Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO Esta seção da Revista Brasileira de Inovação inclui 3 artigos selecionados daqueles apresentados no Encontro da Associação Nacional de Pós-graduação e Pesquisa em Administração (EnANPAD), que ocorreu em outubro de 2020. A seção especial introduz tópicos referentes a temas Emergentes em Gestão da Inovação e Empreendedorismo, que são relacionados a diversos modos de descontinuidades e desafios para gestão da inovação das organizações, estimulando, assim, transformação de setores, geração de novos negócios e novas epistemologias. Portanto, esta seção especial da revista enfatiza a relevância da temática e da necessidade de sua valorização por pesquisadores, educadores, gerentes e para a formulação de políticas públicas.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This section of RBI (Revista Brasileira de Inovação) includes 3 papers selected from those presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of Postgraduation and Research in Management (EnANPAD), which was carried out in October 2020. The special section introduces topics related to emerging themes in Innovation Management and Entrepreneurship, which are related to different modes of discontinuities and challenges for the management of innovation in organizations, thus stimulating industry transformation, generation of new business and new epistemologies. Therefore, this special section of the journal emphasizes both the relevance of the issue and the need for its appreciation by researchers, educators, managers and public policies formulators.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO A partir da década de 1990 os estudos sobre empreendedorismo aumentaram de forma significativa. Atualmente, o campo conta com muitas publicações científicas, periódicos, eventos especializados e está presente em cursos de graduação e pós-graduação. Ao longo do tempo surgiram diferentes abordagens, definições, conceitos, teorias e ramificações. Portanto, torna-se oportuno realizar uma revisão para analisar e compreender a evolução do campo em diferentes períodos. Diante disso, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a evolução do empreendedorismo enquanto campo de pesquisa por meio de temas que marcaram diferentes períodos. Foi realizada uma revisão bibliométrica de literatura com foco na análise de cluster. Foi possível observar que nas últimas décadas o campo ganhou amplitude, com a inserção de novos conceitos e temas de pesquisa. Além disso, a manutenção de alguns temas indica que estes continuam importantes e buscam densidade teórica/metodológica.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT From the 1990s onwards, studies on entrepreneurship increased significantly. Currently, the field has many scientific publications, journals, specialized events and is present in undergraduate and graduate courses. Over time different approaches, definitions, concepts, theories and ramifications have emerged. Therefore, it is possible to carry out a review to analyze and understand the evolution of the field in different periods. Given this, this work aimed to analyze an evolution of entrepreneurship while the research field through themes that marked different periods. A bibliometric literature review was carried out with a focus on cluster analysis. It was possible to observe that in the last decades the field has gained breadth, with the introduction of new concepts and research themes. In addition, the maintenance of some themes indicates that these important ones continue and seek theoretical / methodological density.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO Este artigo aborda como é construída a apropriação da inovação em serviços empresariais em que fornecedores e clientes precisam colaborar para o desenvolvimento da inovação. O trabalho envolveu o estudo de múltiplos casos de díades fornecedor-cliente no desenvolvimento de projetos inovativos intensivos no uso de tecnologia da informação. O estudo identifica que a escolha dos mecanismos de apropriação se estabelece em um processo dinâmico, mantendo relação com o progresso do projeto e com o grau de exposição do fluxo de conhecimento envolvido. Os achados sugerem, ainda, que os mecanismos de apropriação da inovação se apresentam de forma combinada entre os de natureza formal e os de natureza informal, mantendo relação com a evolução do projeto colaborativo, e que são utilizados para dois propósitos gerais: prevenção da imitação e sustentação das capacidades inovativas.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This article discusses how firms build the appropriation of innovation in business services in which suppliers and customers need to collaborate for the development of innovation. The work involved the study of multiple cases of supplier-customer dyads in the development of innovative projects intensive in the use of information technology. The study identifies that the choice of appropriation mechanisms is established in a dynamic process, maintaining a relationship with the project's progress and with the degree of exposure of the involved knowledge flow. The findings also suggest that the mechanisms for the appropriation of innovation are presented in a combined way between those of a formal and informal nature, maintaining a relationship with the evolution of the collaborative project, and that they are used for two general purposes: prevention of imitation and support of innovative capabilities.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The moderating force that institutional pressures can exert on the relationship between eco-innovation and performance has received little attention. In In this context, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between eco-innovation and environmental and financial performance, as well as the moderating role of institutional mimetic pressure in this relationship. We surveyed 175 brazilian companies from the organic production sector. For the analysis, we used Structural Equation Modeling to verify the relationship between the variables. The main results point to (i) a positive relationship between eco-innovation and environmental performance; (ii) the relationship between eco-innovation and financial performance does not occurs directly, but indirectly, due to environmental performance; and (iii) mimetic pressure attenuates the influence of eco-innovation on environmental and financial performance. This finding had not yet been verified in the literature on innovation, an unprecedented contribution of this work. Therefore, business managers can use the findings to implement innovation management systems under eco-innovative perspectives to produce goods with less environmental impact.