Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Short-Form Food Frequency Questionnaire for Pregnancy into Brazilian Portuguese

Tradução e adaptação cultural da versão curta do Questionário de Frequência Alimentar para gestantes em português do Brasil

Karina Tamy Kasawara Daiane S. M. Paulino Roberta Bgeginski Chistine L. Cleghorn Michelle F. Mottola Fernanda Garanhani Surita About the authors

Abstract

Objective

To translate and culturally adapt the short-formFood Frequency Questionnaire (SFFFQ) for pregnant women, which contains 24 questions, into Brazilian Portuguese.

Methods

Description of the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the SFFFQ into Brazilian Portuguese. The present study followed the recommendation of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research for translation and cultural adaptation with the following steps: 1) preparation; 2) first translation; 3) reconciliation; 4) back translation; 5) revision of back translation; 6) harmonization; 7) cognitive debriefing; 8) revision of debriefing results; 9) syntax and orthographic revision; and 10) final report. Five obstetricians, five dietitians and five pregnant women were interviewed to contribute with the language content of the SFFFQ.

Results

Few changes were made to the SFFFQ compared with the original version. These changes were discussed with the research team, and differences in language were adapted to suit all regions of Brazil.

Conclusion

The SFFFQ translated to Brazilian Portuguese can now be validated for use in the Brazilian population.

Keywords:
food consumption; validation studies; pregnancy; translation; adaptation

Resumo

Objetivo

Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente, para o português do Brasil, a versão curta do Questionário de Frequência Alimentar (VCQFA), que contém 24 questões, voltado para gestantes brasileiras.

Métodos

Este estudo descreve o processo de tradução e adaptação cultural do VCQFA para o Português do Brasil. Este estudo seguiu as diretrizes da Sociedade Internacional para Farmacoeconomia e Pesquisa de Resultados para tradução e adaptação cultural, e foram realizadas as seguintes etapas: 1) preparação; 2) primeira tradução; 3) reconciliação; 4) tradução retrógrada; 5) revisão da tradução retrógrada; 6) harmonização; 7) discussão cognitiva; 8) análise dos resultados do desdobramento; 9) revisão de sintaxe e ortografia; e 10) relatório final. Cinco obstetras, cinco nutricionistas e cinco gestantes foram entrevistadas para contribuírem com o conteúdo de linguagem do VCQFA.

Resultados

Poucas mudanças foram realizadas no VCQFA em comparação com a versão original. Essas mudanças foram discutidas com a equipe de pesquisa, e as diferenças de linguagem foram adaptadas para que o questionário seja adequado a todas as regiões do Brasil.

Conclusão

A versão traduzida do VCQFA para o português do Brasil pode ser validada para a população brasileira.

Palavras-chave:
consumo de alimentos; estudos de validação; gravidez; tradução; adaptação

Introduction

Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy plays an important role in the well-being of both the mother and the fetus.11 Lowensohn RI, Stadler DD, Naze C. Current concepts of maternal nutrition. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2016;71(07):413-426. Doi: 10.1097/OGX.0000000000000329
https://doi.org/10.1097/OGX.000000000000...
Maternal overnutrition during pregnancy, specifically the consumption of high-calorie foods, is considered a public health concern worldwide. It can lead to obesity and adverse metabolic outcomes in the offspring and infant later in life.22 Morrison JL, Regnault TRH. Nutrition in pregnancy: optimising maternal diet and fetal adaptations to altered nutrient supply. Nutrients 2016;8(06):342. Doi: 10.3390/nu8060342
https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060342...
33 Parlee SD, MacDougald OA. Maternal nutrition and risk of obesity in offspring: the Trojan horse of developmental plasticity. Biochim Biophys Acta 2014;1842(03):495-506 However, maternal undernutrition is also considered a major contributing factor to adverse pregnancy outcomes.22 Morrison JL, Regnault TRH. Nutrition in pregnancy: optimising maternal diet and fetal adaptations to altered nutrient supply. Nutrients 2016;8(06):342. Doi: 10.3390/nu8060342
https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060342...

During pregnancy, in addition to considerations of the quantity and quality of food intake, it is important to aim for adequate weight gain.44 Institute of Medicine. National Research Council. Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2009 The Institute of Medicine44 Institute of Medicine. National Research Council. Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2009 provides recommendations for adequate weight gain, which are based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). For women with normal prepregnancy BMI (18.5–24.9 Kg/m2), the recommendation of total weight gain during pregnancy is 11.33 Kg to 15.87 Kg; in the second and third trimesters the recommendation is 0.45 Kg (0.36–0.45) per week.44 Institute of Medicine. National Research Council. Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2009 In order to achieve these goals, individuals may need to follow a specific dietary or physical activity program.55 Soltani H, Arden MA, Duxbury AMS, Fair FJ. An analysis of behaviour change techniques used in a sample of gestational weight management trials. J Pregnancy 2016;2016:1085916 66 Rogozinska E, Marlin N, Yang F, et al; i-WIP (InternationalWeight Management in Pregnancy) Collaborative Group. Variations in reporting of outcomes in randomized trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy: A systematic review. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017;43(07):1101-1110. Doi: 10.1111/jog.13338
https://doi.org/10.1111/jog.13338...

Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are considered useful tools for the assessment of dietary intake. They consist of a list of foods and beverages with various options the participant can check to reveal the frequency in which they consume these items.77 Cade JE, Burley VJ, Warm DL, Thompson RL, Margetts BM. Foodfrequency questionnaires: a review of their design, validation and utilisation.NutrResRev 2004;17(01):5-22.Doi:10.1079/NRR200370
https://doi.org/10.1079/NRR200370...
The FFQ is widely used in epidemiological studies aiming to categorize individuals into different levels of dietary patterns and to determine their relationships with health outcomes.88 Cade J,Thompson R, Burley V, Warm D. Development,validationand utilisation of food-frequency questionnaires - a review. Public Health Nutr 2002;5(04):567-587. Doi: 10.1079/PHN2001318
https://doi.org/10.1079/PHN2001318...
99 National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute. Dietary Assessment Primer. Food Frequency Questionnaire at a Glance. https://dietassessmentprimer.cancer.gov/profiles/questionnaire/. Accessed August 11, 2017
https://dietassessmentprimer.cancer.gov/...
Many FFQs are validated for Brazilian pregnant women;1010 Oliveira Td, Marquitti FD, Carvalhaes MABL, Sartorelli DS. Development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for pregnant women attending primary care in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 2010;26(12):2296-2306. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311x2010001200008
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311x201000...
1111 Vian I, Zielinsky P, Zilio AM, et al. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for consumption of polyphenolrich foods in pregnant women. Matern Child Nutr 2015;11(04): 511-524. Doi: 10.1111/mcn.12025
https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12025...
1212 Giacomello A, SchmidtMI, NunesMAA, et al. Validação relativa de Questionário de Frequência Alimentar em gestantes usuárias de serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde em dois municípios no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Rev Bras Saude Mater Infant 2008; 8:445-454. Doi: 10.1590/S1519-38292008000400010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-3829200800...
1313 Barbieri P, Nishimura RY, Crivellenti LC, Sartorelli DS. Relative validation of a quantitative FFQ for use in Brazilian pregnant women. Public Health Nutr 2013;16(08):1419-1426. Doi: 10.1017/S1368980012003783
https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898001200378...
however, most of them are considered lengthy, with around 80 to 100 food categories. Issues with long questionnaires include difficulties in handling data,1414 Fraser GE, Yan R, Butler TL, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Beeson WL, Chan J. Missing data in a long food frequency questionnaire: are imputed zeroes correct? Epidemiology 2009;20(02):289-294. Doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31819642c4
https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0b013e318196...
participant fatigue1515 Choi BCK, Pak AWP. A catalog of biases in questionnaires. Prev Chronic Dis 2005;2(01):A13 and lower response rates, especially among the elderly.1616 Jia X, Craig LCA, Aucott LS, Milne AC, McNeill G. Repeatability and validity of a food frequency questionnaire in free-living older people in relation to cognitive function. J Nutr Health Aging 2008; 12(10):735-741

The short-form Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFFQ) contains 24 questions about regular food consumption, which are divided into main groups that focus on fruit, vegetables, fiber-rich foods, high-fat and high-sugar foods, meat, meat products and fish. This questionnaire was developed based on nutritional guidelines for the United Kingdom adult population and was validated and considered an effective method of assessing diet quality.1717 Cleghorn CL, Harrison RA, Ransley JK, Wilkinson S, Thomas J, Cade JE. Can a dietary quality score derived froma short-form FFQ assess dietary quality in UK adult population surveys? Public Health Nutr 2016;19(16):2915-2923. Doi: 10.1017/S1368980016001099
https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898001600109...
In order to use the SFFFQ in Brazilian pregnant women, the questionnaire needed to be translated and validated for this population. The main objective of the present study was to translate and to culturally adapt into Brazilian Portuguese the SFFFQ for pregnancy.

