Abstract in English:Abstract The Sharing Economy represents a new form of consumption whose dissemination is explained by the growing ubiquity of digital platforms and applications. This article has three objectives: 1) to build an indicator capable of measuring countries' entry into the sharing economy; 2) to characterize the entry of countries in this new consumption model and 3) identify the factors that influence its spread. Descriptive data analysis and six ordinary least squares regressions are used to identify the factors that explain the expansion of the sharing economy, measured by building a Sharing Economy Index, based on 14.9 billion traffic data on the websites and specialized sharing apps for 175 countries. Descriptive statistics show that the sharing economy is spreading mainly among the countries with the highest income. Estimated regressions indicate that internet access, property rights and the presence of an over-regulated environment are the main factors that contribute to the access to this new consumption pattern.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eco-innovation is an important concept, seeing as a strategy of transition to Green Economy, Circular Economy and Industrial Ecosystems. Internationally, many studies are being carried out searching for their determinants, but in low-income countries they are rare. The objective of this article is to investigate the determinants factors of Eco-innovations in the companies of the Brazilian electronic complex members of the Brazilian Association of the Electrical and Electronics Industry (ABINEE), through field research and descriptive statistical analysis and estimation of the binomial and multinomial Logit models. A sample of 48 companies was obtained which resulted from the models related to 1%. The results pointed out that the market, and not environmental regulation, has been the main determining factor of Eco-innovations since other variables need to be incorporated into the model (effective implementation of the regulation, institutional training and rigor/enforcement and type of environmental impact). Product Eco-innovation depends on the market, while those of process depend on regulations; more innovative firms are also eco-innovators and the size of the company matters, but not the source of the capital, as the practice of the branch is often not linked to the head office.
Abstract in English:Abstract Knowledge bases are complex systems of integrated technological knowledge that represent solutions to specific problems for the state of the art of knowledge in a given period. Knowledge bases evolve with technological cycles. In the last 30 years, we identify two technological waves. The first one started with the seven technological paradigms in the 1980s (microelectronics, computers, telecommunications, audiovisual, new materials, semiconductors and biotechnology); the second one initiated with the so-called Key Enabling Technologies (KETs - nanotechnology, micro and nanoelectronics, industrial biotechnology, photonics, advanced materials and advanced manufacturing) from the 2000. This paper analyzes the evolution of the properties and complexity of the world knowledge base over 1978-2016. Using patent data and network analysis, the work calculates indicators for variety, coherence, cognitive distance and convergence of the knowledge base. The results confirm that the technological paradigms of the 1980s are associated with an increase in the diversification and complexity of the knowledge base through an outward convergence, that is, with not related technologies - inside the same paradigm. The arrival of the 2000 micro-paradigms reveals a retraction of the knowledge base that evolves towards more concentrated paths over the trajectories previously established.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper aims to analyze the empirical relationship between the technological (TI) and organizational innovations (OI) of innovative Brazilian firms classified as Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS), and discusses their different determinants, the role of persistence, and a possible two-way relationship between these three types of innovation. A sample of 595 firms was empirically analyzed using the Brazilian Innovation Survey (PINTEC) and the Annual Survey of Services (PAS) from 2009 to 2014. The results reveal a “cross-influence” between OI and TI: internal OI are induced by prior product TI while the former induce process TI. Cumulative effects are observed for these three types of innovation, especially for product TI. The findings also indicate that different innovations are fostered by different organizational characteristics and innovative efforts, therefore identifying the limited role of internal R&D efforts.
Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo Com o crescimento populacional e o aumento da expectativa de vida, as inovações são o principal meio de otimizar a produção agropecuária. Doravante, a formação de alianças pode ser uma alternativa para potencializar a base de recursos pró-inovação das organizações envolvidas nesses desafios. Sendo assim, neste estudo, objetivou-se compreender como as alianças estratégicas de P&D são estruturadas para promover inovações agropecuárias. Três alianças, envolvendo a Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa) e parceiros, constituíram a unidade de análise da pesquisa. Sobre a estruturação e a formalização das alianças analisadas, foi possível concluir que elas são dimensionadas, inicialmente, conforme a natureza dos atores envolvidos, embora tenha se constatado que seus níveis são alterados também pelo escopo, prazo e natureza das atividades praticadas.
Abstract in English:Abstract With population growth and increasing life expectancy, innovations are the main means of optimizing agricultural production. From now on, the formation of alliances can be an alternative to strengthen the pro-innovation resource base of the organizations involved in these challenges. Thus, the objective was to understand how R&D strategic alliances are structured to promote agricultural innovations. Three alliances, involving the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) and partners, constituted the research analysis unit. On the structuring and formalization of alliances analyzed, it was possible to conclude that they are initially dimensioned considering the nature of the actors involved; however, other dimensions also altered the levels of structuring and formalization, including the scope, term and nature of the activities practiced in the alliances..
