Parasites of marine, freshwater and farmed fishes of Portugal: a review

Parasitos de peixes marinhos, de água doce e de criação de Portugal: uma revisão

Jorge da Costa Eiras About the author

Abstract

An extensive literature review is made of the parasites in marine and freshwater fish in mainland Portugal, the Portuguese archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, as well as in farmed fish. The host(s) of each parasite species, its location in the host, site of capture of the host, whenever possible, and all the available bibliographic references are described. The economic importance of some parasites and the zoonotic relevance of some parasitic forms are discussed. A general overview of the data is provided, and some research lines are suggested in order to increase and complement the current body of knowledge about the parasites of fish from Portugal.

Keywords:
Parasites; fish; pathology; economy; zoonotic diseases; Portugal

Resumo

É feita uma revisão do conhecimento dos parasitas de peixes de Portugal com base em extensa compilação bibliográfica. São referidos os parasitas de peixes marinhos e de água doce do continente, dos Arquipélagos da Madeira e dos Açores, bem como os parasitas de peixes de piscicultura. Para cada espécie é indicado o hospedeiro, localização no hospedeiro, local de pesca quando possível, e referências bibliográficas disponíveis. Discute-se a importância econômica de alguns dos parasitas e a relevância zoonótica de algumas formas. É feita uma avaliação geral dos dados e sugerem-se linhas de pesquisa que aumentem e complementem o conhecimento atual sobre os parasitas de peixes de Portugal.

Palavras-chave:
Parasitas; peixes; patologia; economia; zoonoses; Portugal

Introduction

Portugal is a coastal nation in southwestern Europe, which covers an area of about 92,000 km2 and includes the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean. It has a coastline of 943 km on the mainland, 250 km on Madeira and 667 km on Azores. Portugal has the third largest Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the European Union and the twentieth largest EEZ in the world, with a total of 1,727,408 km2 divided between mainland Portugal (327,667 km2), the Archipelago of Azores (953,633 km2) and the Archipelago of Madeira (446,108 km2) (CARNEIRO et al., 2014Carneiro M, Martins R, Landi M, Costa FO. Updated checklist of marine fishes (Chordata: Craniata) from Portugal and the proposed extension of the Portuguese continental shelf. Eur J Taxon 2014; 73(1): 1-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2014.73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2014.73...
). This area will probably increase significantly with new international regulations concerning the limits of the EEZs.

Portugal’s marine waters are inhabited by a variety of fish whose exact extent is difficult to determine. For a comprehensive historical background on the knowledge and quantification of species, see Carneiro et al. (2014)Carneiro M, Martins R, Landi M, Costa FO. Updated checklist of marine fishes (Chordata: Craniata) from Portugal and the proposed extension of the Portuguese continental shelf. Eur J Taxon 2014; 73(1): 1-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2014.73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2014.73...
. According to these authors, there are a total of 1191 different fish species, 734 off mainland Portugal, 857 off Açores and 766 off Madeira. According to Costa FO et al. (2012)Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011...
, based on the FishBase occurrence records, there are 828 different fish species in the three zones. This means that Portugal’s marine icthyofauna is probably one of the most diversified in European waters, and explains the high per capita fish consumption in the country, making it the European Union country with the highest average annual per capita consumption of seafood, about 56 kg, which corresponds to 160 g of seafood per day (CARDOSO et al., 2016Cardoso C, Lourenço H, Costa S, Gonçalves S, Nunes ML. Survey into the seafood consumption preferences and patterns in the Portuguese population: education, age, and health variability. J Food Prod Mark 2016; 22(4): 421-435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10454446.2014.949982.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10454446.2014....
). As for freshwater fish, there are 36 known species in mainland Portugal (ALMAÇA, 1996Almaça C. Peixes dos rios de Portugal. Lisboa: Inapa Press; 1996.), but we have found no report about freshwater fish in Madeira and Azores.

Research on fish biology in Portugal was developed mostly in the early 20th century. To the best of our knowledge, the first researcher who studied fish parasites was Tendeiro (1955)Tendeiro J. Sobre um novo digenético, Dolichoenterum manteri sp. n., parasito do safio (L.). Algumas considerações sobre a sistemática da ordem Gasterostomata – Odhner, 1905. Conger congerBol Soc Port Ciênc Nat 1955; 19(1): 19-43.. Other researchers worked in the field, studying mainly marine fish, but for decades their research was very fragmentary and sporadic, and the resulting papers constitute a collection of different observations of several fish species that provide only elementary data on the occurrence of some parasites. Important questions such as the host-parasite relationship, parasite biology, pathological consequences of the infections, economic significance of the parasites, etc., were not studied, and for a long time research on fish parasites resulted in no more than a simple list of species infecting a small number of hosts.

This situation improved slightly with the studies of Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
, Carvalho Varela (1975Carvalho Varela M. Perspectivas gerais da helmintologia ictiológica. Bol Pecuário 1975; 43: 37-83., 2005Carvalho Varela M. Parasitas e parasitoses em piscicultura. Lisboa: Ordem dos Médicos Veterinários; 2005.), Carvalho Varela & Cunha-Ferreira (1984, 1987)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V. Larva Migrans visceral por e outros ascarídeos: helmintozoonoses potenciais por consumo de peixes marinhos em Portugal. AnisakisRev Port Ciênc Vet 1984; 89(472): 299-309., Machado Cruz (1959aMachado Cruz JA. sp. nov.: copépode parasite de Merluccius merluccius (Linné). Lernaeocera capartiPubl Inst Zool Dr A Nobre 1959a; 64: 1-12., bMachado Cruz JA. (Holten, 1802): nota sobre o seu aparecimento na costa de Portugal. Hepatoxylon trichiuriPubl Inst Zool Dr A Nobre 1959b; 65: 1-7.), Menezes (1984Menezes J. A case of massive cutaneous myxobolosis in wild mullet. Bol Inst Nac Inv Pescas 1984; 12(2): 71-73., 1992Menezes J. Hazards from pathogens carried by wild fish particularly wrasse used as lice cleaners. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1992; 12(6): 194-195., 1994Menezes J. Doenças em peixes cultivados no Estuário do Sado e seu controlo. Seminário sobre Recursos Haliêuticos, Ambiente, Aquacultura e Qualidade do Pescado da Península de Setúbal (Setúbal, 26-27 Abril 1994). Publicações Avulsas do IPIMAR 1994; 1: 175-186., 2000Menezes J. Manual sobre doenças de peixes ósseos. Publicações avulsas do IPIMAR 2000; 3: 213.), Menezes & Ré (1991) and Menezes et al. (1990aMenezes J, Ramos MA, Pereira TG, Silva AM. Rainbow trout culture failure in a small lake as a result of massive parasitosis related to careless fish introductions. Aquaculture 1990a; 89(2): 123-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(90)90304-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(90)9...
, bMenezes J, Vigário AM, Moledo A, Pita G. Recurso sardinha: parasitose com incidência económica. Pesca e Navegação 1990b; 97(1): 22-24.) (see list of References) in the 1970s, which marked the beginning of a new period of fish parasitological studies in Portugal. However, an integrated approach to fish parasitism was still lacking, and more consistent research by a group of young researchers began in the 1980s, most at them affiliated to universities. These researchers applied for national and international funding to support their projects, established fruitful relationships with colleagues at well known international research centers, engaged in cooperative research with some of them, and as part of their academic duties, invested strongly in the supervision of MSc and PhD students, which led to the production of a number of Dissertations and Thesis on fish parasitology. These efforts resulted in a significant increase in the body of knowledge about fish parasitology in Portugal, and a large increase in the number of qualified researchers. Consequently, numeous papers have been published in important international scientific journals and it can be stated that, today, the scientific community dealing with this field recognizes the studies performed in Portugal and the scientific collaboration developed with foreign researchers. For these reasons, it is important to name the main researchers that contributed significantly to the body of knowledge about fish parasites in the country and invested in the supervising of students who are well known in the field today: in alphabetical order, A Saraiva, C Azevedo, C Cruz, G Costa, JC Eiras and MJ Santos. PhD studies in this field were completed by CJ Francisco, F Cavaleiro, G Casal, HN Cabral, JF Marques, LJ Rangel, M Hermida and S Rocha. Their work resulted in a comprehensive body of research into the life cycle of parasites, descriptions of new species including their molecular characterization, parasites as biological markers, host-parasite relationships, life cycles, parasites in farmed fish, parasites as human pathogens, ultrastructure of parasites, the economic impact of parasites, histopathological studies, geographical distribution of parasites, etc.

