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Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, Volume: 42, Issue: 5, Published: 2020
  • Polygenic risk scores and their potential clinical use in psychiatry: are we there yet? Editorial

    Fries, Gabriel R.
  • Antidepressants, genetic risk, and the prevention of bipolar disorder Editorial

    Sanches, Marsal; Quevedo, Joao; Soares, Jair C.
  • Negative early life experiences as risk factors for suicidal behavior in bipolar disorders Editorial

    Lafer, Beny; Oquendo, Maria A.
  • Neurobiology of suicidal behavior in combat veterans Editorial

    Sher, Leo
  • Understanding the complex interplay between violence, depression and suicidal ideation in women: Time for a comprehensive sex- and gender-based approach Editorial

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Frey, Benicio N.
  • Why Brazilian women suffer more from depression and suicidal ideation: a mediation analysis of the role of violence Original Article

    Carpena, Marina X.; Costa, Francine dos S.; Martins-Silva, Thais; Xavier, Mariana O.; Loret de Mola, Christian

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the mediating effect of violence by a family member or acquaintance on biological sex, depression and suicidal ideation. Methods: We used data from the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey, a cross-sectional nationwide survey. Major depressive episode and suicidal ideation were evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire. Violence victimization and other sociodemographic variables were self-reported. We used logistic regression to estimate the OR, 95%CI and G-computation to calculate the natural direct and indirect effects. Results: A total of 60,202 individuals were evaluated. Women had higher prevalences of major depressive episode (OR = 2.36; 95%CI 2.03-2.74), suicidal ideation (OR = 2.02; 95%CI 1.73-2.36) and violence victimization (OR = 1.73; 95%CI 1.45-2.06). The mediation analysis showed that 10.6% of the association between sex and major depressive episode and 8.0% of the association between sex and suicidal ideation is explained by violence. Conclusions: Women in Brazil have an increased risk of major depressive episode and suicidal ideation, and this association is mediated, in part, by the fact that they suffer more violence from family members or acquaintances.
  • Secular trends in suicidal ideation and associated factors among adolescents Original Article

    Soares, Fernanda C.; Hardman, Carla M.; Rangel Junior, João F.B.; Bezerra, Jorge; Petribú, Kátia; Mota, Jorge; de Barros, Mauro V.G.; Lima, Rodrigo A.

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives: Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in adolescence, and the second most common cause of death among young people. The objective of this study was to identify trends in suicidal ideation by sex and ascertain factors associated with this outcome. Methods: Secular trend study with statewide coverage conducted at 5-year intervals, with 4,207 adolescents (2006), 6,264 adolescents (2011) and 6,026 adolescents (2016). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the secular trend of suicidal ideation. Multilevel logistic regressions evaluated the factors associated with suicidal ideation in the survey conducted in 2016. Results: There was a positive trend in suicidal ideation prevalence in 2016 compared to the prevalence in 2006 and 2011, in both boys and girls. Low social support, poor sleep quality, and low parental supervision were associated with suicidal ideation in boys and girls. Exposure to violence and bullying was associated with suicidal ideation only in girls. TV time and computer and videogame time were not associated with suicidal ideation in boys or girls. Conclusion: There is an alarming trend of increased suicidal ideation in adolescents. Several dimensions were associated with suicidal ideation in adolescents, especially social support, sleep quality, and parental supervision.
  • Medication exposure and predictors of first mood episode in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a prospective study Original Article

    Nery, Fabiano G.; Wilson, Anna R.; Schneider, Marguerite R.; Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Patino, Luis R.; McNamara, Robert K.; Adler, Caleb M.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate whether baseline clinical characteristics and medication exposure predict development of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Methods: Youth aged 9-20 years with at least one biological parent with bipolar disorder and no prior history of mood or psychotic episodes (n=93) were prospectively evaluated and treated naturalistically during the study. Participants were divided into two groups: converters, defined as those who met DSM-IV criteria for a mood episode during follow-up (n=19); or non-converters (n=74). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between baseline clinical variables and medication exposure during follow-up and risk of developing a first mood episode (conversion). Results: Multivariate regression analyses showed that baseline anxiety disorders and subsyndromal mood disorders were associated with increased risk of conversion during follow-up. Adding medication exposure to the multivariate model showed that exposure to antidepressants during follow-up was associated with increased risk of conversion. Conclusions: Caution should be used when treating bipolar offspring with anxiety and/or emerging depressive symptoms using antidepressant agents, given the increased risk of developing a major mood disorder.
  • Early maladaptive schemas and harm avoidance as mediating factors between early life stress and psychiatric symptoms in adults Original Article

