Abstract in English:Abstract Background: The Kidd blood group system has three antigens, Jka, Jkb and Jk3, found on red blood cells and on endothelial cells of the inner lining of blood vessels in the renal medulla. These are known as urea transporter B (UT-B). Researchers have found that individuals carrying the Jk(a − b−) or Jk-null (UT-B null) phenotypes have a lower urine-concentrating capability and risk of severe renal impairment. This study evaluated the distribution of the Kidd phenotypes in patients with chronic kidney disease and a possible association of Kidd antigens with the development of renal disease. Methods: Jka and Jkb antigens were phenotyped using the gel column agglutination test (ID-cards Bio-RAD) in 197 patients with chronic kidney disease and 444 blood donors, as the control group. The phenotype and antigen frequencies between patients and controls were evaluated using the Chi-square method with Yates correction and logistic regression after adjustments for gender and age. Results: No differences were observed between the Kidd phenotypes frequency distribution between patients with chronic kidney disease and blood donors [Jk(a − b+) = 22.3% and 27.2%; Jk(a + b−) = 30.5% and 24.3%; Jk(a + b+) = 47.25% and 48.4%, respectively]. Conclusion: The distribution of Kidd phenotypes found in the studied population is expected for Caucasians; Jka and Jkb antigens and phenotypes were not found to be related to susceptibility for chronic kidney disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: There is great interest in reducing the number of automated complete blood counts requiring manual blood smear reviews without sacrificing the quality of patient care. This study was aimed at evaluating and establishing appropriate screening criteria for manual blood smear reviews to improve the performance in a hematology laboratory. Method: A total of 1977 consecutive samples from the daily workload were used to evaluate four sets of screening criteria for manual blood smear reviews to identify samples with positive smear findings. Three sets of screening criteria were arbitrarily proposed in this study: Group 1 (narrow ranges), Group 2 (intermediate ranges), and Group 3 (wide limits) and one set (Group 4) was adapted from the International Society for Laboratory Hematology. All samples were run on Sysmex hematology analyzers and were investigated using manual blood smear reviews. Diagnostic accuracy and agreement were performed for each set of screening criteria, including an investigation of microscopic review rate and efficiency. Results: The microscopic review rates for Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 73.85%, 54.52%, 46.33% and 46.38%, respectively; the false-negative rates were 0.50%, 1.97%, 2.73% and 3.95%, respectively. The efficiency and negative predictive values of Group 3 were 73.04% and 4.91%, respectively. Conclusions: Group 3 had the best relationship between safety (false-negative rate: ≤3%) and efficiency to estimate the limits of automation in performing complete blood counts. This study strengthens the importance of establishing screening criteria for manual blood smear reviews, which account for the different contexts in which hematological determinations are performed. Each laboratory should optimize the screening criteria for manual blood smear reviews in order to maximize their efficiency and safety.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disease linked to bone marrow failure; a possible treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Changes in the nutritional status of Fanconi anemia patients are not very well known. This study aimed to characterize body composition of adult, children and adolescent patients with Fanconi anemia who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or not. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 63 patients (29 adults and 34 children and adolescents). Body composition was assessed based on diverse methods, including triceps skin fold, arm circumference, arm muscle area and bioelectrical impedance analysis, as there is no established consensus for this population. Body mass index was also considered as reference according to age. Results: Almost half (48.3%) of the transplanted adult patients were underweight considering body mass index whereas eutrophic status was observed in 66.7% of the children and adolescents submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and in 80% of those who were not. At least 50% of all groups displayed muscle mass depletion. Half of the transplanted children and adolescents presented short/very short stature for age. Conclusion: All patients presented low muscle stores, underweight was common in adults, and short stature was common in children and adolescents. More studies are needed to detect whether muscle mass loss measured at the early stages of treatment results in higher risk of mortality, considering the importance of muscle mass as an essential body component to prevent mortality related to infectious and non-infectious diseases and the malnutrition inherent to Fanconi anemia.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Reports dealing with clinical outcomes of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma in low- to middle-income countries are scarce and response to therapy is poorly documented. This report describes the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma from a single institution in Latin America. Method: A retrospective study was conducted over ten years of patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma treated at a referral center. Progression-free and overall survival rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The univariate Cox regression model was used to estimate associations between important variables and clinical outcomes. Main results: One hundred and twenty-eight patients were analyzed. The mean age was 28.5 years. The five-year progression-free and overall survival were 37.3% and 78.9%, respectively. Of the whole group, 55 (43%) were primary refractory cases. Only 39/83 (47%) patients with advanced disease vs. 34/45 (75.6%) in early stages (p-value = 0.002) achieved complete remission. Those with advanced disease had a five-year overall survival of 68.7% vs. 91.8% for early disease (p-value = 0.132). Thirty-one patients relapsed (24.2%) and 20 (64.5%) received a transplant. The hazard ratio for progression with bone marrow infiltration was 2.628 (p-value = 0.037). For death, an International Prognostic Score ≥4 had a hazard ratio of 3.355 (p-value = 0.050) in univariate analysis. Two-thirds of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma patients diagnosed at advanced stages had a low progression-free survival but an overall survival similar to high-income countries. Conclusion: Patients diagnosed with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma in Northeastern Mexico had a significantly low progression-free survival rate and