Several papers on general aspects of fish parasitology in Portugal were produced by Rombert (1993)Rombert PC. Anisakiose humana. Acta Parasitol Port 1993; 1(1): 45-47., Carvalho Varela (1975Carvalho Varela M. Perspectivas gerais da helmintologia ictiológica. Bol Pecuário 1975; 43: 37-83., 2005Carvalho Varela M. Parasitas e parasitoses em piscicultura. Lisboa: Ordem dos Médicos Veterinários; 2005.), Eiras et al. (1987)Eiras JC, Saraiva A, Cruz C. A note on the portuguese situation concerning some notifiable fish diseases. Aquaculture 1987; 67(3-4): 279-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(87)90212-2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(87)9...
, Eiras (1990aEiras JC. Indice bibliográfico de trabalhos de autores portugueses no domínio da ictiopatologia. Rev Univ Coimbra 1990a; 25: 163-175., 1998Eiras JC. Parasitas de peixes de Portugal. Acta Parasitol Port 1998; 5(2): 99-105.), Menezes (1994Menezes J. Doenças em peixes cultivados no Estuário do Sado e seu controlo. Seminário sobre Recursos Haliêuticos, Ambiente, Aquacultura e Qualidade do Pescado da Península de Setúbal (Setúbal, 26-27 Abril 1994). Publicações Avulsas do IPIMAR 1994; 1: 175-186., 2000Menezes J. Manual sobre doenças de peixes ósseos. Publicações avulsas do IPIMAR 2000; 3: 213.), Nunes et al. (2003)Nunes C, Ladeira S, Mergulhão A. Alergia ao na população portuguesa. Anisakis simplexRev Port Imunoalergol 2003; 11: 30-40. and Ramos (2011)Ramos P. Anisakis spp. em bacalhau, sushi, e sashimi: risco de infecção parasitária e alergia. Rev Port Cienc Vet 2011; 106(577-580): 87-97..

The paper by Eiras (1998)Eiras JC. Parasitas de peixes de Portugal. Acta Parasitol Port 1998; 5(2): 99-105. provided a list of all the parasites identified in Portugal’s fish until the date of publication. However, given the huge increase in these studies since then, the aforementioned list is now outdated. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of fish parasites in Portugal.

Materials and Methods

The data described in this paper were garnered from a thorough review of the literature. According to the rules of this journal, data contained in Abstracts, Dissertations and Thesis presented at scientific Meetings are not included. However, it should be pointed out that practically all the data contained in Dissertations and Thesis have been published in scientific journals and have therefore been included in this paper, as have numerous Abstracts presented at international scientific Meetings. The name of the host(s) of each parasite species or genera, the parasite’s location in the host, site of capture of the host, whenever possible, and references ranked by year of publication are listed. The names of the parasites were checked in the Worms World Register of Marine Species (2016)Worms World Register of Marine Species [online]. 2016 [cited 2016 May 01]. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=118834
http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p...
, and are presented in alphabetical order within their respective groups (Isopod crustaceans are placed at the end of the list). The names of fish species were updated, according to FishBase, by Froese & Pauley (2016)Froese R, Pauley D, editors. FishBase: Worl Wide Web electronic publications: version 01/2016 [online] 2016. [cited 2016 Jun 01] Available from: www.fishbase.org. Whenever the location of the parasite in the host is not indicated, this means it was not described by the authors. The capture sites of marine fish are not included because, in most cases, they are unknown – fish are usually captured along the coast, sometimes very far from the port where they are landed, making it impossible to determine their origin. To best present the data, the information is divided into several sections: parasites of marine fish and freshwater fish from mainland Portugal, parasites of fish from the Archipelago of Madeira, from the Archipelago of the Azores, and parasites of farmed fish. A general discussion is presented at the end of this paper.

Parasites of marine fish from mainland Portugal

Flagellata

Amyloodinium sp., Dicentrarchus labrax, gills, Duarte et al. (2000)Duarte N, Rosa N, Santos MJ, Rebelo J. Estudo de ectoparasitas das brânquias de robalo ( L.) da Ria de Aveiro. Dicentrarchus labraxRev Biol 2000; 18(2): 59-68., Menezes (2000)Menezes J. Manual sobre doenças de peixes ósseos. Publicações avulsas do IPIMAR 2000; 3: 213..

