Abstract in English:Since the approval of the ICD-10 by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1990, global research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has expanded dramatically. This article evaluates what changes may be needed to enhance the scientific validity, clinical utility, and global applicability of OCD diagnostic guidelines in preparation for ICD-11. Existing diagnostic guidelines for OCD were compared. Key issues pertaining to clinical description, differential diagnosis, and specifiers were identified and critically reviewed on the basis of the current literature. Specific modifications to ICD guidelines are recommended, including: clarifying the definition of obsessions (i.e., that obsessions can be thoughts, images, or impulses/urges) and compulsions (i.e., clarifying that these can be behaviors or mental acts and not calling these “stereotyped”); stating that compulsions are often associated with obsessions; and removing the ICD-10 duration requirement of at least 2 weeks. In addition, a diagnosis of OCD should no longer be excluded if comorbid with Tourette syndrome, schizophrenia, or depressive disorders. Moreover, the ICD-10 specifiers (i.e., predominantly obsessional thoughts, compulsive acts, or mixed) should be replaced with a specifier for insight. Based on new research, modifications to the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines for OCD are recommended for ICD-11.
Abstract in English:The article reviews the historical background and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and olfactory reference disorder, and describes the proposals of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders related to these categories. This paper examines the possible classification of BDD symptoms in ICD-10. Four different possible diagnoses are found (hypochondriacal disorder, schizotypal disorder, delusional disorder, or other persistent delusional disorder). This has led to significant confusion and lack of clear identification in ICD-10. Olfactory reference disorder can also be classified as a delusional disorder in ICD-10, but there is no diagnosis for non-delusional cases. The Working Group reviewed the classification and diagnostic criteria of BDD in DSM-5, as well as cultural variations of BDD and olfactory reference disorder that include Taijin Kyofusho. The Working Group has proposed the inclusion of both BDD and olfactory reference disorder in ICD-11, and has provided diagnostic guidelines and guidance on differential diagnosis. The Working Group's proposals for ICD-11 related to BDD and olfactory reference disorder are consistent with available global evidence and current understanding of common mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and resolve considerable confusion inherent in ICD-10. The proposals explicitly recognize cultural factors. They are intended to improve clinical utility related to appropriate identification, treatment, and resource allocation related to these disorders.
Abstract in English:The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently revisiting the ICD. In the 10th version of the ICD, approved in 1990, hypochondriacal symptoms are described in the context of both the primary condition hypochondriacal disorder and as secondary symptoms within a range of other mental disorders. Expansion of the research base since 1990 makes a critical evaluation and revision of both the definition and classification of hypochondriacal disorder timely. This article addresses the considerations reviewed by members of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in their proposal for the description and classification of hypochondriasis. The proposed revision emphasizes the phenomenological overlap with both anxiety disorders (e.g., fear, hypervigilance to bodily symptoms, and avoidance) and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (e.g., preoccupation and repetitive behaviors) and the distinction from the somatoform disorders (presence of somatic symptom is not a critical characteristic). This revision aims to improve clinical utility by enabling better recognition and treatment of patients with hypochondriasis within the broad range of global health care settings.
Abstract in English:Despite the long-held view that hoarding is a symptom of both obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, increased evidence has emerged during the last 20 years suggesting that hoarding represents a distinct form of psychopathology. This study reflects the discussions on the nosological status of hoarding carried out by the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. The distinctiveness of hoarding is based on its having core symptoms that differ from those of other disorders, as well as distinctive neurobiological correlates and treatment responses. Furthermore, data showing the clinical utility, global applicability, and appropriateness of the concept of hoarding disorder outside specialty mental health settings suggest that this condition should be included in ICD-11. Finally, given the focus of ICD-11 on primary care and public health, the Working Group suggests that poor insight and severe domestic squalor may be considered as specifiers for hoarding disorder in ICD-11.
Abstract in English:Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an early-onset disorder characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Its nosological status is currently under review. Historically, OCPD has been conceptualized as bearing a close relationship with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we discuss the diagnosis of OCPD in anticipation of its review for the ICD-11, from the perspective of clinical utility, global applicability, and research planning. Considering the recent establishment of an obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) category in DSM-5, we focus on the relationship between OCPD and the disorders that are currently thought to bear a close relationship with OCD, including DSM-5 OCRD, and other compulsive disorders such as eating disorder and autistic spectrum disorder (that were not included in the DSM-5 OCRD category), as well as with the personality disorders, focusing on nosological determinants such as phenomenology, course of illness, heritability, environmental risk factors, comorbidity, neurocognitive endophenotypes, and treatment response. Based on this analysis, we attempt to draw conclusions as to its optimal placement in diagnostic systems and draw attention to key research questions that could be explored in field trials.
Abstract in English:This article reflects discussion by the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. After reviewing the historical classification of tic disorders, this article discusses their placement in ICD-11. Existing problems with diagnostic labels and criteria, appropriate placement of the tic disorders category within the ICD-11 system, and pragmatic factors affecting classification are reviewed. The article ends with recommendations to (a) maintain consistency with the DSM-5 diagnostic labels for tic disorders, (b) add a minimum duration guideline for a provisional tic disorder diagnosis, (c) remove the multiple motor tic guideline for the diagnosis of Tourette disorder, and (d) co-parent the tic disorder diagnoses in the disorders of the nervous system and the mental and behavioral disorders categories, with secondary co-parenting in the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and neurodevelopmental disorders sections.
Abstract in English:This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder) should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.
Abstract in English:According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking) disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on “conditions for further study.” There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders.