Abstract in English:Abstract This paper examines the most significant processes of securitization and desecuritization occurring at the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) from its inception in 2008 until 2017, when UNASUR began to experience a gridlock. The analysis begins with the hypotheses of desecuritization of armed conflict among the South American countries, as well as their approach to problems drug-related. To this end, the paper is based on a critical theory of security with focus on securitization, and offers an expanded and/or discursive conception of security that goes beyond the military dimension.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article explains changes in strategic stability through a path dependence framework, discussing its antecedent conditions, increasing returns, cleavages, critical junctures, reactive sequences, and legacy. We identify the leading causes of its formation, reproduction, modification, and, eventually, its end. Such an analysis is relevant as far as we observe significant changes in cornerstone’s aspects of strategic stability after the abrogation of the ABM Treaty and the INF Treaty. We argue that strategic stability as an institution passes through radical modifications produced by reactive sequences breaking the causal loop that allowed its reproduction since its formation.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article aims at examining the strategic partnerships Brazil developed with China and Japan, between 2003 and 2020, and assessing how these privileged rapports contributed to the country’s quest for autonomy. This will be made through the lenses of Pragmatic Institutionalism and against the backdrop of major developments in global and regional governance that impacted on the Brazilian autonomist project.
Abstract in English:Abstract Violence and inequalities suffered by Central American women force their migration. Once the process has begun, they are exposed to greater violence because they are migrants, poor, indigenous or mestizo, women and, sometimes, minors. The journey is the space in which Central Americans, particularly women, are exposed to violence perpetrated by criminal organizations. Orderly and regular mobility would protect them from the dangers to which they are exposed; to this end, migration governance is needed. This analysis works with intersectionality as a theoretical approach and the methodology used was qualitative, based on interviews and a bibliographic review.
Abstract in English:Abstract Barely 15 years after the 2008 financial crisis and in a context of rising nationalism, regional organizations are facing multiple challenges. This article introduces an analytical framework that systematizes stressors and identifies characteristics that might help regional organizations to cope with stress. It draws on psychological models of how individuals cope with stress to explore how regional organizations grapple with a sequence of stress situations. Stress factors can aggravate pre-existing problems in regionalism and contribute to regional disintegration. But they can also trigger counter-reactions and strengthen the resilience of regionalism. To substantiate our arguments, we study the repercussions of two recent crises for South American regionalism: the political crisis in Venezuela and the Covid-19 pandemic.
Abstract in English:Abstract The American continent has seen the emergence of regional processes in the last 30 years, characterized by the emergence of new blocs, but also quite different projects. Faced with the new global and regional dynamics observed in the decade of 2010, this article argues that regionalism in the Americas has experienced a new wave in recent years, which we characterize as Liquid Regionalism, given the fluidity, informality and limited institutional design of the regional projects. Furthermore, the article introduces a new typology to characterize regional projects in the Americas, dividing them into platforms for consultation, cooperation and regional integration.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper aims to expand the concept of hybrid governance and analyses the case of Rio Janeiro, where criminal control coexists with the state. This study addresses the following research question: is Rio de Janeiro an important case for expanding the concept of hybrid governance in peace and security studies? The results show that not only can it be considered a space of hybrid governance, but also a dynamic hub with constant violence outbreaks with local and global impact.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article analyzes the outcome of Brazil’s contestation of the responsibility to protect, adding to existing literature through an analysis that makes use of recent norms research on possible alternate endings of contestation. As revealed, differentiating between the natures of contestation allows for greater nuance and broader reflections on the possibility of contestation, serving as an avenue for future cooperation.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper discusses the crisis in regional governance in South America from 2017 onwards by analyzing Unasur’s disintegration and the emergence of new arrangements (the Lima Group, Prosur, and the Leticia Pact), as well as the regional and global conditions that enabled them. We assessed their performance in responding to different crises in South America, concluding that the constraints and challenges they faced jeopardize their aim to prosper in the future. Special attention is given to changes in Brazilian foreign policy guidelines toward South America, which contributed to these outcomes.
Abstract in English:Abstract The geopolitical condition in Eastern Europe brings about a new dynamic of governance. The neighbourhood matters for the EU, even more so after the 2000's enlargements. This paper analyses the Europeanisation dynamics in the Republic of Moldova as a case for a critical view of the EU's modern external governance to the Eastern borders.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper seeks to identify the configuration of Internet governance in late 2021, focused on the dispute over institutional representation and legitimacy in which major regional powers find themselves. The United States, the European Union, and China compose a tripolar arrangement, each advancing a distinct mode of governance with unique characteristics that we strive to analyze here.
Abstract in English:Abstract The paper examines Brazilians’ attitudes toward the BRICS, verifying whether the soft balancing strategy finds support on public opinion, by using survey data from the Brazil, the Americas and the World Project. Results indicate that the attitudes toward the BRICS countries are similar to those toward other relevant partners. Moreover, attitudes toward the BRICS are not associated with a rejection of the US, which points to the possibility of soft-balancing having support in national public opinion.
Abstract in English:Abstract Although the 21st century has just begun, its turbulent start cannot be denied. In this context, this RBPI special issue adresses the impact of the 21st century systemic crises on traditional and new forms of international and regional governance. This Special issue is in line with efforts to systematize emerging agendas challenged by global changes and crises, as well as with building new approaches to analyze international relations in a plural perspective. We argue that the crises of the 21st century are producing a governance of hybrid nature, in which formal governance coexists with informal governance, presenting new theoretical and methodological challenges.