Ichthyodinium chabelardi Hollande & J. Cachon, 1952, Sardina pilchardus, eggs, Meneses & Ré (1991)Meneses I, Ré P. Infection of sardine eggs by a parasitic dinoflagellate (Hollande et Cachon) of the Portuguese coats. Ichthyodinium chabelardiBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas, Lisboa 1991; 16(2): 1-9., Silva & Miranda (1992)Silva A, Miranda A. Laboratory rearing of sardine larvae, (Walb.), and early effects of starvation: a preliminary experiment. Sardina pilchardusBol Inst Esp Oceanogr 1992; 8(1): 163-174., Borges et al. (1996)Borges R, Ré P, Azevedo C. Ichthyodinium chabelardi (Hollande e Cachon 1952), dinoflagelado parasita dos ovos de sardinha. Ciênc Biol Ecol Syst 1996; 16(1-2): 245-258., Stratoudakis et al. (2000)Stratoudakis Y, Barbosa A, Menezes I. Infection of sardine eggs by the protistan endoparasite Ichthyodinium chabelardi off Portugal. J Fish Biol 2000; 57(2): 476-482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2000.tb02186.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Icthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1833) Pinto (1928), Dicentrarchus labrax, gills, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79., Duarte et al. (2000)Duarte N, Rosa N, Santos MJ, Rebelo J. Estudo de ectoparasitas das brânquias de robalo ( L.) da Ria de Aveiro. Dicentrarchus labraxRev Biol 2000; 18(2): 59-68..

Apicomplexa

Eimeria sardinae (Thélohan, 1890) Reichenow, 1921, Sardina pilchardus, testes, Pinto (1956)Pinto JS. Parasitic castration in males of (Walb) due to testicular infestation by the coccidia . Sardina pilchardusEimeria sardinae (Thél.)Rev Fac Ciênc Lisboa 1956; 5: 209-224., Pinto et al. (1961)Pinto JS, Barraca IF, Assis ME. Nouvelles observations sur la coccidiose par (Thélohan) chez les sardines des environs de Lisbonne, en 1961. Eimeria sardinaeNotas Est Inst Biol Marít 1961; 23: 13..

Eimeria sp., Dicentrarchus labrax, gut, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

Goussia cruciata (Thélohan, 1892) Labbé, 1896, Trachurus trachurus, liver, Gestal & Azevedo (2005)Gestal C, Azevedo C. Ultrastructure of (Apicomplexa: Coccidia) infecting the liver of horse mackerel, (L.), from Ibero-Atlantic waters. Goussia cruciataTrachurus trachurusJ Fish Dis 2005; 28(3): 125-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2005.00611.x. PMid:15752272.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.20...
, MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007...
.

G. luscaGestal & Azevedo (2006)Gestal C, Azevedo C. Ultrastructural aspects of hepatic coccidiosis caused by n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Coccidia) infecting (Gadidae) from the NE Atlantic Ocean. Goussia luscaTrisopterus luscusDis Aquat Organ 2006; 71(1): 25-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao071025. PMid:16921998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao071025...
, Trisopterus luscus, liver, Gestal & Azevedo (2006)Gestal C, Azevedo C. Ultrastructural aspects of hepatic coccidiosis caused by n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Coccidia) infecting (Gadidae) from the NE Atlantic Ocean. Goussia luscaTrisopterus luscusDis Aquat Organ 2006; 71(1): 25-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao071025. PMid:16921998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao071025...
.

Haemogregarina bigemina Laveran & Mesnil, 1901, Lipophrys pholis, Coryphoblennius galerita, blood, Sarasquete & Eiras (1985)Sarasquete MC, Eiras JC. Hemoprotozoosis en una población de (L., 1758) de las costas de Oporto (Portugal). Blennius pholisInv Pesq 1985; 49(4): 627-635., Eiras (1987aEiras JC. Occurrence of (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in (Pisces: Blenniidae) along the Portuguese west coast. Haemogregarina bigeminaBlennius pholisJ Fish Biol 1987a; 30(5): 597-603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1987.tb05787.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.19...
, bEiras JC. Detection of (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) infection in fish erythrocytes by phase-contrast microscopy. Haemogregarina bigeminaJ Fish Biol 1987b; 31(2): 291-292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1987.tb05233.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.19...
), Eiras & Davies (1991)Eiras JC, Davies AJ. Laveran & Mesnil, 1901 (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) from L. (Osteichthyes, Blenniidae): an investigation of seasonality in Portugal. Haemogregarina bigeminaBlennius pholisJ Fish Dis 1991; 14(6): 683-687. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.1991.tb00627.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.19...
, Davies et al. (1994)Davies AJ, Eiras JC, Austin RTE. Investigations into the transmission of Haemogregarina bigemina Laveran & Mesnil, 1901 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) between intertidal fishes in Portugal. J Fish Dis 1994; 17(3): 283-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.1994.tb00223.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.19...
, Dias et al. (2005)Dias PJ, Eiras JC, Davies AJ. A six-month duration, follow-up study of Haemogregarina bigemina at Foz do Douro, North Portugal, between ten and twenty years on. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2005; 25(4): 161-165..

Ciliophora

Cryptocaryon irritans Brown, 1951, Halobatrachus didactylus (=Batrachus didactylus), Diplodus sargus, Caranx ascensiones, Dicentrarchus labrax, Trigla sp., gills, tegument, Grazina Freitas et al. (1986)Grazina-Freitas MS, Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT. Patologia de peixes marinhos. Casos estudados no Laboratório Nacional de Investigação Veterinária. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 61-66..

Tetrahymena sp., Dicentrarchus labrax, Solea vulgaris, tegument, Grazina Freitas et al. (1986)Grazina-Freitas MS, Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT. Patologia de peixes marinhos. Casos estudados no Laboratório Nacional de Investigação Veterinária. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 61-66..

Trichodina sp., Dicentrarchus labrax, Diplodus sargus, gills, Grazina Freitas et al. (1986)Grazina-Freitas MS, Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT. Patologia de peixes marinhos. Casos estudados no Laboratório Nacional de Investigação Veterinária. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 61-66., Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79., Duarte et al. (2000)Duarte N, Rosa N, Santos MJ, Rebelo J. Estudo de ectoparasitas das brânquias de robalo ( L.) da Ria de Aveiro. Dicentrarchus labraxRev Biol 2000; 18(2): 59-68..

Myxozoa

Ceratomyxa diplodae Lubat, Radujkovic, Marques & Bouix (1989), Dicentrarchus labrax, gall bladder, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

C. labracis Sitjà-Bobadilla & Alvarez-Pellitero (1993), Dicentrarchus labrax, gall bladder, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

Ceratomyxa sp., Aphanopus carbo, Pagellus bogaraveo, gall bladder, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, Hermida et al. (2013b)Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
.

Myxobilatus sp., Dicentrarchus labrax, lumen of kidney ducts and urinary bladder, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

Myxobolus sp., Mugil cephalus, tegument, Menezes (1984)Menezes J. A case of massive cutaneous myxobolosis in wild mullet. Bol Inst Nac Inv Pescas 1984; 12(2): 71-73..

