Iron deficiency in cancer patients

Flávio Augusto Naoum About the author

ABSTRACT

Anemia is a frequent complication in cancer patients, both at diagnosis and during treatment, with a multifactorial etiology in most cases. Iron deficiency is among the most common causes of anemia in this setting and can develop in nearly half of patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Surprisingly, this fact is usually neglected by the attending physician in a way that proper and prompt investigation of the iron status is either not performed or postponed. In cancer patients, functional iron deficiency is the predominant mechanism, in which iron availability is reduced due to disease or the therapy-related inflammatory process. Hence, serum ferritin is not reliable in detecting iron deficiency in this setting, whereas transferrin saturation seems more appropriate for this purpose. Besides, lack of bioavailable iron can be further worsened by the use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents that increase iron utilization in the bone marrow. Iron deficiency can cause anemia or worsen pre-existing anemia, leading to a decline in performance status and adherence to treatment, with possible implications in clinical outcome. Due to its frequency and importance, treatment of this condition is already recommended in many specialty guidelines and should be performed preferably with intravenous iron. The evidences regarding the efficacy of this treatment are solid, with response gain when combined with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and significant increments in hemoglobin as monotherapy. Among intravenous iron formulations, slow release preparations present more favorable pharmacological characteristics and efficacy in cancer patients.

Keywords:
Cancer; Anemia; Iron deficiency; Intravenous iron

Iron deficiency is common in cancer patients

Anemia is a frequent complication in cancer patients, both at diagnosis and during treatment. In the European Cancer Anaemia Survey (ECAS), 39% of patients were anemic at the time of enrollment in the study, and 67% had anemia during chemotherapy. The cause of anemia in these patients is multifactorial, and for many of them iron deficiency is the dominant mechanism.11 Park S, Jung CW, Kim K, Kim SJ, Kim WS, Jang JH. Iron deficient erythropoiesis might play key role in development of anemia in cancer patients. Oncotarget. 2015;6(40):42803-12.,22 Ludwig H, Van Belle S, Barrett-Lee P, Birgegård G, Bokemeyer C, Gascón P, et al. The European Cancer Anaemia Survey (ECAS): a large, multinational, prospective survey defining the prevalence, incidence, and treatment of anaemia in cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40(15):2293-306.

Iron deficiency can be classified as absolute, when iron reserves are depleted, or functional, when iron reserves are normal or even increased. The common event in both situations is the reduction of iron availability for erythropoiesis, leading to anemia. In absolute deficiency, for obvious reasons, the lack of iron in reserves is the main triggering event of anemia. In the case of functional iron deficiency (FID), although the reserves are satisfactory, the presence of an inflammatory process causes the iron to become ‘trapped’ in macrophages and enterocytes, limiting its availability to the bone marrow, triggering anemia. As expected, FID is the predominant mechanism of iron deficiency associated with cancer. The prevalence of FID in oncology patients ranges from 29 to 46%, and of iron deficiency associated to anemia ranges from 7 to 42%. Figure 1 shows the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia in various types of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies.33 Ludwig H, Müldür E, Endler G, Hübl W. Prevalence of iron deficiency across different tumors and its association with poor performance status, disease status and anemia. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(7):1886-92.

Figure 1
Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (ID) and anemia in different types of tumors. GI: gastrointestinal.

Functional iron deficiency is the predominant mechanism in cancer patients

The demand for iron by the bone marrow and other tissues is supplied by the transport of this element in the circulation by transferrin. The iron taken up by transferrin can come from absorption by duodenal enterocytes or from recycling senescent erythrocytes by macrophages. Both intestinal absorption and macrophage release of iron are controlled by hepcidin, a regulatory hormone synthesized by the liver, which, under increased concentration, degrades the iron export protein, ferroportin, precluding the availability of iron for transportation from these locations.44 Wang J, Pantopoulos K. Regulation of cellular iron metabolism. Biochem J. 2011;434(3):365-81.

In the presence of an inflammatory process, iron availability is reduced to about 44% of the normal.55 Weiss G, Goodnough LT. Anemia of chronic disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(10):1011-23. This is due to the release of inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin-6, which activates the hepatic hepcidin transcription promoting genes, increasing hepcidin concentrations, and promoting the blockage of iron input into the circulation and reducing its availability (Figure 2).66 Goodnough LT, Nemeth E, Ganz T. Detection evaluation, and management of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. Blood. 2010;116(23):4754-61.