Abstract in English:Abstract The article aims to characterize interaction networks among actors - research groups and organizations - in the human health area in Rio Grande do Sul. Data were obtained from the DGP/CNPq to build interaction networks for the years 2010, 2014 and 2016. It was observed that there was an increase in groups and interactions over this period. Most of the research groups establish interactions with only one partner. Therefore, more actors join the networks over time, but do not interact much among each other. This identified characteristic is typical of innovative systems in emerging countries, whose interactions among actors are scarce. There are similarities among the networks (such as the relevance of some central actors and firms as peripheral actors), but there are also aspects that differentiate them (universities stand out as partners in the most recent period). Regarding the proximities, geographical and organizational proximities are highlighted as important concepts to explain interactions among different actors.
Abstract in English:Abstract Based on the Neo-Schumpeterian approach on technology and economic change, this paper proposes to evaluate the effects of the diffusion of Industry 4.0 technologies in terms of the technological dynamics, market structure and intra-sectoral heterogeneity within the Brazilian steel industry. In questionnaires answered by a representative group of companies it was observed that the Industry 4.0 technologies tend to incrementally improve the operational efficiency and productivity of the respective activity rather than revolutionize it, remaining unchanged the minimum optimal scale both of the plants and of the specific equipment. The results also show that the best opportunities for application of such technologies lie in the refining and rolling stages. Concerning the market structure, “technological clusters” tend to favor established companies, due to the lack of important changes to the intensity and nature of barriers to entry.
Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é identificar as estratégias tecnológicas adotadas na indústria de transformação brasileira. As estratégias tecnológicas foram analisadas a partir da construção de indicadores de inovação e de imitação de produto e de processo e, complementarmente, de um indicador adicional para inovações organizacionais e de marketing. Os indicadores foram aplicados a 19 setores da indústria brasileira de transformação (PINTEC, 2014) e nas contrapartes de um conjunto de países europeus selecionados (CIS, 2016). Para efeitos de análise, os setores industriais foram agrupados segundo o critério de intensidade tecnológica proposto pela OCDE e os resultados confrontados com os padrões setoriais de inovação. Os resultados apontaram que as estratégias predominantes na indústria brasileira são tipicamente passivas, em claro contraste com as ativas prevalecentes nos países avançados.
Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of this article is to identify the technological strategies adopted in the Brazilian manufacturing industry. Technological strategies were analyzed for drafting of innovation and imitation product and process indicator, and, complementarily, by an additional indicator for organization and marketing innovations. The indicators were applied to 19 sectors of the Brazilian manufacturing industry (PINTEC, 2014) and to the counterparts of a set of selected European countries (CIS, 2016). For the purposes of analysis, the industrial sectors were grouped according to the criterion of technological intensity proposed by the OECD and the results compared with the sectoral innovation standards. The conclusions pointed out that the predominant strategies in the Brazilian industry are typically passive, in marked contrast to the active ones prevalent in developed countries.
Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo Políticas de fomento à pesquisa e desenvolvimento (P&D), como as subvenções à inovação, têm ganhado atenção em diversas economias por contribuirem para o crescimento econômico e competitividade dos setores domésticos. Os impactos dessas políticas são espraiados sistemicamente pela economia e, para analisá-los, este trabalho apresenta um modelo de equilíbrio geral computável que, pelo tratamento diferenciado do capital de conhecimento e do investimento em P&D, é capaz de avaliar os efeitos macroeconômicos e setoriais das subvenções. Os resultados indicam que as subvenções geram ganhos de capital de conhecimento e, analogamente, sua ausência retrai as atividades industriais e penaliza a capacidade produtiva dos setores de maior intensidade tecnológica.
Abstract in English:Abstract Public policies to promote research and development (R&D), such as subsidies for innovation, have gained attention in several economies because they induce the competitiveness of the productive structure. The impacts of these policies are systematically spread by the economy, and to analyze them, this paper presents a computable general equilibrium model that, due to the different treatment of knowledge capital and investment in R&D, is able to assess the macroeconomic and sectoral effects of the grants. The results indicate that the grants generate knowledge capital gains and, similarly, their absence retracts industrial activities of greater technological intensity, penalizing their productive capacity.
Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a dinâmica institucional da interação Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) e Petrobras para a inovação. Adotou-se como base teórica a perspectiva institucionalista-evolucionária. Efetuaram-se entrevistas com pesquisadores da UFSC e com gerentes da Petrobras que realizam a interação. Dentre os principais resultados desta dinâmica institucional analisada, destacam-se a relevância do relacionamento pessoal, a constante busca por pesquisadores de referência e de especialistas, a importância da institucionalização da interação Universidade-empresa (U-E), do processo histórico de construção de parceria, do estabelecimento de regras e regulamentações de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (P&D) da UFSC e da Agência Nacional do Petróleo (ANP), da criação do termo de cooperação e do Sistema de Gestão de Investimentos em Tecnologia (Sigitec) e a criação e a manutenção de infraestrutura de ponta, as quais consolidaram o processo de interação com a UFSC nos últimos trinta anos.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article aims to evaluate the institutional dynamics of interaction between Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC) and Petrobras for innovation. The institutionalist-evolutionary perspectives were adopted as a theoretical basis. The interviews were conducted with researchers from UFSC and managers from Petrobras who carry out the interaction. Among the main results of this analyzed institutional dynamics are the relevance of the personal relationship, the constant search for reference researchers and specialists, the importance of institutionalizing the University-company interaction (UC), the historical process of building partnership, the establishment of rules and regulations for research and development (R&D) at UFSC and the National Petroleum Agency (ANP), the creation of the cooperation term and the Technology Investment Management System (SIGITEC) and the creation and maintenance of state-of-the-art infrastructure, which consolidated the interaction process with UFSC in the last thirty years.
Abstract in English:Abstract During the 2000s and 2010s, the growth in sugar and ethanol production stimulated the expansion of sugarcane in new regions of Brazil, reducing the concentration in the state of São Paulo. This paper aims to investigate whether the rise in sugarcane production in peripheral areas has led to the growth of knowledge capabilities. In order to consider regional asymmetries, the article uses the differentiated knowledge base (DKB) approach in association with regional innovation systems (RIS) and core-periphery relations. Data on formal employment and scientific research on the Central-South region are analyzed from 2003 to 2017. The results show that there are limits to the diffusion of sugarcane knowledge as an important part of knowledge production remains concentrated in the regions of early growth in São Paulo.
Abstract in Spanish:Resumen El artículo mide la importancia de tres elementos que constituyen la base del conocimiento en la pequeña producción audiovisual: la formación, las vinculaciones y la complejidad de los proyectos. Desde esa base cognitiva se despliegan las capacidades de estos productores audiovisuales. El ejercicio se basa en información empírica recogida en una encuesta a una muestra de muy pequeños productores audiovisuales, en diferentes lugares de la Argentina, a fines del 2017. En el artículo se concluye que gran parte de las pequeñas unidades productivas registran altos niveles de formación y de vinculaciones, pero bajos niveles de complejidad de los proyectos que desarrollan.
Abstract in English:Abstract The article measures the importance of three elements that constitute the knowledge base in small audiovisual production: training, linkages, and the complexity of projects. From this cognitive base the capacities of these audiovisual producers unfold. The exercise is based on empirical information collected in a survey of very small audiovisual producers, in different parts of Argentina, at the end of 2017. The article concludes that a large part of the small productive units registers high levels of training and linkages, but low levels of complexity of the projects they carry out.
Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo A intervenção pública de apoio à geração de conhecimento é reconhecida como uma estratégia fundamental que permite reduzir a distância entre as economias retardatárias e precursoras. Avaliações e estudos acadêmicos foram realizados em uma ampla variedade de intervenções e expandiram o que sabemos sobre esses instrumentos de políticas. No entanto, muitas das evidências relatam resultados conflitantes e podem levar a mal-entendidos sobre o potencial dessas intervenções. Este artigo oferece uma revisão sistemática e uma discussão crítica do que a literatura tem a dizer sobre a eficácia desses instrumentos. Argumenta-se que aprender sobre a eficácia das intervenções requer a capacidade de perceber e interpretar seus efeitos. Especificamente, enfatiza dois fatores críticos para compreender o potencial dessas políticas, que são sua sequência de execução e a dependência do contexto das intervenções. Como nenhuma dessas questões foi investigada em profundidade, alguns aspectos são discutidos para orientar as avaliações futuras.
Abstract in English:Abstract Public intervention to support knowledge generation is recognized as a fundamental strategy that enables the closing the gap between latecomers and forerunners economies. Evaluations and academic studies have been conducted on a wide variety of interventions and rapidly expanded what is known about these policies instruments. However, much of the evidence report conflicting results and can lead to misunderstandings about the potential of these interventions. This article offers a systematic review and a critical discussion of what the literature has to say about the effectiveness of these instruments. It is argued that learning about the effectiveness of interventions requires a capacity to seize and interpret its effects. Specifically, two critical factors are emphasized to understand the potential of these policies, which are their sequence of implementation and the context-dependence of interventions. Since none of these issues has been investigated in-depth, some aspects are discussed to guide future evaluations.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper studies the role that the three theoretical sources of recurrence - the Matthew effect - play in the process of the first and recurrent granting of innovation public funds. Those sources are a firm’s “reputation”, “innovation capabilities” and “formulation capabilities”. The empirical analysis is based on the Argentinean Technological Fund (in Spanish, FONTAR) between 2007-2018. The results show that firms’ formulation skills increase the probability of funds initially being granted, and then additional formulation skills and innovation capabilities increase the probability of recurrence, while reputation does the opposite..