Methods

The present study was developed with the authorization of the authors of the original version of the SFFFQ,1717 Cleghorn CL, Harrison RA, Ransley JK, Wilkinson S, Thomas J, Cade JE. Can a dietary quality score derived froma short-form FFQ assess dietary quality in UK adult population surveys? Public Health Nutr 2016;19(16):2915-2923. Doi: 10.1017/S1368980016001099
https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898001600109...
and followed all the steps recommend by Wild et al (2005)1818 Wild D, Grove A, Martin M, et al; ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) measures: report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Value Health 2005;8(02):94-104. Doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005.04054.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005...
for translation and cultural adaptation. The process of how the present study was conducted to obtain the final version of the SFFFQ in Brazilian Portuguese is summarized in Fig. 1. The original version of the SFFFQ in English was translated to Brazilian Portuguese by two independent researchers, thus creating two different versions (V1 and V2), which were combined into a third version (V3) that was back translated from Brazilian Portuguese to English by two independent translators (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1
Process of translation and cultural adaptation of the SFFFQ into Brazilian Portuguese. SFFFQ, short-form Food Frequency Questionnaire; V1, version 1; V2, version 2; V3, version 3.

The present study was developed according to the guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and the cultural adaptation of the SFFFQ for Brazilian pregnant women was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil (under CAAE: 62916616.0.1001.5404). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Five obstetricians, five dietitians and five pregnant women were interviewed regarding the language content of the SFFFQ, and their opinions were recorded for the cognitive debriefing section of this paper. Then, the final version of the SFFFQ was developed based on the results of the interviews, the discussion with the author of the original SFFFQ validation,1717 Cleghorn CL, Harrison RA, Ransley JK, Wilkinson S, Thomas J, Cade JE. Can a dietary quality score derived froma short-form FFQ assess dietary quality in UK adult population surveys? Public Health Nutr 2016;19(16):2915-2923. Doi: 10.1017/S1368980016001099
https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898001600109...
and the group's final decision.

Results

The different versions developed as a result of the translation and cultural adaptation of the SFFFQ are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
Process of translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the short-form Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFFQ) for Brazilian pregnant women

  1. Preparation

    We obtained the consent of Cristina Cleghorn, MD (University of Otago) (original author of the validation paper of the SFFFQ in English, to perform the SFFFQ translation and cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese, to apply it among pregnant women.

  2. First translation

    The first (V1) and second (V2) versions of the questionnaire translations were done by two independent native Brazilian Portuguese speakers (KTK and DSMP). These translations were considered a draft for the next step.

  3. Reconciliation

    Versions V1 and V2 were compared to create the third version in Brazilian Portuguese (V3) by another native Brazilian Portuguese speaker (FGS); at this point, details on language were adjusted to create one document.

  4. Back translation

    Two back translations into English were done by two official translators, who were English native speakers with experience in medical terms. These translations were done independently based on V3 to compare with the original version of the SFFFQ. After the back translations, some misinterpretations were identified, and these differences were discussed.

  5. Revision of back translation

    The author of the original validation paper of the SFFFQ in English (CLC) and KTK compared the original instrument with the two independent versions of the back translation. The two back translations were slightly different (Table 1), and this stage was based on whether the back translations were correctly interpreted from V3. The result of this step was also incorporated into the final version of the SFFFQ in Brazilian Portuguese.

  6. Harmonization

    For this step, the comparison of the back translations of the multiple language versions with each other and the original instrument is recommended. However, the original SFFFQ has not been translated to any other language, so this step was not included in the process.