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This article analyzes the differences of firms in terms of innovation activities, external linkages and innovation modes according to their size and the presence of foreign capital. Using the National Survey of Employment and Innovation, we show that firms with foreign capital participation present a differentiated innovative behavior once they are stratified by firm size. Foreign-owned firms vis-à-vis domestic firms tend to make greater innovation efforts and are characterized by implementing more complex innovation modes, combining DUI and STI modes. However, larger foreign firms make in average relatively less innovation efforts and implement less complex innovation modes. These results revalue the analyses that consider the heterogeneity of foreign firms and show that those of larger relative size are not the ones with the best innovative performance, contrary to what happens with domestic capital firms.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This research analyzed actors’ interactions in the Northeast Biotechnology Network (in Portuguese, RENORBIO), based on the study of their profile of scientific and technological production. RENORBIO is a pioneer in the Northeast region, since the creation of the Graduate Program in Biotechnology. Data collection consisted in searching information on bibliographic production (articles, books, and reports), technical production (patents), and spin-off records from research carried out in the 13 focal points. These represent the coordinations located in the main education and research institutions accredited in the Network, which comprise around 30 other institutions associated to RENORBIO, to identify the interactions between the network’s agents. To analyze the results, we processed data by using the UCINET software. The software was essential for studying the interactions among network agents, assisting to characterize technical and academic interactions within RENORBIO, based on the analysis of its actions of Technology Transfer; this allowed profiling this network in the light of the Theory of Social Networks. We identified that the Network has a ‘satellite’ topology, where a central network attracts and influences the research relationships between the actors of the other networks, which gravitate around it, creating a force of institutional attraction between them. It is a heterogeneous network, characterized by low density and wide flow of diverse interactions of its actors. In addition, it shows a strong representation of the innovations produced in the Northeast region, capable to affect directly or indirectly the socioeconomic condition of this region, and bring solutions for national problems in the area of biotechnology.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO Os estudos sobre a natureza do conhecimento e sobre as formas de geração e difusão de conhecimento nas firmas vêm ganhando importância à medida que a inovação se tornou estratégica para a competividade das firmas. Duas vertentes teóricas, ligadas a diferentes campos de conhecimento, se destacam nesta discussão: a economia evolucionária e a geografia econômica evolucionária. Esta última, porém, é um campo emergente de pesquisa no Brasil. O objetivo deste artigo é, em primeiro lugar, discutir as complementaridades entre a economia evolucionária e a geografia econômica evolucionária, a partir de suas contribuições para os estudos sobre conhecimento. A partir desta discussão, será apresentada uma agenda de pesquisa para os estudos brasileiros sobre a geração e difusão de conhecimento nas firmas sob uma perspectiva evolucionária que leve em consideração os elementos do território.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Studies on the nature of knowledge and its creation and diffusion by firms have gained relevance as innovation became strategic for competitiveness of firms. Two theoretical frameworks, linked to different knowledge fields, are relevant for these studies: evolutionary economics and evolutionary economic geography. However, the latter is still an emergent research field in Brazil. This article discusses the complementarities between the contributions of both frameworks to the analysis of knowledge in firms. This discussion provides elements to propose a research agenda to Brazilian studies on creation and diffusion of knowledge in firms under an evolutionary perspective taking into consideration the main elements of territories.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Bangalore’s IT entrepreneurial ecosystem boomed in the 2010s. However, its recent development is the result of an accumulative process of capacities building. The objective of this article is to analyze this process from systemic and evolutionary perspective, inspired by some Latin American contributions. This study adopted a single in-depth case study design based on more than 20 semi-structured interviews with key actors of Bangalore’s IT entrepreneurial ecosystem. This approach allows us to identify and reflect on the different long-term, multi-level and context specific processes, events and actors that influenced the configuration of Bangalore’s IT entrepreneurial ecosystem, pointing out some systemic and structural constraints that may hinder its further development. The idea of structural heterogeneity is introduced in the entrepreneurship literature to denote the coexistence of a vibrant nucleus of entrepreneurial activity surrounded by certain underdeveloped systemic conditions. Finally, by introducing several Indian contributions, this study helps to deepen the dialogue between Asian and Latin American scholars to develop a research agenda on innovation and entrepreneurial systems giving account of the Global South development challenges.