Kudoa sp., Sardina pilchardus, Merluccius merluccius, Trachurus trachurus, muscles, Cruz e Silva & Grazina Freitas (1984), Grazina Freitas et al. (1986)Grazina-Freitas MS, Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT. Patologia de peixes marinhos. Casos estudados no Laboratório Nacional de Investigação Veterinária. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 61-66., Menezes et al. (1990b)Menezes J, Vigário AM, Moledo A, Pita G. Recurso sardinha: parasitose com incidência económica. Pesca e Navegação 1990b; 97(1): 22-24., Gilman & Eiras (1998)Gilman MM, Eiras JC. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting (Walb., 1792) off the Portuguese coast. KudoaSardina pilchardusRes Rev Parasitol 1998; 58(2): 135-137., Cruz et al. (2003)Cruz C, Vaz A, Saraiva A. Occurrence of Kudoa sp. (Myxozoa) in Trachurus trachurus L. (Osteichthyes) in Portugal. Parasite 2003; 10(2): 165-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2003102165. PMid:12847925.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/20031...
.

Zschokkela mugilis Sitjà-Bobadilla & Alvarez-Pellitero (1993), Nereis diversicolor, coelom, Rangel et al. (2009)Rangel LJ, Santos MJ, Cech G, Székely C. Morphology, molecular data, and development of (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) in a polychaete alternate host, Zschokkella mugilisNereis diversicolor.J Parasitol 2009; 95(3): 561-569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1777.1. PMid:18939897.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1777.1...
.

Monogenea

Amphibdella torpedinis Chatin, 1874, Torpedo marmorata, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Ancyrocephalus sp., Mugil sp., gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Cemocotyle trachuri Dillon & Hargis (1965), Trachurus trachurus, gills, MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007...
.

Choricotyle chrysophryi Van Beneden & Hesse, 1863, Pagellus bogaraveo, gills, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Diclidophora luscae (Van Beneden & Hesse, 1864) Diesing, 1858, gills, Trisopterus luscus, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Diplectanum aequans (Wagner, 1857) Diesing, 1858, Dicentrarchus labrax, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36.. Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79., Duarte et al. (2000)Duarte N, Rosa N, Santos MJ, Rebelo J. Estudo de ectoparasitas das brânquias de robalo ( L.) da Ria de Aveiro. Dicentrarchus labraxRev Biol 2000; 18(2): 59-68..

Empruthotrema raiae (MacCallum, 1916) Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, Raja microocellata, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

E. torpedinis Kearn (1976), Torpedo marmorata, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Entobdella soleae (Van Beneden & Hesse, 1864) Johnston, 1929, Dicologlossa cuneata, Solea senegalensis, S. solea, skin, Carvalho Varela & Cunha-Ferreira (1987), Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36., Marques et al. (2006cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Epicotyle torpedinis Price, 1942, Torpedo marmorata, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Gastrocotyle trachuri Van Beneden & Hesse, 1863, Trachurus picturatus, T. trachurus, stomach, MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007...
, Hermida et al. (2015)Hermida M, Pereira A, Correia AT, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters. Trachurus picturatusJ Helminthol 2015; 90(4): 410-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000504. PMid:26121918.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000...
.

Grubea cochlear Diesing, 1858, Scomber scombrus, gills, Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985...
, Castro & Santos (2013)Castro S, Santos MJ. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, , (Teleostei, Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution. Scomber scombrusParasitol Res 2013; 112(10): 3579-3586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3543-8. PMid:23912195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-354...
.

Gyrodactylus elegans Von Nordman, 1832, Gaidropsarus sp., Gobius niger, Solea solea, Trisopterus luscus, gills, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Gyrodactylus sp., Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), Solea solea, gills, Carvalho Varela & Cunha-Ferreira (1987), Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Haliotrema balisticus (Hargis, 1955) Looss, 1902, Mugil cephalus, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Heteraxinoides atlanticus Gaevskaya & Kovaliova (1979), Trachurus trachurus, gills, MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007...
.

Heterocotyle pastinacae Scott, 1904, Dasyatis pastinaca, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Hexabothrium monteiroiTendeiro (1955)Tendeiro J. Sobre um novo digenético, Dolichoenterum manteri sp. n., parasito do safio (L.). Algumas considerações sobre a sistemática da ordem Gasterostomata – Odhner, 1905. Conger congerBol Soc Port Ciênc Nat 1955; 19(1): 19-43., Squalus blainville, gills, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127..

Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829) Sproston (1945), Scomber scombrus, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36., Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985...
, Castro & Santos (2013)Castro S, Santos MJ. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, , (Teleostei, Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution. Scomber scombrusParasitol Res 2013; 112(10): 3579-3586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3543-8. PMid:23912195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-354...
.

K. sprostonae Price (1961), Scomber scombrus, pseudobranchs, Castro & Santos (2013)Castro S, Santos MJ. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, , (Teleostei, Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution. Scomber scombrusParasitol Res 2013; 112(10): 3579-3586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3543-8. PMid:23912195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-354...
.

Lamellodiscus virgula Euzet & Oliver (1967), Pagellus bogaraveo, gills, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
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).

Lamellodiscus sp., Coris julis, Spondyliosoma cantharus, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Leptocotyle minor (Monticelli, 1888) Gallen (1937), Scyliorhinus sp., tegument, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Mazocraes vilelaiTendeiro & Valdez (1955a)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. I. Alguns helmintes do sável, (L.) das águas portuguesas. Descrição de uma nova espécie, n. sp. (Trematoda, Monogenea). Alosa alosaMazocraes vilelaiBol Cult Guiné Port 1955a; 10(37): 49-80., Alosa alosa, gills, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127..

Microcotyle sp., Coris julis, Diplodus sp., Pomadasys incisus (=Pomadasys bennedetti), Pomatomus saltator, Sparus aurata, Spondyliosoma cantharus, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Erpocotyle catenulata (Guberlet, 1933), Mustelus mustelus, gills, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127..

Neonchocotyle pastinacae Ktari & Maillard (1972), Dasyatis pastinaca, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Pseudaxine trachuri Parona & Perugia, 1889, Trachurus picturatus, T. trachurus, gills, MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007...
, Hermida et al. (2015)Hermida M, Pereira A, Correia AT, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters. Trachurus picturatusJ Helminthol 2015; 90(4): 410-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000504. PMid:26121918.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000...
.

Octoplectanocotyla aphanopi Pascoe (1987), Aphanopus carbo, gills, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
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.