presented with advanced disease, underscoring the need for earlier diagnosis and improved contemporary therapeutic strategies in these mainly young productive-age Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: The emergence of oligoclonal bands, proteins differing from those originally identified at diagnosis, has been reported in multiple myeloma patients after high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation and after successful conventional chemotherapy. The clinical relevance of oligoclonal bands remains unclear, but their emergence has been associated with better prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of the presence of oligoclonal bands in multiple myeloma patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The study included newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients with at least very good partial response after conventional dose or high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. The emergence of oligoclonal bands was identified using serum protein electrophoresis as well as serum and urine immunofixation techniques. Results: A total of 101 patients were included with a median follow-up of 42 months. In total, 55% were male, and the median age was 58 years (29-87 years). Fifty-one (50.5%) patients developed oligoclonal bands. They comprised 60% (45/75) of patients treated with autologous stem cell transplantation and 23% (6/26) of those who were not transplanted. Patients with oligoclonal bands showed better progression-free survival than those without the emergence of oligoclonal bands (p-value = 0.0075). Conclusion: The prevalence of oligoclonal bands in this study population was 50.5% with its frequency being greater in cases treated with autologous stem cell transplantation and in those attaining complete remission. Complete remission was more important than the emergence of oligoclonal bands on progression-free survival.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Although it is an essential component of the treatment of acute lymphoid leukemia in children, asparaginase causes adverse reactions that sometimes make it impossible to use it fully. Hypersensitivity reactions are the most frequent and may lead to early discontinuation of treatment. The present study aimed to investigate suspicions of adverse reactions during the infusion of asparaginase in a pediatric cohort. Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out at a university pediatric institute in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Information regarding clinical features and characteristics of adverse reactions was collected from hospital medical records. Suspicions of adverse reactions were classified regarding causality and severity. Results: Seventy-three suspicions of adverse reactions were recorded during asparaginase infusion in 72 children in the study period. Allergic hypersensitivity reactions were suspected in 60.5% of the cases. Of these, 25% of the reactions occurred during induction and 61.1% in concomitant use with vincristine, findings that diverge from other studies. High-risk classification and younger age were considered risk factors for these reactions. A total of 72.4% of the reactions were classified as grade 1 or 2, which suggest that not all are related to antibody formation; this highlights the importance of differential diagnosis with other reactions, such as non-allergic hypersensitivity and hyperammonemia. Conclusion: The implementation of the differential diagnosis of reactions related to infusion of asparaginase with ammonia dosage and classification of the grade of reactions is crucial to facilitate the identification and proper management of each type of reaction.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of pre-sarcopenia and bone mineral density after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: The study group consisted of over 18-year-old patients who had been submitted to allogeneic transplantation at least one year previously. Patients and healthy controls were matched by sex, ethnic background, age, and body mass index. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A 24-h food recall and food frequency survey were performed. The biochemical evaluation included calcium, parathormone and vitamin D. Eighty-seven patients (52 men; age: 37.2 ± 12.7 years; body mass index: 25 ± 4.5 kg/m2) were compared to 68 controls [31 men; age 35.4 ± 15.5 years (p = 0.467); body mass index 25.05 ± 3.7 kg/m2 (p = 0.927)]. Results: There was no significant difference in the dietary intake between patients and controls. The mean levels of vitamin D were 23.5 ± 10.3 ng/mL; 29 patients (41.0%) had insufficient and 26 (37.14%) deficient levels. A higher prevalence of reduced bone mineral density was observed in 24 patients (25%) compared to 12 controls (19.1% - p < 0.001). Pre-sarcopenia was diagnosed in 14 (14.4%) patients and none of the controls (p = 0.05). There was a higher prevalence of pre-sarcopenia (66%) in patients with grades III and IV compared to those with grades 0-II graft-versus-host disease (10.9%) (p = 0.004). Conclusion: patients submitted to transplantation had a higher prevalence of pre-sarcopenia and greater changes in bone mineral density compared to controls; the severity of graft-versus-host disease had an impact on the prevalence of pre-sarcopenia.
Abstract in English:Abstract The term 'economy class syndrome' refers to the occurrence of thrombotic events during long-haul flights that mainly occur in passengers in the economy class of the aircraft. This syndrome results from several factors related to the aircraft cabin (immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia and low humidity) and the passenger (body mass index, thrombophilia, oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer), acting together to predispose to excessive blood coagulation, which can result in venous thromboembolism. Several risk factors, both genetic and acquired, are associated with venous thromboembolism. The most important genetic risk factors are natural anticoagulant deficiencies (antithrombin, protein C and protein S), factor V Leiden, prothrombin and fibrinogen gene mutations and non-O blood group individuals. Acquired risk factors include age, pregnancy, surgery, obesity, cancer, hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, antiphospholipid syndrome, infections, immobilization and smoking. People who have these risk factors are predisposed to hypercoagulability and are more susceptible to suffer venous thromboembolism during air travel. For these individuals, a suitable outfit for the trip, frequent walks, calf muscle exercises, elastic compression stockings and hydration are important preventive measures. Hence, it is essential to inform about economic class syndrome in an attempt to encourage Brazilian health and transport authorities to adopt measures, in partnership with the pharmaceutical industry, to prevent venous thromboembolism.