  7. Cognitive debriefing

    For this step, 5 dietitians with a mean age of 42.8 ± 10.8 years and work experience of 15.2 ± 10.1 years, 5 obstetricians with a mean age 40 ± 6.2 years and work experience of 15 ± 6.4 years, and 5 pregnant women with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.8 years were interviewed. These interviews were recorded in an open questionnaire that captured their suggestions regarding the language and the semantic content of the SFFFQ. All the participants were native Brazilian Portuguese speakers and residents of the Southeastern Region of Brazil (in the city of Campinas, São Paulo).

  8. Revision of debriefing results

    The dietitians missed the presence of “eggs” as a protein in the questionnaire, since in Brazil it is very common to have eggs as a main source of protein in a meal.1919 de Oliveira Santos R, Fisberg RM, Marchioni DM, Troncoso Baltar V. Dietary patterns for meals of Brazilian adults. Br J Nutr 2015; 114(05):822-828. Doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002445
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711451500244...
    Therefore, this food item was included in the questionnaire. The food “corned-beef” is not considered a common food in Brazil, and was excluded from the questionnaire, and “ham” was transferred from the “meat” category and included under the “processed meat” category, since it is more commonly consumed in this preparation in Brazil. In the same way, the second mention of the word “cream” in the “ice cream/cream” category was excluded, since “cream” is not a common item in the Brazilian diet. [“Canned fruit” was excluded from the category “fruit”, as it was considered too sweet, with a high glycemic index, and canned fruit is not a part of Brazil's dietary recommendations for fruit intake. Only “fresh fruit” was considered for this category.2020 Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira: Promovendo a Alimentação Saudável. Brasília, DF: Ministério da Saúde; 2008. http://bvsms. saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/guia_alimentar_populacao_brasileira_ 2008.pdf. Accessed August 1, 2017 2121 Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira. Brasília, DF: Ministério da Saúde; 2014. http://www.diabetes.org.br/publico/images/pdf/guia-alimentar- para-a-pop-brasiliera.pdf. Accessed August 1, 2017 All the changes were discussed with the research team, and differences in language were adapted to suit all the regions of Brazil.

  9. Syntax and orthographic revision

    The syntax and orthographic revision was developed by a Brazilian Portuguese grammar professor with experience in medical terms. The final version of the SFFFQ was reviewed and approved by all authors.

  10. Final report

As recommended by Wild et al (2005),1818 Wild D, Grove A, Martin M, et al; ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) measures: report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Value Health 2005;8(02):94-104. Doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005.04054.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005...
the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the SFFFQ into Brazilian Portuguese has been reported to provide guidance for other researchers considering translating the same questionnaire into a different language.

Discussion

This short communication describes the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the SFFFQ to Brazilian Portuguese, as it is considered the first step toward the validation of the questionnaire for Brazilian pregnant women. Dietary patterns during pregnancy may vary in Brazilian pregnant women,2222 Coelho NdeL, Cunha DB, Esteves APP, Lacerda EMA, Theme Filha MM. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight. Rev Saude Publica 2015;49:62. Doi: 10.1590/S0034-8910.2015049005403
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910.20150...
2323 Hoffmann JF, Nunes MAA, Schmidt MI, et al. Dietary patterns during pregnancy and the association with sociodemographic characteristics among women attending general practices in southern Brazil: the ECCAGe Study. Cad Saude Publica 2013;29 (05):970-980. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311x2013000500014
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311x201300...
and different factors influence maternal food intake, such as food price policies and nutritional inequalities.2424 Darmon N, Lacroix A, Muller L, Ruffieux B. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2014;11:66. Doi: 10.1186/ 1479-5868-11-66
https://doi.org/10.1186/...
2525 de Castro MBT, Farias DR, Lepsch J, Mendes RH, Ferreira AA, Kac G. High cholesterol dietary intake during pregnancy is associated with large for gestational age in a sample of low-income women of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Matern Child Nutr 2017;13(03):e12361. Doi: 10.1111/mcn.12361
https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12361...