Figure 2
Pathophysiology of anemia associated with inflammatory process, highlighting the inhibitory action of hepcidin on iron release. IL: interleukin.

Thus, even in the presence of adequate iron reserves, cancer patients may develop lack of bioavailable iron, especially when treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) that rapidly increase the production of red blood cells and the use of iron. This is the basic mechanism of functional iron deficiency, the prevalence of which increases in the more advanced stages of cancer and is associated with poor performance status (The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group - ECOG).33 Ludwig H, Müldür E, Endler G, Hübl W. Prevalence of iron deficiency across different tumors and its association with poor performance status, disease status and anemia. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(7):1886-92.

The importance of correct diagnosis... what is there besides ferritin?

Traditionally, serum ferritin is the most widely used test for the diagnosis of iron deficiency, due to mirroring iron reserves. However, because it is a protein of the acute phase of inflammation, its diagnostic applicability is considerably impaired in the presence of acute or chronic inflammatory processes. In this context, transferrin saturation (TS) becomes more reliable for diagnostic purposes.77 Ludwig H, Evstatiev R, Kornek G, Aapro M, Bauernhofer T, Buxhofer-Ausch V, et al. Iron metabolism and iron supplementation in cancer patients. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015;127(23/24):907-19.

It is remarkable that, in the clinical practice, only half of cancer patients with anemia are investigated as to iron profile and when they are, the investigation basically consists of ferritin measurements, whereas transferrin saturation is rarely used.88 Beguin Y, Aapro M, Bokemeyer C, Glaspy J, Hedenus M, Littlewood TJ. Current practice in diagnosis and treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia in five European countries - a patient record study. Blood. 2010;116:1512. This is a valid question, as among cancer patients with reduced transferrin saturation, more than 80% have normal or elevated ferritin values.33 Ludwig H, Müldür E, Endler G, Hübl W. Prevalence of iron deficiency across different tumors and its association with poor performance status, disease status and anemia. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(7):1886-92.

Also useful, although less available for this purpose, are the measurements of reticulocyte hemoglobin content, determination of the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells in the sample, soluble transferrin receptor, among others.99 Naoum FA. Doenças que alteram os exames hematológicos. 1st ed. São Paulo: Atheneu; 2010. p. 212.

Figure 3 provides a practical algorithm for differentiation between absolute and functional iron deficiency.

Figure 3
Laboratory characteristics that differentiate absolute and functional iron deficiency in cancer patients; the latter has clear predominance in this population.

Clinical impact and prognosis of iron deficiency in cancer patients

The immediate complications of iron deficiency is the onset or worsening of pre-existing anemia, with varying clinical repercussions, including worsening of the quality of life of the patients. This usually affects the patients’ performance status, with the risk of jeopardizing their adherence to treatment, and may indirectly affect therapeutic results.33 Ludwig H, Müldür E, Endler G, Hübl W. Prevalence of iron deficiency across different tumors and its association with poor performance status, disease status and anemia. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(7):1886-92.,1010 Crawford J, Cella D, Cleeland CS, Cremieux PY, Demetri GD, Sarokhan BJ, et al. Relationship between changes in hemoglobin level and quality of life during chemotherapy in anemic cancer patients receiving epoetin alfa therapy. Cancer. 2002;95(4):888-95.

The treatment of iron deficiency in cancer patients is now recommended by several guidelines

Currently, the treatment of anemia in cancer patients basically consists of red blood cell transfusions, use of ESAs and iron supplementation. The main therapeutic goal is to improve the quality of life, in addition to trying to reduce the number of blood transfusions, which are associated with the risk of transmitting infections, hemolytic and non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, alloimmunization, etc.77 Ludwig H, Evstatiev R, Kornek G, Aapro M, Bauernhofer T, Buxhofer-Ausch V, et al. Iron metabolism and iron supplementation in cancer patients. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015;127(23/24):907-19.,1111 Aapro M, Österborg A, Gascón P, Ludwig H, Beguin Y. Prevalence and management of cancer-related anaemia, iron deficiency and the specific role of i.v. iron. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(8):1954-62.