Serranicotyle labracis (Van Beneden & Hesse, 1863) Maillard, Euzet & Silan, 1988, Dicentrarchus labrax, gills, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

Thaumatocotyle concinna Scott, 1904, Dasyatis pastinaca, nasal fossae, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Trochopus pini (Van Beneden & Hesse, 1863) Massa, 1903, Lepidotrigla cavillone, gills, Buhrnheim et al. (1973)Buhrnheim U, Gomes DC, Varela MC. Alguns trematódeos monogenéticos da família Capsalidae (Blaird), 1853, em peixes do Oceano Atlântico - costa continental portuguesa e costa do norte da África. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1973; 71(3): 227-239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761973000200003.
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, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Winkenthughesia bramae (Parona & Perugia, 1896) Bychovsky, 1957, Brama brama, gills, Kearn & Vasconcelos (1979)Kearn GC, Vasconcelos ME. Preliminary list of monogenean parasites of Portuguese marine fishes, with a note on Taglioni, 1912. Euplocotyle minimaBol Inst Nac Invest Pescas 1979; 1(1): 25-36..

Digenea

Acanthostomum sp., Pomatoschistus microps, digestive tract, Costa JL et al. (2012)Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011...
.

Brachyenteron helicoleni Bray & Kuchta, 2006, Pagellus bogaraveo, intestine, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Bucephalus baeri Maillard & Saad-Fares, 1981, Dicentrarchus labrax, intestine, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

B. minimus (Stossich, 1887), Mugil cephalus, heart, liver, spleen, Pina et al. (2009)Pina S, Barandela S, Santos MJ, Russell-Pinto F, Rodrigues P. Identification and description of (Digenea: Bucephalidae) life cycle in Portugal: morphological, histopathological, and molecular data. Bucephalus minimusJ Parasitol 2009; 95(2): 353-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1719.1. PMid:18710298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1719.1...
.

Cryptocotyle lingua (Creplin, 1825), Pleuronectes platessa, digestive tract, CarvalhoVarela et al. (1981).

Cryptocotyle sp., Pomatoschistus microps, fins (Freitas et al. 2009Freitas MV, Marques JF, Cabral HN. Parasitological diversity of the common goby, Pomastochistus microps (Krøyer, 1838), in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast. J Appl Ichthyology 2009; 25(2): 168-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01205.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
), Costa JL et al. (2012)Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011...
.

Derogenes varicus (Müller, 1784) Looss, 1901, Dicentrarchus labrax, Dicologlossa cuneata, Microchirus azevia, M. variegatus, Pagellus bogaraveo, Platichthys flesus, Scophthalmus rhombus, Solea kleinii, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, digestive tract, gills, Carvalho Varela & Cunha-Ferreira (1987), Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79., Marques et al. (2006aMarques JF, Cabral HN, Busi M, D’Amelio S. Molecular identification of species from Pleuronectiformes off the Portuguese coast. AnisakisJ Helminthol 2006a; 80(1): 47-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2005325. PMid:16469172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2005325...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
), Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Diplectanum aequans (Wagener, 1857) Diesing, 1958, Dicentrarchus labrax, gills, Grazina Freitas et al. (1986)Grazina-Freitas MS, Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT. Patologia de peixes marinhos. Casos estudados no Laboratório Nacional de Investigação Veterinária. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 61-66..

Didymobothrium rudolphi (Monticelli, 1890), Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), Marques & Cabral (2007)Marques JF, Cabral HN. Effects of sample size on fish parasite prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity estimates. J Appl Ichthyology 2007; 23(2): 158-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00823.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
.

Diphterostomum vividum (Nicoll, 1912) Bray & Gibson, 1986, Pagellus bogaraveo, intestine, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Diplostomum sp., Platichthys flesus, eyes, Cavaleiro et al. (2012)Cavaleiro F, Pina S, Russell-Pinto F, Rodrigues P, Formigo NE, Gibson DI, et al. Morphology, ultrastructure, genetics, and morphometrics of sp. (Digenea: Diplostomidae) metacercariae infecting the European flounder, (L.) (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae), off the northwest coast of Portugal. DiplostomumPlatichthys flesusParasitol Res 2012; 110(1): 81-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2453-x. PMid:21626424.
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Dolichoenterum manteri Tendeiro, 1955, Conger conger, intestine, Tendeiro (1955)Tendeiro J. Sobre um novo digenético, Dolichoenterum manteri sp. n., parasito do safio (L.). Algumas considerações sobre a sistemática da ordem Gasterostomata – Odhner, 1905. Conger congerBol Soc Port Ciênc Nat 1955; 19(1): 19-43.. Ectenurus lepidus Looss, 1907, Solea solea, Trachurus picturatus, T. trachurus, stomach, Carvalho Varela & Cunha-Ferreira (1987), MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
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, Hermida et al. (2015)Hermida M, Pereira A, Correia AT, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters. Trachurus picturatusJ Helminthol 2015; 90(4): 410-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000504. PMid:26121918.
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Glomericirrus macrouri (Gaevskaya, 1973) Gaevskaya, 1979, Pagellus bogaraveo,Hermida et al. (2013b)Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
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Haploporus benedeni (Stossich, 1887), Mugil cephalus, digestive tract, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
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Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) Odhner, 1902, Lepidorhombus boscii, Lipophrys pholis, digestive tract, intestine, Santos & Eiras (1995)Santos MJ, Eiras JC. A seasonal study on the parasitization of Lipophrys pholis (Pisces: Blenniidae) by Helicometra fasciata (Digenea: Opecoelidae) and Lecithochirium furcolabiatum (Digenea: Hemiuridae) in Portugal. Aquaculture 1995; 132(1-2): 175-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(94)00390-A.
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, Marques et al. (2006cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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Hemiptera sp., Microchirus azevia, M. variegatus, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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Hemiurus appendiculatus (Rudolphi, 1802) Looss, 1899, Alosa alosa, A. fallax, Pomatoschistus microps, stomach, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955a)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. I. Alguns helmintes do sável, (L.) das águas portuguesas. Descrição de uma nova espécie, n. sp. (Trematoda, Monogenea). Alosa alosaMazocraes vilelaiBol Cult Guiné Port 1955a; 10(37): 49-80., Rodrigues et al. (1972)Rodrigues HO, Carvalho Varela M, Rodrigues SS, Cristófaro R. Alguns trematódeos digenéticos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico - costa continental portuguesa e costa continental da África. Actas Soc Biol Rio de 1972; 15(2): 87-93., Costa JL et al. (2012)Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
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H. communis Odhner, 1905, Dicentrarchus labrax, Pagellus bogaraveo, Solea solea, stomach, Carvalho Varela & Cunha-Ferreira (1987), Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79., Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Homalometron galaicus SanMartin, Alvarez, Quintero & Paniagua, 1995, Dicologlossa cuneata, Microchirus azevia, M. variegatus, Solea senegalensis, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

Hypoepaticola sp., Helicolenus dactylopterus, digestive tract, Sequeira et al. (2010)Sequeira V, Gordo LS, Neves A, Paiva RB, Cabral HN, Marques JF. Macroparasites as biological tags for stock identification of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) in Portuguese waters. Fish Res 2010; 106(3): 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.08.014.
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.

