85 group and three in the GDM-fasting >85 group) had no risk factors for GDM. There was a major need for control with insulin in patients of the GDM-fasting >85 group. There was no significant difference related to fetal impact or mode of delivery between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The first trimester fasting glycemia, with a cut-off value of 85 mg/dL alone or associated with risk factors, does not seem to be a good single predictor of the maternal-fetal effects of GDM.

Diabetes, gestacional; Body mass index; Blood glucose; Pregnancy trimester; first; Fasting; Risk factors

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