In this context, the use of ESAs and iron supplementation are effective treatment options. However, the response to ESAs in patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy ranges from 35 to 70%, and is limited by factors such as iron deficiency, concomitant infections, neoplastic activity and poor bone marrow reserve.77 Ludwig H, Evstatiev R, Kornek G, Aapro M, Bauernhofer T, Buxhofer-Ausch V, et al. Iron metabolism and iron supplementation in cancer patients. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015;127(23/24):907-19.,1111 Aapro M, Österborg A, Gascón P, Ludwig H, Beguin Y. Prevalence and management of cancer-related anaemia, iron deficiency and the specific role of i.v. iron. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(8):1954-62. Furthermore, some studies and meta-analyzes have raised the question of the risk of thromboembolic events with possible increases in mortality associated to the use of ESAs, especially with off-label indications in patients who are not on chemotherapy.1212 Rizzo JD, Brouwers M, Hurley P, Seidenfeld J, Arcasoy MO, Spivak JL, et al. American Society of Hematology/American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update on the use of epoetin and darbepoetin in adult patients with cancer. Blood. 2010;116(20):4045-59.

For these reasons, supplementation with iron stands as an attractive therapeutic option, included in several guidelines on the treatment of cancer patients with iron deficiency, either as monotherapy in order to improve anemia or in association with ESAs to enhance response to these agents (Table 1).

Table 1
Recommendations on monitoring and iron replacement in cancer patients.

Intravenous iron is preferred in the treatment of cancer patients, especially formulations with slow iron release

There are several iron dosages and formulations available for treatment. In cancer patients, oral iron replacement is ineffective because intestinal iron absorption is considerably reduced in these patients, with more than 95% of this element being excreted in the feces. Furthermore, the small amount of absorbed iron is ‘locked’ within the enterocytes due to metabolic disorders induced by the previously mentioned inflammatory cytokines. Another factor that impairs the outcome is the decreased adherence to oral treatment because of the gastrointestinal side effects.77 Ludwig H, Evstatiev R, Kornek G, Aapro M, Bauernhofer T, Buxhofer-Ausch V, et al. Iron metabolism and iron supplementation in cancer patients. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015;127(23/24):907-19.,1616 Toblli JE, Angerosa M. Optimizing iron delivery in the management of anemia: patient considerations and the role of ferric carboxymaltose. Drug Des Dev Ther. 2014;8:2475-91.

Intravenous iron, on the other hand, can overcome the absorptive inflammatory blockade of iron, since the injected iron is directly captured by macrophages. In case of less stable complexes of intravenous iron, such as saccharate iron and ferric gluconate, the carbohydrate capsule that coats the iron is easily degraded and the iron is quickly released, requiring multiple low-dose infusions. However, with more stable complexes, such as ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), iron release is slow and prolonged, enabling the administration of high doses of iron in a single infusion. Thus, 1000 mg of iron can be administered in a single 15-min infusion without the risk of releasing excessive iron, particularly as its free or toxic forms.77 Ludwig H, Evstatiev R, Kornek G, Aapro M, Bauernhofer T, Buxhofer-Ausch V, et al. Iron metabolism and iron supplementation in cancer patients. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015;127(23/24):907-19.,1111 Aapro M, Österborg A, Gascón P, Ludwig H, Beguin Y. Prevalence and management of cancer-related anaemia, iron deficiency and the specific role of i.v. iron. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(8):1954-62.,1616 Toblli JE, Angerosa M. Optimizing iron delivery in the management of anemia: patient considerations and the role of ferric carboxymaltose. Drug Des Dev Ther. 2014;8:2475-91.,1717 Geisser P, Burckhardt S. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of iron preparations. Pharmaceutics. 2011;3(1):12-33.

Thus, FCM is one of the most widely used compounds in the treatment of iron deficiency in cancer patients, both in association with ESAs and as monotherapy.

The main studies published so far, including a meta-analysis, favor the results of the association of ESAs and intravenous iron rather than ESA alone, because of the sharp increase in hematologic response evidenced by the increment in hemoglobin (Hb - Figure 4), faster response time, better quality of life, reduced need for transfusion and dose of ESAs when used in combination therapy.1818 Gafter-Gvili A, Rozen-Zvi B, Vidal L, Leibovici L, Vansteenkiste J, Gafter U, et al. Intravenous iron supplementation for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia - systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Acta Oncol. 2013;52(1):18-29.