Lecithochirium furcolabiatum (Jones, 1933) Dawes, 1947, Lipophrys pholis, Pomatoschistus microps, mesenteries, Santos & Eiras (1995)Santos MJ, Eiras JC. A seasonal study on the parasitization of Lipophrys pholis (Pisces: Blenniidae) by Helicometra fasciata (Digenea: Opecoelidae) and Lecithochirium furcolabiatum (Digenea: Hemiuridae) in Portugal. Aquaculture 1995; 132(1-2): 175-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(94)00390-A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(94)0...
.

L. musculus (Looss, 1907) Nasir & Diaz, 1971, Dicentrarchus labrax, Pomatoschistus microps, intestine, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79., Freitas et al. (2009)Freitas MV, Marques JF, Cabral HN. Parasitological diversity of the common goby, Pomastochistus microps (Krøyer, 1838), in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast. J Appl Ichthyology 2009; 25(2): 168-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01205.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
, Costa JL et al. (2012)Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011...
.

L. rufoviridae (Rudolphi, 1819), Arnoglossus laterna, Citharus linguatula, Conger conger, Dicologlossa cuneata, Lepidorhombus boscii, Microchirus azevia, Platichthys flesus, Scophthalmus maximus, S. rhombus, digestive tract, gills, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127., Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Lecithochirium sp., Pomatoschistus microps, digestive tract, Freitas et al. (2009)Freitas MV, Marques JF, Cabral HN. Parasitological diversity of the common goby, Pomastochistus microps (Krøyer, 1838), in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast. J Appl Ichthyology 2009; 25(2): 168-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01205.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
.

Lecithocladium excisum (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1901, Pagellus bogaraveo, Scomber scombrus, gills, stomach, Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985...
, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Lecithocladium sp., Helicolenus dactylopterus, digestive tract, Sequeira et al. (2010)Sequeira V, Gordo LS, Neves A, Paiva RB, Cabral HN, Marques JF. Macroparasites as biological tags for stock identification of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) in Portuguese waters. Fish Res 2010; 106(3): 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.08.014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010...
.

Lepocreadium album (Stossich, 1890), Pagellus bogaraveo, stomach, pyloric cecae, anterior intestine, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Lomasoma stephanskii Dolffus, 1960, Microchirus variegatus, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Macvicaria soleae (Dujardin, 1845) Gibson & Bray, 1982, Dicologlossa cuneata, Microchirus azevia, M. variegatus, Platichthys flesus, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, S. solea, digestive tract, Durieux et al. (2007)Durieux EDH, Marques JF, Sasal P, Bégout M-L, Cabral HN. Comparison of macroparasites between two nursery: continental shelf systems in the Bay of Biscay and the Portuguese coast. Solea soleaJ Fish Biol 2007; 70(6): 1921-1930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01460.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
, Marques et al. (2006aMarques JF, Cabral HN, Busi M, D’Amelio S. Molecular identification of species from Pleuronectiformes off the Portuguese coast. AnisakisJ Helminthol 2006a; 80(1): 47-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2005325. PMid:16469172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2005325...
, bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Monascus filiformis (Rudolphi, 1819), Trachurus picturatus, intestine, Hermida et al. (2015)Hermida M, Pereira A, Correia AT, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters. Trachurus picturatusJ Helminthol 2015; 90(4): 410-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000504. PMid:26121918.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000...
.

Opechona bacillaris (Molin, 1859) Dollfus, 1927, Scomber scombrus, stomach, intestine, Rodrigues et al. (1972)Rodrigues HO, Carvalho Varela M, Rodrigues SS, Cristófaro R. Alguns trematódeos digenéticos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico - costa continental portuguesa e costa continental da África. Actas Soc Biol Rio de 1972; 15(2): 87-93., Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985...
.

Otodistomum veliporum (Creplin, 1837) Stafford, 1894, Torpedo torpedo, stomach, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127..

Otodistomum sp., Synapturichthys kleinii (=Solea kleinii), digestive tract, visceral cavity, Marques et al. (2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Pycnadenoides senegalensis Fischthal & Thomas, 1972, Pagellus bogaraveo, pyloric cecae, intestine, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901), Platichthys flesus, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

Prosorhynchus aculeatus Odhner, 1905, Conger conger, Solea solea, stomach, rectum, branchial arches, muscles, Santos & Gibson (2002)Santos MJ, Gibson DI. Morphological features of Prosorhynchus crucibulum and P. aculeatus (Digenea: Bucephalidae), intestinal parasites of Conger conger (Pisces: Congridae), elucidated by scanning electron microscopy. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2002; 49(2): 96-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2002.019. PMid:12194496.
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, Durieux et al. (2007)Durieux EDH, Marques JF, Sasal P, Bégout M-L, Cabral HN. Comparison of macroparasites between two nursery: continental shelf systems in the Bay of Biscay and the Portuguese coast. Solea soleaJ Fish Biol 2007; 70(6): 1921-1930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01460.x.
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, Marques et al. (2006cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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), Francisco et al. (2010)Francisco CJ, Almeida A, Castro AM, Santos MJ. Development of a PCR-RFLP marker to genetically distinguish and Prosorhynchus crucibulumProsorhynchus aculeatus.Parasitol Int 2010; 59(1): 40-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2009.09.004. PMid:19818870.
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.

P. crucibulum (Rudolphi, 1819) Odhner, 1905, Conger conger, Dicentrarchus labrax, Dicologlossa cuneata, Synapturichthys kleinii (=Solea kleinii), Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, S. solea, kidney, stomach, muscles, digestive tract, branchial arches, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79., Santos & Gibson (2002)Santos MJ, Gibson DI. Morphological features of Prosorhynchus crucibulum and P. aculeatus (Digenea: Bucephalidae), intestinal parasites of Conger conger (Pisces: Congridae), elucidated by scanning electron microscopy. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2002; 49(2): 96-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2002.019. PMid:12194496.
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, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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), Durieux et al. (2007)Durieux EDH, Marques JF, Sasal P, Bégout M-L, Cabral HN. Comparison of macroparasites between two nursery: continental shelf systems in the Bay of Biscay and the Portuguese coast. Solea soleaJ Fish Biol 2007; 70(6): 1921-1930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01460.x.
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, Francisco et al. (2010Francisco CJ, Almeida A, Castro AM, Santos MJ. Development of a PCR-RFLP marker to genetically distinguish and Prosorhynchus crucibulumProsorhynchus aculeatus.Parasitol Int 2010; 59(1): 40-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2009.09.004. PMid:19818870.
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, 2012Francisco CJ, Hermida MA, Santos MJ. (Digenea: Bucephalidae) miracidium morphology and its passive transmission pattern. Prosorhynchus crucibulumParasite 2012; 19(3): 277-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2012193277. PMid:22910671.
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).

