Abstract in English:Objective: To identify suicide rates and how they relate to demographic factors (sex, race and ethnicity, age, location) among physicians compared to the general population when aggravated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: We searched U.S. databases to report global suicide rates and proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) among U.S. physicians (and non-physicians in health occupations) using National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) data and using Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) in the general population. We also reviewed the effects of age, suicide methods and locations, COVID-19 considerations, and potential solutions to current challenges. Results: Between NOMS1 (1985-1998) and NOMS2 (1999-2013), the PMRs for suicide increased in White male physicians (1.77 to 2.03) and Black male physicians (2.50 to 4.24) but decreased in White female physicians (2.66 to 2.42). Conclusions: The interaction of non-modifiable risk factors, such as sex, race and ethnicity, age, education level/healthcare career, and location, require further investigation. Addressing systemic and organizational problems and personal resilience training are highly recommended, particularly during the additional strain from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract in English:Objective: To assess the adherence to a set of evidence-based recommendations to support mental health during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its association with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods: A team of health workers and researchers prepared the recommendations, formatted into three volumes (1: COVID-19 prevention; 2: Healthy habits; 3: Biological clock and sleep). Participants were randomized to receive only Volume 1 (control), Volumes 1 and 2, Volumes 1 and 3, or all volumes. We used a convenience sample of Portuguese-speaking participants over age 18 years. An online survey consisting of sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaires and mental health instruments (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 [GAD-7]) was administered. At 14 and 28 days later, participants were invited to complete follow-up surveys, which also included questions regarding adherence to the recommendations. A total of 409 participants completed the study – mostly young adult women holding university degrees. Results: The set of recommendations contained in Volumes 2 and 3 was effective in protecting mental health, as suggested by significant associations of adherence with PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores (reflecting anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively). Conclusion: The recommendations developed in this study could be useful to prevent negative mental health effects in the context of the pandemic and beyond.
Abstract in English:Objective: To improve the ability of psychiatry researchers to build, deploy, maintain, reproduce, and share their own psychophysiological tasks. Psychophysiological tasks are a useful tool for studying human behavior driven by mental processes such as cognitive control, reward evaluation, and learning. Neural mechanisms during behavioral tasks are often studied via simultaneous electrophysiological recordings. Popular online platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and Prolific enable deployment of tasks to numerous participants simultaneously. However, there is currently no task-creation framework available for flexibly deploying tasks both online and during simultaneous electrophysiology. Methods: We developed a task creation template, termed Honeycomb, that standardizes best practices for building jsPsych-based tasks. Honeycomb offers continuous deployment configurations for seamless transition between use in research settings and at home. Further, we have curated a public library, termed BeeHive, of ready-to-use tasks. Results: We demonstrate the benefits of using Honeycomb tasks with a participant in an ongoing study of deep brain stimulation for obsessive compulsive disorder, who completed repeated tasks both in the clinic and at home. Conclusion: Honeycomb enables researchers to deploy tasks online, in clinic, and at home in more ecologically valid environments and during concurrent electrophysiology.
Abstract in English:Objective: Recently, epigenetic mechanisms related to histone modifications including histone deacetylation (HDAC) have been emphasized in psychiatric diseases. Few studies have investigated the relationship of HDAC gene variations to psychiatric diseases, but these gene variations have never been studied in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present case-control study aimed to compare symptomatology with HDAC gene variations in patients with OCD. Methods: Illumina next-generation sequencing of six HDAC genes (HDAC2,3,4,9,10,11) was performed on DNA samples isolated from 200 Turkish subjects recruited from routine clinical practice. Twenty-seven single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in six HDAC genes were scanned with the LightSNiP method. Results: New variants, all previously unreported in the literature, were identified in the HDAC4, HDAC10, and HDAC11 genes. When control and OCD patient groups were compared, a statistically significant difference was found in HDAC2 rs13212283, HDAC4 rs1063639, and HDAC10 rs1555048 in terms of genotype distribution (p < 0.05). In addition, in the OCD group, a statistically significant relationship was found between some obsessions/compulsions and HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC4 polymorphisms (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study shows that the HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC4, and HDAC10 genes may play a role in the pathogenesis of OCD.