19 Auerbach M, Ballard H, Trout JR, McIlwain M, Ackerman A, Bahrain H, et al. Intravenous iron optimizes the response to recombinant human erythropoietin in cancer patients with chemotherapy-related anemia: a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(7):1301-7.

20 Auerbach M, Silberstein PT, Webb RT, Averyanova S, Ciuleanu TE, Shao J, et al. Darbepoetin alfa 300 or 500 µg once every 3 weeks with or without intravenous iron in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. Am J Hematol. 2010;85(9):655-63.

21 Bastit L, Vandebroek A, Altintas S, Gaede B, Pintér T, Suto TS, et al. Randomized, multicenter, controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alpha administered every 3 weeks with or without intravenous iron in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(10):1611-8.

22 Hedenus M, Birgegård G, Näsman P, Ahlberg L, Karlsson T, Lauri B, et al. Addition of intravenous iron to epoetin beta increases hemoglobin response and decreases epoetin dose requirement in anemic patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies: a randomized multicenter study. Leukemia. 2007;21(4):627-32.

23 Henry DH, Dahl NV, Auerbach M, Tchekmedyian S, Laufman LR. Intravenous ferric gluconate significantly improves response to epoetin alfa versus oral iron or no iron in anemic patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Oncologist. 2007;12(2):231-42.

24 Pedrazzoli P, Farris A, Del Prete S, Del Gaizo F, Ferrari D, Bianchessi C, et al. Randomized trial of intravenous iron supplementation in patients with chemotherapy-related anemia without iron deficiency treated with darbepoetin alpha. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(10):1619-25.
-2525 Steensma DP, Sloan JA, Dakhil SR, Dalton R, Kahanic SP, Prager DJ, et al. Phase III, randomized study of the effects of parenteral iron, oral iron, or no iron supplementation on the erythropoietic response to darbepoetin alfa for patients with chemotherapy-associated anemia. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(1):97-105.

Figure 4
Increases in hemoglobin observed with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) alone and in combination with intravenous iron (IV) in cancer patients.

In addition to clinical benefits, the treatment of chemotherapy induced anemia using FCM was shown to be more cost effective, notably by reducing the use and dose of ESAs.2626 Luporsi E, Mahi L, Morre C, Wernli J, de Pouvourville G, Bugat R. Evaluation of cost savings with ferric carboxymaltose in anemia treatment through its impact on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and blood transfusion: French healthcare payer perspective. J Med Econ. 2012;15(2):225-32.

Regarding the use of intravenous iron as monotherapy, an observational study of 639 solid tumor and onco-hematological patients showed similar increments in Hb levels with the use of FCM alone and FCM in association with ESAs (1.4 g/dL and 1.6 g/dL, respectively).2727 Steinmetz T, Tschechne B, Harlin O, Klement B, Franzem M, Wamhoff J, et al. Clinical experience with ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of cancer and chemotherapy-associated anaemia. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(2):475-82. Similarly, a single dose of 1000 mg FCM in anemic patients (Hb 8.5-10.5 g/dL, TS < 20%, ferritin > 40 ng/mL in men and >30 ng/mL in women) with low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and prior chemotherapy compared to no treatment showed greater increase in Hb (2.5 vs. 0.9 g/dL).2828 Hedenus M, Karlsson T, Ludwig H, Felder M, Roubert B, Birgegard G. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose as sole anemia therapy in patients with lymphoid malignancies, chemotherapy-induced anemia and functional iron deficiency. Blood. 2013;122(21):3439.

A cost minimization analysis of patients scheduled for surgery for colorectal cancer, demonstrated that the use of FCM before surgery reduces direct and indirect costs of hospitalization compared to the use of saccharate iron and oral iron.2929 Calvet X, Gené E, ÀngelRuíz M, Figuerola A, Villoria A, Cucala M, et al. Cost-minimization analysis favours intravenous ferric carboxymaltose over ferric sucrose or oral iron as preoperative treatment in patients with colon cancer and iron deficiency anaemia. Technol Health Care. 2016;24(1):111-20. This cost savings can be explained by the reduced need for transfusion and hospitalization time; the preoperative use of FCM was shown in another study of anemic patients in a similar scenario.3030 Calleja JL, Delgado S, Del Val A, Hervás A, Larraona JL, Terán Á, et al. Ferric carboxymaltose reduces transfusions and hospital stay in patients with colon cancer and anemia. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2016;31(3):543-51.