Adequate assessment of the quantity and quality of food intake in pregnant women provides essential information on associations among diet, nutrition and health, the detection of nutrient deficiencies, and the characterization of population vulnerability.2626 Pedraza DF, Menezes TN. Questionários de Frequência de Consumo Alimentar desenvolvidos e validados para população do Brasil: revisão da literatura. Cien Saude Colet 2015;20(09): 2697-2720. Doi: 10.1590/1413-81232015209.12602014
https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232015209...
A study conducted in Brazil showed a different dietary pattern according to the sociodemographic characteristics of pregnant women measured by the FFQ.2323 Hoffmann JF, Nunes MAA, Schmidt MI, et al. Dietary patterns during pregnancy and the association with sociodemographic characteristics among women attending general practices in southern Brazil: the ECCAGe Study. Cad Saude Publica 2013;29 (05):970-980. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311x2013000500014
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311x201300...
A restrictive dietary pattern with a low variety of grains, fruits and vegetables was observed in younger Brazilian pregnant women who lived without a partner and attended school or university, while pregnant women with higher maternal age and higher socioeconomic status presented a healthier diet, with more food variety.2323 Hoffmann JF, Nunes MAA, Schmidt MI, et al. Dietary patterns during pregnancy and the association with sociodemographic characteristics among women attending general practices in southern Brazil: the ECCAGe Study. Cad Saude Publica 2013;29 (05):970-980. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311x2013000500014
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311x201300...
Therefore, the FFQ has been considered a useful tool to adequately assess maternal dietary habits and to improve the communication between pregnant women and health professionals (dietitians and obstetricians).

During the development of the present study, there were different suggestions made by dietitians, obstetricians and pregnant women about the language content of the SFFFQ. While the dietitians had more comments regarding the food categories and classification, the obstetricians were more concerned with the language content in the questions that were asked. The pregnant women focused on the quantities assessed by the questionnaire and needed clarification on portion sizes. From our perspective, all of them contributed significantly to the development of the final version of the Brazilian SFFFQ.

The present study is similar to various other studies regarding the process of translation and cultural adaptation.2727 Bgeginski R, Schuch FB, Mottola MF, Ramos JGL. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy into Brazilian Portuguese. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2016;41(03): 335-343. Doi: 10.1139/apnm-2015-0493
https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2015-0493...
2828 Spanemberg L, Parker G, Caldieraro MA, et al. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Temperament & Personality Questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese. Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2014;36(04):214-218. Doi: 10.1590/2237-6089-2014- 1007
https://doi.org/10.1590/2237-6089-2014-...
2929 Baeza FLC, Caldieraro MAK, Pinheiro DO, Fleck MP. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of theMeasure of Parental Style (MOPS)-a self-reported scale-according to the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) recommendations. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2010;32 (02):159-163. Doi: 10.1590/S1516-44462010000200011
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-4446201000...
All the studies followed the recommendation of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) for translating and culturally adapting different questionnaires into Brazilian Portuguese.2727 Bgeginski R, Schuch FB, Mottola MF, Ramos JGL. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the PARmed-X for Pregnancy into Brazilian Portuguese. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2016;41(03): 335-343. Doi: 10.1139/apnm-2015-0493
https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2015-0493...
2828 Spanemberg L, Parker G, Caldieraro MA, et al. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Temperament & Personality Questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese. Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2014;36(04):214-218. Doi: 10.1590/2237-6089-2014- 1007
https://doi.org/10.1590/2237-6089-2014-...
2929 Baeza FLC, Caldieraro MAK, Pinheiro DO, Fleck MP. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of theMeasure of Parental Style (MOPS)-a self-reported scale-according to the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) recommendations. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2010;32 (02):159-163. Doi: 10.1590/S1516-44462010000200011
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-4446201000...
The translated SFFFQ to Brazilian Portuguese can now be validated for use in Brazilian pregnant women.

Transparency Declaration

The lead author states that this manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study being reported. The lead author states that no important aspects of the study have been omitted, and that any discrepancies from the study as planned have been explained.