Abstract in English:Objective: Individuals with schizophrenia and substance use disorders have a poor prognosis and increased psychiatric symptoms. The present study aimed to explore the association of 106 genes in individuals with schizophrenia and comorbid substance use through a next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and different in silico algorithms. Methods: We included 105 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and a family history of schizophrenia, of whom 49 (46.67%) presented comorbid substance use. Using NGS, we sequenced 106 genes previously associated with schizophrenia. Logistic regression models were used to assess differences in allele frequencies, and a generalized gene-set analysis was performed at the gene level. Functional annotations were performed using different algorithms and databases. Results: We identified a total of 3,109 variants, of which 25 were associated with schizophrenia and comorbid substance use and were located in regulatory and coding regions. We found low-frequency variants in COMT p.Ala72Ser, independently of p.Val158Met, that were associated with substance use. The endocannabinoid functional variant FAAH p.Pro129Thr was also associated with substance use. Conclusions: Genetic variants of genes related to dopaminergic and cannabinoid neurotransmitter systems were associated with comorbid substance use in schizophrenia. Nevertheless, more studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm our findings.
Abstract in English:Objective: To date, no study has investigated whether autogenous and reactive obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) types are different entities in terms of oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. The aim of this study is to compare them in terms of these features. Methods: The study was conducted in subjects with reactive OCD (n=19), autogenous OCD (n=14), and a control group (n=17). All participants were non-smokers. Sociodemographic data were collected and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ), and Overvalued Ideas Scale (OVIS) were administered. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), paraoxonase (PON1), total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured. Results: There were no significant differences in TAS, TOS, or oxidative stress index (OSI) between the OCD and control groups. PON1 and hs-CRP levels were higher in the OCD group, whereas IL-6 and IL-10 levels were lower. Comparison across the three groups revealed no differences in TAS, TOS, OSI, or PON1 levels; however, hs-CRP was significantly higher while IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower in the reactive group compared to controls. Conclusion: Our results show that, although inflammatory processes may play a role in OCD, the autogenous and reactive subtypes do not differ from each other in these respects. The classification of OCD into autogenous and reactive subtypes should be reevaluated.
Abstract in English:Treatment-resistant bipolar depression (TRBD) has been reported in about one-quarter of patients with bipolar disorders, and few interventions have shown clear and established effectiveness. We conducted a narrative review of the published medical literature to identify papers discussing treatment-resistant depression concepts and novel interventions for bipolar depression that focus on TRBD. We searched for potentially relevant English-language articles published in the last decade. Selected articles (based on the title and abstract) were retrieved for a more detailed evaluation. A number of promising new interventions, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, are being investigated for TRBD treatment, including ketamine, lurasidone, D-cycloserine, pioglitazone, N-acetylcysteine, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, magnetic seizure therapy, intermittent theta-burst stimulation, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation therapy, and deep brain stimulation. Although there is no consensus about the concept of TRBD, better clarification of the neurobiology associated with treatment non-response could help identify novel strategies. More research is warranted, mainly focusing on personalizing current treatments to optimize response and remission rates.
Abstract in English:Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric condition classically characterized by obsessions (recurrent, intrusive and unwanted thoughts) and compulsions (excessive, repetitive and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts). OCD is heterogeneous in its clinical presentation and not all patients respond to first-line treatments. Several neurocircuit models of OCD have been proposed with the aim of providing a better understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved in the disorder. These models use advances in neuroscience and findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies to suggest links between clinical profiles that reflect the symptoms and experiences of patients and dysfunctions in specific neurocircuits. Several models propose that treatments for OCD could be improved if directed to specific neurocircuit dysfunctions, thereby restoring efficient neurocognitive function and ameliorating the symptomatology of each associated clinical profile. Yet, there are several important limitations to neurocircuit models of OCD. The purpose of the current review is to highlight some of these limitations, including issues related to the complexity of brain and cognitive function, the clinical presentation and course of OCD, etiological factors, and treatment methods proposed by the models. We also provide suggestions for future research to advance neurocircuit models of OCD and facilitate translation to clinical application.
Abstract in English:Objective: To systematically review the literature focusing on obstetric and perinatal outcomes in women with previous or current eating disorders (EDs) and on the consequences of maternal EDs for the offspring. Methods: The study was performed following the systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. PubMed, SciELO, and Cochrane databases were searched for non-interventional studies published in English or Portuguese from January 1980 to December 2020. Risk of bias was assessed using the Methods guide for effectiveness and comparative effectiveness reviews (American Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). Results: The search yielded 441 records, and 30 articles were included. The psychiatric outcome associated with EDs in women was mainly perinatal depression. The most prevalent obstetric outcomes observed in women with EDs were vomiting, hyperemesis, bleeding, and anemia. Most studies found maternal anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa to be associated with low birth weight and slow fetal growth. Women with binge EDs delivered children with increased birth weight. Of the 30 studies included, methodological quality was good in seven, fair in eight, and poor in 15 studies. Conclusion: A considerable body of evidence was reviewed to assess obstetric and perinatal outcomes in EDs. Acute and lifetime EDs, especially if severe, correlated with poor perinatal, obstetric, and neonatal outcomes. Obstetricians and general practitioners should be vigilant and screen for EDs during pregnancy.