We hereby report on the audiological and genetic findings in individuals from a Brazilian family, with the following mitochondrial mutation A1555G in the 12SrRNA gene (MT-RNR-1). Nine individuals underwent speech, audiologic (tonal audiometry and logoaudiometry) and genetic evaluations. Eight individuals among the A1555G carriers were affected by hearing impairment and one person had normal hearing thresholds till the end of the present study. The audiologic evaluation results indicated normal hearing thresholds all the way to bilateral profound hearing loss with post-lingual onset and variable configuration. Two affected siblings presented progressive hearing loss. It was impossible to precise the time of hearing loss onset; however, the impairment was present in both children and adults. The genetic study revealed the A1555G mitochondrial mutation in the 12SrRNA gene. Given the prevalence of mitochondrial mutations as a cause of hearing loss, it is fundamental to perform the etiopathologic diagnosis in order to postpone the onset or avoid hearing impairment progression. This kind of hearing impairment represents a challenge to the professionals since there are no physical traits that indicate genetic transmission.
genetics; mitochondrial inheritance; hearing loss; nonsyndromic hereditary deafness