Prosorhynchus sp., Pomatoschistus microps, muscle, Freitas et al. (2009)Freitas MV, Marques JF, Cabral HN. Parasitological diversity of the common goby, Pomastochistus microps (Krøyer, 1838), in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast. J Appl Ichthyology 2009; 25(2): 168-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01205.x.
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, Costa JL et al. (2012)Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
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.

Stephanostomum pristis (Deslongchamps, 1824) Looss, 1899, Trisopterus luscus, intestine, Rodrigues et al. (1975a)Rodrigues HO, Carvalho Varela M, Rodrigues SS, Cristófaro R. Notas sobre dois trematódeos digenéticos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico - costa continental portuguesa e costa do Norte de África. Actas Soc Biol Rio de 1975a; 17(3): 121-124..

Sterrhurus fusiformis [(=Lecithochirium grandiporum (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1901], Conger conger, stomach, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127..

Tergestia sp., Trachurus picturatus, intestine, Hermida et al. (2015)Hermida M, Pereira A, Correia AT, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters. Trachurus picturatusJ Helminthol 2015; 90(4): 410-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000504. PMid:26121918.
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.

Timoniella imbutiforme (Molin, 1859) Brooks, 1980, Dicentrarchus labrax, Solea solea, muscles, Durieux et al. (2007)Durieux EDH, Marques JF, Sasal P, Bégout M-L, Cabral HN. Comparison of macroparasites between two nursery: continental shelf systems in the Bay of Biscay and the Portuguese coast. Solea soleaJ Fish Biol 2007; 70(6): 1921-1930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01460.x.
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.

T. praeterita (Looss, 1901) Maillard, 1974, Dicentrarchus labrax, Solea solea, muscles, intestine, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79., Durieux et al. (2007)Durieux EDH, Marques JF, Sasal P, Bégout M-L, Cabral HN. Comparison of macroparasites between two nursery: continental shelf systems in the Bay of Biscay and the Portuguese coast. Solea soleaJ Fish Biol 2007; 70(6): 1921-1930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01460.x.
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.

Zoogonoides viviparus (Olsson, 1868) Odhner, 1902, Pomatoschistus microps, digestive tract, Costa JL et al. (2012)Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011...
.

Zoogonus rubellus (Olsson, 1868) Odhner, 1902, Dicologlossa cuneata, Platichthys flesus, Solea senegalensis, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

Cestoda

Bothriocephalus andresi Porta, 1911, Citharus linguatula, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

B. barbatus Renaud, Gabrion & Pasteur, 1983, Scophthalmus rhombus, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

B. clavibothrium Ariola, 1899, Arnoglossus laterna, digestive tract, Marques & Cabral (2007)Marques JF, Cabral HN. Effects of sample size on fish parasite prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity estimates. J Appl Ichthyology 2007; 23(2): 158-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00823.x.
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, Marques et al. (2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

B. gregarious Renaud, Gabrion & Pasteur, 1983, Scophthalmus maximus, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

B. scorpii (Müller, 1776), Lepidorhombus boscii, Dicologlossa cuneata, Platichthys flesus, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

Bothriocephalus sp., Pleuronectes platessa, digestive tract, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
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.

Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), Merluccius merluccius, intestine, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127..

Didymobothrium rudolphi (Monticelli, 1890) Nybelin, 1922, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, digestive tract, intestine, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
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, 2007Marques JF, Santos MJ, Gibson DI, Cabral HN, Olson PD. Cryptic species of Didymobothrium rudolphii (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea) from the sand sole, , off the Portuguese coast, with an analysis of their molecules, morphology, ultrastructure and phylogeny. Solea lascarisParasitology 2007; 134(7): 1057-1052. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182007002491. PMid:17326848.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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), Świderski et al. (2010)Świderski Z, Gibson DI, Santos MJ, Poddubnaya LG. Ultrastructure of the intrauterine eggs of (Monticelli, 1890) (Cestoda, Spathebothriidea, Acrobothriidae) and its phylogenetic implications. Didymobothrium rudolphiiActa Parasitol 2010; 55(3): 254-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-010-0037-z.
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.

Diphyllobothrium sp., Synaptura lusitanica, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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Echeinobothrium sp., Scomber scombrus, intestine wall, Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985...
.

Hepatoxylon trichiuri (Holten, 1802), Lepidotus caudatus, intestine, gonads, Machado Cruz (1959b)Machado Cruz JA. (Holten, 1802): nota sobre o seu aparecimento na costa de Portugal. Hepatoxylon trichiuriPubl Inst Zool Dr A Nobre 1959b; 65: 1-7., Sequeira et al. (2010)Sequeira V, Gordo LS, Neves A, Paiva RB, Cabral HN, Marques JF. Macroparasites as biological tags for stock identification of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) in Portuguese waters. Fish Res 2010; 106(3): 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.08.014.
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.

Heteronybelinia yamagutii (Dollfus, 1960), Aphanopus carbo, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
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.

Grillotia sp., Microchirus variegatus, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

Lacistorhynchus tenuis (Van Beneden, 1858), Scomber scombrus, pyloric cecae, Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
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.

Nybelinia lingualis Cuvier, 1817, Citharus linguatula, Dicologlossa cuneata, Lepidorhombus boscii, Microchirus azevia, M. variegatus, Scophthalmus rhombus, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, S. solea, mesenteries, Durieux et al. (2007)Durieux EDH, Marques JF, Sasal P, Bégout M-L, Cabral HN. Comparison of macroparasites between two nursery: continental shelf systems in the Bay of Biscay and the Portuguese coast. Solea soleaJ Fish Biol 2007; 70(6): 1921-1930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01460.x.
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, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Onchobothrium uncinatum (Rudolphi, 1819), Raja undulata, intestine, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127..

Progrillotia dasyatidis Beveridge, Neifar & Euzet, 2004, Dicologlossa cuneata, Halobatrachus didactylus, Lepidorhombus boscii, Microchirus azevia, M. variegatus, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, intestinal lumen, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2005aMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN, Palm HW. First record of Beveridge Neifar and Euzet, 2004 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) plerocerci from Teleost fishes off the Portuguese coast, with a description of the surface morphology. Progrillotia dasyatidisParasitol Res 2005a; 96(4): 206-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-1341-7. PMid:15864648.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-134...
, bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Costa JL, Costa MJ, Cabral HN. Metazoan parasites as biological indicators of population structure of on the Portuguese coast. Halobatrachus didactylusJ Appl Ichthyology 2005b; 21(3): 220-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2005.00655.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
, 2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
), Costa JL et al. (2012)Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011...
.