Conclusion

Functional iron deficiency, triggered by the inflammatory process associated with cancer or its treatment, as well as by the use of ESAs, is considerably common in cancer patients. As a result, the iron profile should be investigated in anemia of cancer patients, in which decreased transferrin saturation, even with normal or high levels of ferritin, denotes functional iron deficiency.

The treatment of iron deficiency in oncology is already recommended by several specialty guidelines and should be carried out preferably with intravenous iron. The evidences regarding the efficacy of this treatment are solid, with a better response when combined with ESA and significant increments in Hb as monotherapy. Among the available intravenous iron formulations, FCM presents more favorable pharmacological characteristics with good efficacy in this inflammatory scenario, in addition to a more convenient dosing regimen and good cost-effective ratio, as a smaller number of transfusions and lower doses of ESA are required.

Acknowledgement

I gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Takeda for the translation of this manuscript.

References

  • 1
    Park S, Jung CW, Kim K, Kim SJ, Kim WS, Jang JH. Iron deficient erythropoiesis might play key role in development of anemia in cancer patients. Oncotarget. 2015;6(40):42803-12.
  • 2
    Ludwig H, Van Belle S, Barrett-Lee P, Birgegård G, Bokemeyer C, Gascón P, et al. The European Cancer Anaemia Survey (ECAS): a large, multinational, prospective survey defining the prevalence, incidence, and treatment of anaemia in cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40(15):2293-306.
  • 3
    Ludwig H, Müldür E, Endler G, Hübl W. Prevalence of iron deficiency across different tumors and its association with poor performance status, disease status and anemia. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(7):1886-92.
  • 4
    Wang J, Pantopoulos K. Regulation of cellular iron metabolism. Biochem J. 2011;434(3):365-81.
  • 5
    Weiss G, Goodnough LT. Anemia of chronic disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(10):1011-23.
  • 6
    Goodnough LT, Nemeth E, Ganz T. Detection evaluation, and management of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. Blood. 2010;116(23):4754-61.
  • 7
    Ludwig H, Evstatiev R, Kornek G, Aapro M, Bauernhofer T, Buxhofer-Ausch V, et al. Iron metabolism and iron supplementation in cancer patients. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015;127(23/24):907-19.
  • 8
    Beguin Y, Aapro M, Bokemeyer C, Glaspy J, Hedenus M, Littlewood TJ. Current practice in diagnosis and treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia in five European countries - a patient record study. Blood. 2010;116:1512.
  • 9
    Naoum FA. Doenças que alteram os exames hematológicos. 1st ed. São Paulo: Atheneu; 2010. p. 212.
  • 10
    Crawford J, Cella D, Cleeland CS, Cremieux PY, Demetri GD, Sarokhan BJ, et al. Relationship between changes in hemoglobin level and quality of life during chemotherapy in anemic cancer patients receiving epoetin alfa therapy. Cancer. 2002;95(4):888-95.
  • 11
    Aapro M, Österborg A, Gascón P, Ludwig H, Beguin Y. Prevalence and management of cancer-related anaemia, iron deficiency and the specific role of i.v. iron. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(8):1954-62.
  • 12
    Rizzo JD, Brouwers M, Hurley P, Seidenfeld J, Arcasoy MO, Spivak JL, et al. American Society of Hematology/American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update on the use of epoetin and darbepoetin in adult patients with cancer. Blood. 2010;116(20):4045-59.
  • 13
    NCCN. Cancer and chemotherapy-induced anemia, Version 2; 2016.
  • 14
    Schrijvers D, De Samblanx H, Roila F. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in the treatment of anaemia in cancer patients: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for use. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(Suppl. 5):v244-v247.
  • 15
    Aapro MS, Link H. September 2007 update on EORTC guidelines and anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Oncologist. 2008;13(Suppl. 3):33-6.
  • 16
    Toblli JE, Angerosa M. Optimizing iron delivery in the management of anemia: patient considerations and the role of ferric carboxymaltose. Drug Des Dev Ther. 2014;8:2475-91.