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO Crowdfunding é uma técnica de financiamento coletivo em que pessoas físicas reúnem seus recursos para apoiar iniciativas sem intermediários financeiros. Essa técnica teve grande impacto na indústria de jogos eletrônicos, viabilizando projetos nos quais os produtores tradicionais não tinham interesse. Neste contexto, pode-se questionar quais variáveis estão associadas ao sucesso de uma campanha de arrecadação de fundos, contribuindo ao ampliar a ainda escassa literatura sobre crowdfunding na indústria de jogos. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os projetos no setor de jogos eletrônicos na plataforma Kickstarter entre 2013 e 2017, investigando os fatores que levam ao êxito na arrecadação, realizando o teste de hipótese por meio de um modelo de regressão logística. Uma maior disponibilidade de informações, qualidade e preparo por parte do lançador tendem a ter resultados positivos na arrecadação de fundos. Esses indicativos podem auxiliar na elaboração de esforços de arrecadação futuros.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Crowdfunding is a collective financing technique, which allows people to pool their resources towards supporting initiatives without needing financial intermediaries. This technique had great impact on gaming industry, allowing projects which mainstream developers had no interest on funding. In this context, it is fitting to investigate what variables are associated to a fundraising’s success, contributing to a still scarce literature on crowdfunding for gaming, especially in Brazil. This study’s goal is evaluating crowdfunding’s selection process for the gaming sector in the platform Kickstarter between 2013 and 2017, investigating factors that allow projects to reach their funding goals at the ending date, making the hypothesis test by a logistic regression. Among results, larger information supply, quality and readiness from the founder, tends towards a successful campaign. This results may assist in formulating future fundraising efforts.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This article explains the paths on elaborating the Plant Variety Protection (PVP) Act in Brazil by showing the discussions and controversies that have surrounded this matter since the 1970s. Our hypothesis is that the PVP Act drafting, far from being centered on a discussion of agricultural and technical-scientific matters, has been a political process eminently based on the dynamic articulation of few actors who dispute interpretations in accordance to their own interests about whether signing the PVP Act was needful (or not). The analysis guided by the Multiple Streams theory shows a learning process for the main actors and institutions involved on this political agenda. The conclusion was that the political discussion around the PVP Act remains the same in Brazil, as it has still been questioned up today even after decades of its institution in the law promulgated in 1997.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO O presente trabalho visa analisar a influência da taxa de câmbio real (RER) e do hiato tecnológico no crescimento econômico. Verificou-se que a relação máxima entre RER e crescimento é influenciada pelo hiato tecnológico. A redução do hiato tecnológico, proporcionada por melhoras do capital humano e pelo aumento do estoque de conhecimento, pode levar à aceleração do crescimento, seja por meio de mudanças estruturais ou pela melhora da competitividade extra preço. Portanto, é possível observar, formalmente, novos canais em que a desvalorização de RER e a redução do hiato tecnológico podem levar a um novo processo de causalidade cumulativa.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This paper aims to analyze the influence of the real exchange rate (RER) and the technological gap on economic growth. It was found that the maximum relationship between RER and growth is influenced by the technological gap. Still, the reduction of the technological gap, provided by improvements in human capital and an increase in the stock of knowledge, can lead to an increase in growth, either through structural changes or by improving extra-price competitiveness. Thus, it was possible to observe new channels to which devaluation and reduction of the technological gap can lead to a new process of cumulative causality.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO O artigo analisa o Plano Amazônia Sustentável e o Macrozoneamento Ecológico-Econômico da Amazônia Legal, estratégias de desenvolvimento que priorizam a interação entre inovação e arranjos institucionais territoriais. A aplicação de técnicas de análise espacial explicitou gaps entre os padrões espaciais subnacionais de interação entre agentes, capacidades e fontes de inovação sustentadas pela racionalidade industrialista, evidenciando limites na pretensão estratégica de impulsar, em territórios amazônicos, arranjos institucionais que embasem formas mais qualificadas de utilização dos recursos naturais. Demonstra-se aqui a desconsideração de conexões extrarregionais que influem na determinação do potencial endógeno de inovação dos territórios; além disso, trajetórias tecnológicas e padrões de reprodução de agentes relevantes não foram devidamente aquilatados na construção das estratégias. Essas incongruências fragilizam, sobremaneira, o dimensionamento, a abrangência, a extensão e as reorientações de arranjos institucionais necessárias para incorporar ciência, tecnologia e inovação a dinâmicas produtivas capazes de conformar um novo modelo de desenvolvimento na Amazônia brasileira.