References

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    Lowensohn RI, Stadler DD, Naze C. Current concepts of maternal nutrition. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2016;71(07):413-426. Doi: 10.1097/OGX.0000000000000329
    » https://doi.org/10.1097/OGX.0000000000000329
  • 2
    Morrison JL, Regnault TRH. Nutrition in pregnancy: optimising maternal diet and fetal adaptations to altered nutrient supply. Nutrients 2016;8(06):342. Doi: 10.3390/nu8060342
    » https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060342
  • 3
    Parlee SD, MacDougald OA. Maternal nutrition and risk of obesity in offspring: the Trojan horse of developmental plasticity. Biochim Biophys Acta 2014;1842(03):495-506
  • 4
    Institute of Medicine. National Research Council. Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2009
  • 5
    Soltani H, Arden MA, Duxbury AMS, Fair FJ. An analysis of behaviour change techniques used in a sample of gestational weight management trials. J Pregnancy 2016;2016:1085916
  • 6
    Rogozinska E, Marlin N, Yang F, et al; i-WIP (InternationalWeight Management in Pregnancy) Collaborative Group. Variations in reporting of outcomes in randomized trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy: A systematic review. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017;43(07):1101-1110. Doi: 10.1111/jog.13338
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/jog.13338
  • 7
    Cade JE, Burley VJ, Warm DL, Thompson RL, Margetts BM. Foodfrequency questionnaires: a review of their design, validation and utilisation.NutrResRev 2004;17(01):5-22.Doi:10.1079/NRR200370
    » https://doi.org/10.1079/NRR200370
  • 8
    Cade J,Thompson R, Burley V, Warm D. Development,validationand utilisation of food-frequency questionnaires - a review. Public Health Nutr 2002;5(04):567-587. Doi: 10.1079/PHN2001318
    » https://doi.org/10.1079/PHN2001318
  • 9
    National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute. Dietary Assessment Primer. Food Frequency Questionnaire at a Glance. https://dietassessmentprimer.cancer.gov/profiles/questionnaire/ Accessed August 11, 2017
    » https://dietassessmentprimer.cancer.gov/profiles/questionnaire/
  • 10
    Oliveira Td, Marquitti FD, Carvalhaes MABL, Sartorelli DS. Development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for pregnant women attending primary care in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 2010;26(12):2296-2306. Doi: 10.1590/S0102-311x2010001200008
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311x2010001200008
  • 11
    Vian I, Zielinsky P, Zilio AM, et al. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for consumption of polyphenolrich foods in pregnant women. Matern Child Nutr 2015;11(04): 511-524. Doi: 10.1111/mcn.12025
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12025
  • 12
    Giacomello A, SchmidtMI, NunesMAA, et al. Validação relativa de Questionário de Frequência Alimentar em gestantes usuárias de serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde em dois municípios no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Rev Bras Saude Mater Infant 2008; 8:445-454. Doi: 10.1590/S1519-38292008000400010
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-38292008000400010
  • 13
    Barbieri P, Nishimura RY, Crivellenti LC, Sartorelli DS. Relative validation of a quantitative FFQ for use in Brazilian pregnant women. Public Health Nutr 2013;16(08):1419-1426. Doi: 10.1017/S1368980012003783
    » https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012003783
  • 14
    Fraser GE, Yan R, Butler TL, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Beeson WL, Chan J. Missing data in a long food frequency questionnaire: are imputed zeroes correct? Epidemiology 2009;20(02):289-294. Doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31819642c4
    » https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0b013e31819642c4
  • 15
    Choi BCK, Pak AWP. A catalog of biases in questionnaires. Prev Chronic Dis 2005;2(01):A13
  • 16
    Jia X, Craig LCA, Aucott LS, Milne AC, McNeill G. Repeatability and validity of a food frequency questionnaire in free-living older people in relation to cognitive function. J Nutr Health Aging 2008; 12(10):735-741
  • 17
    Cleghorn CL, Harrison RA, Ransley JK, Wilkinson S, Thomas J, Cade JE. Can a dietary quality score derived froma short-form FFQ assess dietary quality in UK adult population surveys? Public Health Nutr 2016;19(16):2915-2923. Doi: 10.1017/S1368980016001099
    » https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980016001099
  • 18
    Wild D, Grove A, Martin M, et al; ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) measures: report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Value Health 2005;8(02):94-104. Doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005.04054.x
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  • Transparency Declaration

    The lead author states that this manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study being reported. The lead author states that no important aspects of the study have been omitted, and that any discrepancies from the study as planned have been explained.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    June 2018

History

  • Received
    18 Jan 2018
  • Accepted
    10 Apr 2018
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