  • 17
    Geisser P, Burckhardt S. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of iron preparations. Pharmaceutics. 2011;3(1):12-33.
  • 18
    Gafter-Gvili A, Rozen-Zvi B, Vidal L, Leibovici L, Vansteenkiste J, Gafter U, et al. Intravenous iron supplementation for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia - systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Acta Oncol. 2013;52(1):18-29.
  • 19
    Auerbach M, Ballard H, Trout JR, McIlwain M, Ackerman A, Bahrain H, et al. Intravenous iron optimizes the response to recombinant human erythropoietin in cancer patients with chemotherapy-related anemia: a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(7):1301-7.
  • 20
    Auerbach M, Silberstein PT, Webb RT, Averyanova S, Ciuleanu TE, Shao J, et al. Darbepoetin alfa 300 or 500 µg once every 3 weeks with or without intravenous iron in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. Am J Hematol. 2010;85(9):655-63.
  • 21
    Bastit L, Vandebroek A, Altintas S, Gaede B, Pintér T, Suto TS, et al. Randomized, multicenter, controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alpha administered every 3 weeks with or without intravenous iron in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(10):1611-8.
  • 22
    Hedenus M, Birgegård G, Näsman P, Ahlberg L, Karlsson T, Lauri B, et al. Addition of intravenous iron to epoetin beta increases hemoglobin response and decreases epoetin dose requirement in anemic patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies: a randomized multicenter study. Leukemia. 2007;21(4):627-32.
  • 23
    Henry DH, Dahl NV, Auerbach M, Tchekmedyian S, Laufman LR. Intravenous ferric gluconate significantly improves response to epoetin alfa versus oral iron or no iron in anemic patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Oncologist. 2007;12(2):231-42.
  • 24
    Pedrazzoli P, Farris A, Del Prete S, Del Gaizo F, Ferrari D, Bianchessi C, et al. Randomized trial of intravenous iron supplementation in patients with chemotherapy-related anemia without iron deficiency treated with darbepoetin alpha. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(10):1619-25.
  • 25
    Steensma DP, Sloan JA, Dakhil SR, Dalton R, Kahanic SP, Prager DJ, et al. Phase III, randomized study of the effects of parenteral iron, oral iron, or no iron supplementation on the erythropoietic response to darbepoetin alfa for patients with chemotherapy-associated anemia. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(1):97-105.
  • 26
    Luporsi E, Mahi L, Morre C, Wernli J, de Pouvourville G, Bugat R. Evaluation of cost savings with ferric carboxymaltose in anemia treatment through its impact on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and blood transfusion: French healthcare payer perspective. J Med Econ. 2012;15(2):225-32.
  • 27
    Steinmetz T, Tschechne B, Harlin O, Klement B, Franzem M, Wamhoff J, et al. Clinical experience with ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of cancer and chemotherapy-associated anaemia. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(2):475-82.
  • 28
    Hedenus M, Karlsson T, Ludwig H, Felder M, Roubert B, Birgegard G. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose as sole anemia therapy in patients with lymphoid malignancies, chemotherapy-induced anemia and functional iron deficiency. Blood. 2013;122(21):3439.
  • 29
    Calvet X, Gené E, ÀngelRuíz M, Figuerola A, Villoria A, Cucala M, et al. Cost-minimization analysis favours intravenous ferric carboxymaltose over ferric sucrose or oral iron as preoperative treatment in patients with colon cancer and iron deficiency anaemia. Technol Health Care. 2016;24(1):111-20.
  • 30
    Calleja JL, Delgado S, Del Val A, Hervás A, Larraona JL, Terán Á, et al. Ferric carboxymaltose reduces transfusions and hospital stay in patients with colon cancer and anemia. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2016;31(3):543-51.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Oct-Dec 2016

History

  • Received
    13 May 2016
  • Accepted
    30 May 2016
Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular R. Dr. Diogo de Faria, 775 cj 114, 04037-002 São Paulo/SP/Brasil, Tel. (55 11) 2369-7767/2338-6764 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: secretaria@rbhh.org