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The article analyzes the Sustainable Amazon Plan and the Ecological-Economic Macrozoning of the Legal Amazon, development strategies that prioritize the interaction between innovation and territorial institutional arrangements. The application of spatial analysis techniques made explicit gaps between subnational spatial patterns of interaction between agents, capacities and sources of innovation supported by industrialist rationality, highlighting limits in the strategic pretension of promoting, in Amazonian territories, institutional arrangements that support more qualified forms of use of natural resources. It is demonstrated here the disregard of extra-regional connections that influence the determination of the endogenous innovation potential of the territories; in addition, technological trajectories, and patterns of reproduction of relevant agents were not properly assessed in the construction of strategies. These inconsistencies greatly weaken the dimensioning, scope, extension, and reorientations of institutional arrangements necessary to incorporate science, technology, and innovation into productive dynamics capable of shaping a new development model in the Brazilian Amazon.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This article introduces a new family of innovation output indicators as an alternative to the EU 2020 indicator. The latter is a composite indicator that bears a complex and weak relation to the actual innovation output of economies. The proposed family of indicators (DINNOV) estimates the participation in the economy of enterprises that are both dynamic (or high-growth) and innovative. Its indicators take advantage of both the tradition of indicators produced from enterprise data collected by surveys of innovation and of indicators of business demography and entrepreneurship. Values of DINNOV indicators for Brazil are computed as a proof of concept. A proxy of the DINNOV indicators – the DINNOV-Simplex – is estimated for Brazil and 17 European economies. The new indicators avoid several drawbacks of the EU 2020 innovation output indicator and are easier to communicate to policymakers and the general public.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This paper analyzes the use of policy instruments to increase artificial intelligence patents. There has been a race to produce AI technologies to reduce countries' geopolitical risks and conditions of development and global technological insertion. AI technologies are strategic in the digital transformation scenario, requiring governments to design policies promoting AI technology, expanding data protection, and ensuring digital sovereignty. This paper compares public policy instruments from G20 member countries through the qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) methodology. The paper concludes that mixes of policy instruments matter in producing AI patents, demonstrating different configurations of mixes that make outcomes. The paper analyzes these instruments role in digital sovereignty and AI application in industry and governments.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT How do new ideas emerge in academic contexts and what forces determine which ideas get selected and which are forgotten? We analyze all papers presented at the ANPEC Brazilian Economics National Meetings from 2013 to 2019 using topic modeling and Kullback-Leibler divergence to measure novelty and resonance. In contrast to simply counting citations or reference combinations, these methods explore the Shannon information in the actual texts to detect the rise of new patterns and whether these patterns persist once they have been established. We find that novelty is highly correlated with transience so that most new ideas are quickly forgotten. However, of the ideas that persist, those that are more novel have higher impact. We show that our text-based measure of impact is correlated with subsequent citations.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO Tendo o fenômeno da eletrificação dos meios de transporte como pano de fundo, o presente artigo volta-se para a análise da infraestrutura institucional do setor automotivo brasileiro para compreender o modesto desempenho do país face a economias líderes em eletrificação. Mais detidamente, debruça-se sobre algumas políticas centrais na trajetória recente do setor automotivo e suas implicações para a mudança tecnológica. Para tanto, buscou analisar, a partir do conceito de Sistema Tecnológico de Inovação (STI), a maneira como essas políticas se relacionam à implementação do automóvel elétrico, produzindo situações de alinhamento institucional, ou não, que acabam por atuar como mecanismos de indução ou bloqueio à inovação. A análise das políticas revela uma infraestrutura institucional pouco alinhada ao STI em questão.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Having the electrification of means of transport phenomenon as a backdrop, the present article analyzes the institutional infrastructure of the Brazilian automotive sector, to understand the country's modest performance vis-à-vis leading electrification economies. More in detail, it looks at some central policies in the recent trajectory of the automotive sector and its implications for technological change. To do so, it sought to analyze, from the concept of Technology Innovation System (TIS), a way in which these policies relate to the implementation of the electric car, producing trends of institutional alignment, or not, which end up acting as mechanisms for inducing or blocking innovation. The analysis of these policies reveals an institutional infrastructure that is poorly aligned with the TIS in question.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO Este trabalho analisa a emergência e dinâmica de aglomeração espaço-temporal de startups de base tecnológica que ocorre em Florianópolis, São José e Palhoça (SC) durante o período 2000-2020. Para estudar este fenômeno sugere-se uma abordagem paramétrica baseada na função K espacial e na função K espaço-temporal não homogênea (Arbia, Espa e Giuliani, 2021), considerando uma base de dados georreferenciada de startups criadas no período considerado. Encontramos que existe uma forte concentração destes empreendimentos em uma pequena distância, cujo centro é a incubadora Celta (Parque Tecnológico Alfa), da Fundação CERTI, criada no âmbito da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina e também em uma distância maior. Encontrou-se também uma interação tempo-espaço estatisticamente significativa, especialmente em ciclos de 10 anos. Os resultados reforçam a importância das externalidades marshallianas que operam na escala microgeográfica (distrito ou bairro) como as jacobianas, que operam na escala macrogeográfica (cidade).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In this paper we analize the spatio-temporal emergence and aglomeration dynamics of technology-based startups that ocurred in Florianópolis, São José and Palhoça (SC) during 2000-2020 period. To study this phenomenon, a parametric approach based on the spatial K-function and the space-time K-function (Arbia, Espa e Giuliani, 2021) is suggested, considering a geo-referenced startups observed over the period considered. We find that there is a strong concentration of these startups in a short distance, whose center is the Celta incubator (Alfa Technology Park), of the Certi Foundation, created within the scope of the Federal University of Santa Catarina and at a greater distance. A statistically significant time-space interaction was also found, especially in 5-year cycles. The results reinforce the importance of Marshallian externalities that operate at the microgeographic scale (district or neighborhood) as well as the Jacobian ones, which operate at the macrogeographic scale (city).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This literature review systematizes and analyzes the results of studies on innovation in family businesses, considering the involvement of the family. Following the protocol of a systematic review of literature, relevant studies on the topic were identified and analyzed. The results show that family businesses have distinct resources and capacities that are difficult to duplicate, resulting from the interaction of the family system with the business system itself. These capabilities enable family members to interact with the business system in a quick, flexible, and unstructured way, which promotes company competition and supports innovation. This study contributes to understanding that family involvement may increase and restrict the components of the capacity for innovation and these effects may imply the competitive advantage of the family business. The effects of family involvement demonstrate the heterogeneity among family businesses and offer insight into how these companies manage and are capable of maximizing or minimizing the effects of such involvement on company innovation. At the end of this review, we present a structure of topics related to innovation based on family involvement derived from the categorization and analysis of the reviewed studies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this research is to understand how startups and established companies perceive the factors that are critical to the cooperation between them in the context of corporate incubation programs. We interviewed innovation managers, analysts, and project leaders from three large companies and the entrepreneurs of the startups that interacted with these companies. The results show that established companies and startups have different perceptions regarding insufficient dedication to the program and cultural differences, although both considered these factors to constrain the collaboration. Regarding motivation and incentives and autonomy, the findings were to some extent different. Implications include the difference in the perceptions of the startups and employees of the established companies directly involved in the program and the two factors identified as critical—dedication to the program and cultural differences—due to their potential to risk the incubation program. To practitioners, this research offers empirical results that can guide decision-making to manage corporate incubation programs.
Abstract in Portuguese:RESUMO O objetivo do estudo é analisar a evolução recente das pesquisas sobre spin-offs acadêmicas, visando identificar os principais fatores exógenos que afetam sua criação, disseminação e desempenho. O método adotado foi a revisão sistemática de literatura, mediante consulta em quatro bases: Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct e SciELO, com recorte de 2016 a 2020. No primeiro momento, foi avaliada a evolução temporal, a estratégia metodológica, a localização geográfica e a dimensão/nível de análise adotada em todas as publicações levantadas. No segundo momento, foram selecionadas e analisadas as pesquisas do nível ambiental/institucional de acordo com sua abordagem analítica. Os resultados apontam um crescente, mas relativamente baixo número de publicações, concentrado em poucos países, e heterogeneidade de resultados e linhas explicativas. Isso reflete um programa de pesquisa ainda em consolidação. Por fim, são apontados os principais determinantes exógenos detectados na literatura e algumas implicações para novas pesquisas, principalmente voltadas para países emergentes e em desenvolvimento.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to analyze the recent evolution of research on academic spin-offs, intending to identify the main exogenous factors that affect their creation, dissemination and performance. The method adopted was a systematic literature review, by consulting four databases: Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct and SciELO, from 2016 to 2020. In the first moment, the temporal evolution, the methodological strategy, the geographic location and the dimension/level of analysis adopted in all the publications surveyed were evaluated. In the second moment, the environmental/institutional level research was selected and analyzed according to its analytical approach. The results indicate a growing, but relatively low number of publications, concentrated in a few countries, with heterogeneity of empirical results and explanatory lines. This reflects a research program still in consolidation. Finally, we point out the main exogenous determinants detected in the literature and some implications for further research, mainly focused on emerging and developing countries.