    Costa, Ismael F. da; Tomaz, Maria P.; Pessoa, Giselle do N.; Miranda, Hortência de S.; Galdino, Melyssa K.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: This study investigated how factors of temperament and early maladaptive schemas predict psychiatric symptoms, as well as how they mediate the relation between early life stress and psychiatric symptoms in adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 200 university students. Data was collected through a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Adult Self-Report Inventory, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Young Schema Questionnaire, and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Results: A model including early maladaptive schemas, harm avoidance (temperament factor), and early life stress explained 69% of the variation of the psychiatric symptoms; among the predictors, early maladaptive schemas explained 31% of psychiatric symptoms, while harm avoidance explained 25%. Most of the predictive power associated with early life stress can be better explained by early maladaptive schemas and, to a lesser extent, harm avoidance. Conclusion: By managing these processes therapeutically, deleterious effects associated with early life stress can be minimized.
  • Continuity of psychiatric disorders between 6 and 11 years of age in the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Original Article

    La Maison, Carolina; Maruyama, Jessica M.; Munhoz, Tiago N.; Santos, Iná S.; do Amaral, Mariana R.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C.; Pastor-Valero, Maria; Matijasevich, Alicia

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: To investigate the incidence and homotypic and heterotypic continuity of psychiatric disorders between ages 6 and 11. Methods: In 2004, all live births in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, were recorded (n=4,231). Psychiatric disorders were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). SDQ subscale scores (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer relationship problems) were categorized as normal or abnormal. To examine associations between problems over time, odds ratios were computed using logistic regression. Results: Any SDQ difficulty was observed in 350 children (10.4%, 95%CI 9.4-11.5) at age 6 and 476 (14.2%, 95%CI 13.0-15.4) at age 11, with a higher prevalence among boys at both ages. Between ages 6 and 11, there was a 50 and a 45% increase in the prevalence of emotional and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms, respectively. Among those who had any SDQ difficulty at age 6, that status persisted in 81% at age 11. We found homotypic continuity of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer relationship problems. Conclusions: Our results indicate an increasing incidence of psychiatric disorders in this age group, with rates of disorders and continuity patterns similar to those observed in other studies.
  • The association between neurocognitive functioning and clinical features of borderline personality disorder Original Article

    Kaplan, Bahar; Yazici Gulec, Medine; Gica, Sakir; Gulec, Huseyin

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between neurocognitive profiles and clinical manifestations of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Methods: Forty-five patients diagnosed with BPD and 35 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The BPD group was evaluated with the Borderline Personality Inventory for dissociative, impulsivity and suicidal dimensions. The Verbal Memory Processes Test and the Cambridge Neurophysiological Assessment Battery were administered to both the BPD and healthy control groups. Results: BPD patients differed from controls in sustained attention, facial emotion recognition, and deteriorated verbal memory function. A model consisting of the Dissociative Experiences Scale – Taxon (DES-T), motor impulsivity and Scale for Suicidal Behavior scores explained 52% of the variance in Borderline Personality Inventory scores. It was detected that motor impulsivity, decision-making and recognizing sadness may significantly predict DES-T scores, and response inhibition and facial emotion recognition scores may significantly predict impulsivity. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the disassociation, impulsivity, and suicidality dimensions are sufficient to represent the clinical manifestations of BPD, that they are related to neurocognitive differences, and that they interact with clinical features.
  • Skin picking treatment with the Rothbaum cognitive behavioral therapy protocol: a randomized clinical trial Original Article

    Xavier, Alice C.M.; de Souza, Camila M.B.; Flores, Luís H.F.; Bermudez, Mariane B.; Silva, Renata M.F.; de Oliveira, Ariadne C.; Dreher, Carolina B.

    Abstract in English:

    Introduction: Although behavioral therapies can effectively treat skin picking disorder (SPD), there is no standardized treatment for improving SPD and its comorbidities and there is no group intervention option. This trial aimed to adapt the Rothbaum trichotillomania protocol to SPD (Study 1) and test its efficacy for treating SPD and comorbidities in individual and group formats (Study 2). Methods: The adapted protocol was applied to 16 SPD patients, who were allocated to group or individual treatment (Study 1). Afterwards, 54 patients were randomly allocated to treatment in an individual (n=27) or group format (n=27) (Study 2). In both studies, assessments of SPD severity, anxiety, depression, clinical status and skin lesion severity were performed at baseline and the endpoint. Results: The adapted protocol was feasible in both treatment modalities (Study 1) and led to high SPD remission rates (individual 63%; group 52%), with no significant difference between intervention types (p = 0.4) (Study 2). SPD, anxiety, and depression symptoms and objective patient lesion measures improved after treatment. There was large effect size for SPD symptom improvement in both treatment types (Cohen’s d: group = 0.88; individual = 1.15) (Study 2). Conclusion: The adapted Rothbaum protocol was effective for SPD remission, comorbidities, and skin lesions, both in individual and group formats. Clinical trial registration: NCT03182478
  • N-acetylcysteine as an adjunctive treatment for smoking cessation: a randomized clinical trial Original Article

    Machado, Regina C.B.R.; Vargas, Heber O.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Urbano, Mariana R.; Verri Jr, Waldiceu A.; Porcu, Mauro; Nunes, Sandra O.V.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine as an adjunctive treatment for smoking cessation. Methods: Heavy smokers were recruited from smoking cessation treatment for this 12- week randomized controlled trial. Eligible tobacco use disorder outpatients (n=34) were randomized to N-acetylcysteine or placebo plus first-line treatment. Abstinence was verified by exhaled carbon monoxide (COexh). The assessment scales included the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale, and the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. We also assessed anthropometrics, blood pressure, lipid profile, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNF-R) levels 1 and 2. Results: First-line treatment for smoking cessation plus adjunctive N-acetylcysteine or placebo significantly reduced COexh (p < 0.01). In the N-acetylcysteine group, no significant changes were found in nicotine withdrawal symptoms, depressive and anxiety symptoms, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, or glucose compared to placebo. However, there was a significant reduction in sTNF-R2 levels between baseline and week 12 in the N-acetylcysteine group. Conclusions: These findings highlight the need to associate N-acetylcysteine with first-line treatment for smoking cessation, since combined treatment may affect inflammation and metabolism components. Clinical trial registration: NCT02420418
  • The contribution of mindfulness to outpatient substance use disorder treatment in Brazil: a preliminary study Brief Communication

    Machado, Mayra P.; Fidalgo, Thiago M.; Brasiliano, Silvia; Hochgraf, Patrícia B.; Noto, Ana R.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: To explore the contribution of a mindfulness-based intervention as an adjuvant to outpatient substance use disorder treatment. Outcomes included substance use behavior, depression and anxiety symptoms, and anger expression. Methods: This preliminary study for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial with stratified random allocation included three months of follow-up. In two outpatient clinics linked to public universities, a mindfulness-based intervention plus treatment as usual (experimental group n=22) was compared to treatment as usual (control group n=20). The study included data from self-report measurements and the patients’ records, which were evaluated according to intention-to-treat analysis through generalized estimating equations and generalized method of moments estimation. Results: The experimental group had lower symptoms of depression (b=-6.82; 95%CI -12.45 to -1.18) and anxiety (b=-0.25; 95%CI -0.42 to -0.09), and anger expression (b=-9.76; 95%CI -18.98 to -0.54) three months after the intervention. We detected no effect on substance use behavior. Conclusion: The mindfulness-based intervention yielded promising results as an adjuvant to outpatient substance use disorder treatment, since it reduced levels of highly prevalent symptoms in this population. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods and larger samples are required.
  • Prevalence and risk factors for internet gaming disorder Brief Communication

    Severo, Rovena B.; Soares, Jennifer M.; Affonso, Josiara P.; Giusti, Daniela A.; de Souza Junior, Adão A.; de Figueiredo, Vera L.; Pinheiro, Karen A.; Pontes, Halley M.

    Abstract in English:

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of internet gaming disorder (IGD) and associated risk factors in a sample of secondary and postsecondary students from a public federal institution of higher education (Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia) in Southern Brazil. Methods: The study included a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-BR), the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN), and the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Finally, IGD was measured with the Brazilian version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF), which has been psychometrically validated in this population. Results: Overall, 38.2% (n=212) of the sample exhibited IGD symptoms, with 18.2% (n=101) being classed as at-risk gamers. Regression analysis found IGD to be associated with male gender, severe depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, increased time spent gaming, and total free time spent gaming (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of IGD in this sample was relatively high, and associated risk factors found were similar to those previously reported in the literature. Further studies investigating the epidemiology of IGD in Brazilian samples are warranted to better understand treatment needs and inform preventive measures in this population.
  • Neurobiology of bipolar disorders: a review of genetic components, signaling pathways, biochemical changes, and neuroimaging findings Special Article

    Scaini, Giselli; Valvassori, Samira S.; Diaz, Alexandre P.; Lima, Camila N.; Benevenuto, Deborah; Fries, Gabriel R.; Quevedo, Joao

    Abstract in English:

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness characterized by changes in mood that alternate between mania and hypomania or between depression and mixed states, often associated with functional impairment. Although effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are available, several patients with BD remain symptomatic. The advance in the understanding of the neurobiology underlying BD could help in the identification of new therapeutic targets as well as biomarkers for early detection, prognosis, and response to treatment in BD. In this review, we discuss genetic, epigenetic, molecular, physiological and neuroimaging findings associated with the neurobiology of BD. Despite the advances in the pathophysiological knowledge of BD, the diagnosis and management of the disease are still essentially clinical. Given the complexity of the brain and the close relationship between environmental exposure and brain function, initiatives that incorporate genetic, epigenetic, molecular, physiological, clinical, environmental data, and brain imaging are necessary to produce information that can be translated into prevention and better outcomes for patients with BD.
  • How to prevent the malignant progression of bipolar disorder Special Article

    Post, Robert M.

    Abstract in English:

    There is increasing recognition that, in a high percentage of cases, bipolar disorder is a progressive illness. Multiple types of sensitization (or increased reactivity to repetition of the same stimulus) drive illness progression. One of the clearest is that of episode sensitization, where increased numbers of prior episodes are associated with: faster recurrences; more dysfunction; disability; social, educational, and employment deficits; suicide; medical comorbidities; cognitive dysfunction; and an increased incidence of dementia in old age. Repetition of stressors and bouts of substance abuse can also result in sensitization. Each type of sensitization appears to have an epigenetic basis, such that preventing sensitization should minimize the accumulation of adverse epigenetic chemical marks on DNA, histones, and microRNA. New data emphasize the importance of early, consistent intervention after an initial manic episode. The cognitive dysfunction associated with a first episode improves only if there are no further episode recurrences during the next year. A randomized study has also shown that comprehensive multimodal prophylactic intervention for 2 years leads to improvements in illness course extending over a total of 6 years. Intensive treatment of the earliest stages of bipolar disorder can thus exert lasting positive effects on the course of illness.
  • Childhood-maltreatment subtypes in bipolar patients with suicidal behavior: systematic review and meta-analysis Review Article

    Duarte, Dante; Belzeaux, Raoul; Etain, Bruno; Greenway, Kyle T.; Rancourt, Emilie; Correa, Humberto; Turecki, Gustavo; Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane

    Abstract in English:

    Objective: Patients with bipolar disorders have a high risk of suicidal behavior. Childhood maltreatment is a well-established risk factor for suicidal behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the association between childhood-maltreatment subtypes and vulnerability to suicide attempts in bipolar disorder using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Methods: A literature review was performed using the MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases. Thirteen studies met the selection criteria. In the meta-analysis, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess a wide range of childhood maltreatment subtypes, which were analyzed by using a random-effects model to account for the likely variations of true effect sizes between the included studies. Results: In the systematic review, 13 studies met the selection criteria. The CTQ was selected for the meta-analysis to increase the homogeneity of assessment and to encompass a wide range of childhood-maltreatment subtypes. The data were analyzed using a random-effects model. Compared to bipolar non-attempters, bipolar suicide attempters had experienced childhood maltreatment with a significantly higher frequency and had higher total CTQ scores (Hedges’ g = -0.38, 95%CI -0.52 to -0.24, z = -5.27, p < 0.001) and CTQ sub-scores (sexual abuse: g = -0.39, 95%CI -0.52 to -0.26, z = -5.97; physical abuse: g = -0.26, 95%CI -0.39 to -0.13, z = -4.00; emotional abuse: g = -0.39, 95%CI -0.65 to -0.13, z = -2.97; physical neglect: g = -0.18, 95%CI -0.31 to -0.05, z = -2.79; emotional neglect: g = -0.27, 95%CI -0.43 to -0.11, z = -3.32). Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment, as assessed by the CTQ, may contribute to an increased risk of suicidal behavior among people with bipolar disorders. Recognizing maltreatment as an etiological risk factor is a crucial step toward furthering science-based preventive psychiatry.
  • Ciclesonide as a manic trigger in a patient with long-term stable bipolar disorder: a case report Letters To The Editors

    Vilela, Bárbara F.C.; Hara, Cláudia; Rocha, Fábio L.
  • Alcohol misuse by Amerindians with tuberculosis: relations to cash transfer programs in Brazil Letters To The Editors

    de Souza, Maximiliano L.; Orellana, Jesem D.; Basta, Paulo C.
  • Brazilian research on child and adolescent suicide: looking at the past to plan the future Letters To The Editors

    Orri, Massimiliano; Turecki, Gustavo
  • Addressing interpersonal conflict among healthcare workers during the coronavirus pandemic Letters To The Editors

    Rocha, Paulo Marcos Brasil; Correa, Humberto
  • Corrigendum Corrigendum

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