Abstract in English:Abstract Identifying and measuring innovation at airports becomes necessary not only to point out the elements of its management or infrastructure to be improved, but also to raise opportunities for innovation, with the aim to collaborate for the best efficiency of air transport. In this sense, this study concerns innovation management applied to airports given the limitations in the state of the art related to measuring innovation in this type of organization. The integrated perception of different airport stakeholders has been collected from a survey with 70 Brazilian professionals specialized in the subject, namely researchers, airports, airlines, and the aeronautics industry managers, in a proposal to measure the level of airport innovation from different indicators. The results proposed an algorithm for an Airport Integrated Innovation Index (AI3), composed by 38 measurable variables related to innovation practices, procedures, and infrastructure elements such as new biometric passenger identification systems, real-time passenger flight tracking systems, new types of runway pavement, and actions to reduce airport operational restrictions. This model can be used in airports of different categories (national or international) and sizes (small, medium, or large). It may be adapted for different countries and contexts according to their markets and organizational cultures.
Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo Este trabalho consiste em revisar e sistematizar a literatura relativa à Capacidade Absortiva (ACAP) para inovação em novas empresas de base tecnológica (NEBTs) e startups. Adicionalmente, o estudo identifica temas, abordagens teóricas e fatores de desenvolvimento da ACAP para inovação nestes empreendimentos, promovendo um panorama deste fenômeno. A pesquisa analisa 103 artigos selecionados nas bases de periódicos Emerald, Science Direct, Ebsco (Academic Search Premier), Web of Science, Scopus e Springerlink. Identificou-se a tendência para pesquisas empíricas baseadas em métodos quantitativos com utilização de surveys e técnicas de análise fundamentadas em estatística inferencial. As quatro categorias mais investigadas dizem respeito à relação entre a ACAP e redes, antecedentes e potencial de realização, exploração de fatores/recursos internos ou externos, e estratégias de inovação. Os resultados ainda possibilitaram a proposição de lacunas e direcionamentos como contribuição para futuras agendas.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study consists of reviewing and systematizing the literature on Absorptive Capacity (ACAP) for innovation in new technology-based firms (NEBTs) and startups. In addition, the study identifies themes, theoretical approaches and factors for ACAP and innovation development into these ventures; providing an overview of this phenomenon. The research analyzes 103 articles selected from databases such as Emerald, Science Direct, Ebsco (Academic Search Premier), Web of Science, Scopus and Springerlink. Most of studies identified relates to empirical research based on quantitative methods; using surveys and analysis techniques based on inferential statistics. The four prominent categories concern to the relationship between ACAP and networks, antecedents and potential of ACAP, exploration of internal or external factors/resources, and innovation strategies. The results also enable the proposition of gaps and directions as a contribution to future agendas.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper uses a theoretical motivation for an Expanded Knowledge Production Function (EKPF) that encompasses both path dependence and spatial spillovers to search for evidences in Brazil using a Dynamic Spatial Panel Data approach. The purpose is to identify the determinants of knowledge production in the 2005-2015 period as well as its temporal evolution, using innovation patents as proxies. Regarding its spatial distribution, we identified a North-South disparity for the knowledge production in Brazil, with Southeast and South producing a large part of the country's patents. Based on the EKPF, we confirmed the importance of path dependence and knowledge spillovers to explain the Brazilian innovation. In addition, population density, which generates Jacobian externalities and economies of agglomeration, is an important structural feature in the short run while the number of researchers in universities and an increased economic scale are essential to knowledge production in the long run.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this paper was to gauge whether innovation effort positively affects the probability of exporting for manufacturing companies in Mercosur countries: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. To this end, three econometric models of dichotomous response were applied to cross-sectional data: probit; bivariate probit, to correct the problem of endogeneity; and the Heckman selection model, for the correction of sample selection bias. We used firm-level data from the World Bank’s Enterprise Surveys database. The results showed that innovation positively affects the likelihood of companies in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay becoming exporters. Furthermore, the use of imported input is another significant variable that increases the probability of exporting from these three countries. The estimates of the Heckman selection model proved to be inadequate (no selection bias) for all the countries in the sample except Argentina.