Scolex pleuronectis (Müller, 1758), Dicologlossa cuneata, Microchirus azevia, Scomber scombrus, Solea senegalensis, S. solea, Trachurus trachurus, digestive tract, intestine, Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985...
, Durieux et al. (2007)Durieux EDH, Marques JF, Sasal P, Bégout M-L, Cabral HN. Comparison of macroparasites between two nursery: continental shelf systems in the Bay of Biscay and the Portuguese coast. Solea soleaJ Fish Biol 2007; 70(6): 1921-1930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01460.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
, MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007...
, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Sphyriocephalus tergestinus Pintner, 1913, Aphanopus carbo, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Acanthocephala

Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Molin, 1858), Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006b)Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
.

A. geneticus (Buron, Renaud & Euzet, 1985), Lepidorhombus boscii, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

A. propinquus (Dujardin, 1845), Dicologlossa cuneata, Lepidorhombus boscii, Microchirus azevia, M. variegatus, Monochirus hispidus, Scophthalmus rhombus, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, S. solea, digestive tract, Durieux et al. (2007)Durieux EDH, Marques JF, Sasal P, Bégout M-L, Cabral HN. Comparison of macroparasites between two nursery: continental shelf systems in the Bay of Biscay and the Portuguese coast. Solea soleaJ Fish Biol 2007; 70(6): 1921-1930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01460.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Acanthocephalus incrassatus (=Acanthocephaloides incrassatus Molin, 1858), Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), digestive tract, Marques et al. (2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Bolbosoma vasculosum (Rudolphi, 1819), Aphanopus carbo, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Bolbosoma sp., Pagellus bogaraveo, intestine, Hermida et al. (2013b)Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
.

Echinorhynchus clavula Dujardin, 1845, Solea senegalensis, S. solea, digestive tract, Carvalho-Varela & Cunha-Ferreira (1987)

Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega in Müller, 1776), Citharus linguatula, Lepidorhombus boscii, digestive tract, Marques & Cabral (2007)Marques JF, Cabral HN. Effects of sample size on fish parasite prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity estimates. J Appl Ichthyology 2007; 23(2): 158-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00823.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
, Marques et al. (2006cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Neoechinorhynchus sp., Mugil cephalus, intestine, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
.

Pomphorhynchus laevis Müller, 1776, Solea senegalensis, S. solea, digestive tract, Carvalho Varela & Cunha-Ferreira (1987).

Rhadinorhynchus cadenati (Golvan & Houin, 1964), Trachurus trachurus, intestine, MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007...
.

R. johni [=Aspersentis johni (Baylis, 1929)], Merluccius merluccius, intestine, Rodrigues et al. (1973Rodrigues HO, Carvalho Varela M, Rodrigues SS, Cristófaro R. Alguns nematódeos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico: costa continental portuguesa e costa do Norte da África. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1973; 71(3): 247-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761973000200005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761973...
, 1975cRodrigues HO, Noronha D, Carvalho Varela M. Alguns acantocéfalos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico, costa continental portuguesa e do norte da África. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1975c; 73(3): 209-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761975000200004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761975...
).

R. pristis (Rudolphi, 1802), Pagellus bogaraveo, pyloric cecae, intestine, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

R. tenuicornis [=Telosentis tenuicornis (Linton, 1901)], Scomber scombrus, intestine, Rodrigues et al. (1975bRodrigues HO, Carvalho Varela M, Rodrigues SS, Cristófaro R. Nova contribuição para o estudo dos nematódeos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico: costa continental portuguesa e costa do Norte da África. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1975b; 73(1-2): 127-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761975000100009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761975...
, cRodrigues HO, Noronha D, Carvalho Varela M. Alguns acantocéfalos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico, costa continental portuguesa e do norte da África. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1975c; 73(3): 209-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761975000200004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761975...
), Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985...
.

Radinorhynchus sp., Citharus linguatula, Microchirus azevia, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), Trachurus picturatus, digestive tract, intestine, Marques et al. (2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
), Hermida et al. (2015)Hermida M, Pereira A, Correia AT, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters. Trachurus picturatusJ Helminthol 2015; 90(4): 410-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000504. PMid:26121918.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000...
.

Nematoda

Anisakis pegreffii Campana-Rouget & Biocca, 1955, Arnoglossus imperialis, Citharus linguatula, Dicologlossa cuneata, Lepidorhombus boscii, Pagellus bogaraveo, Trachurus trachurus, digestive tract, encapsulated on the outside of the viscera and fish body cavity, Marques et al. (2006a,b 2009), Mattiucci et al. (2008)Mattiucci S, Farina V, Campbell N, MacKenzie K, Ramos P, Pinto AL, et al. . Anisakis spp. larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Atlantic horse mackerel: their genetic identification and use as biological tags for host stock characterizationFish Res 2008; 89(2): 146-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.032.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007...
, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. physeteris (Bayliss, 1923), Pagellus bogaraveo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. simplex s.s., Arnoglossus laterna, A. imperialis, Citharus linguatula, Dicologlossa cuneata, Pagellus bogaraveo, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Marques et al. (2006aMarques JF, Cabral HN, Busi M, D’Amelio S. Molecular identification of species from Pleuronectiformes off the Portuguese coast. AnisakisJ Helminthol 2006a; 80(1): 47-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2005325. PMid:16469172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2005325...
, bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
), Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. simplex (Rudolphi, 1809), Arnoglossus imperialis, A. laterna, Citharus linguatula, Dicologlossa cuneata, Lepidorhombus boscii, L. whiffiagonis, Zeugopterus regius (=Phrynorhombus regius), Scomber scombrus, Synapturichthys kleinii (=Solea kleinii), Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), Trachurus trachurus, digestive tract, body cavity, liver, stomach, Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
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, Mattiucci et al. (2008)Mattiucci S, Farina V, Campbell N, MacKenzie K, Ramos P, Pinto AL, et al. . Anisakis spp. larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Atlantic horse mackerel: their genetic identification and use as biological tags for host stock characterizationFish Res 2008; 89(2): 146-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.032.
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A. simplex x A. pegreffii, Pagellus bogaraveo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
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A. typica (Diesing, 1860), Pagellus bogaraveo, Platichthys flesus, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006aMarques JF, Cabral HN, Busi M, D’Amelio S. Molecular identification of species from Pleuronectiformes off the Portuguese coast. AnisakisJ Helminthol 2006a; 80(1): 47-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2005325. PMid:16469172.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
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A. ziphidarum Pagi, Nascetti, Webb, Mattiuci, Cianchi & Bullini, 1988, Pagellus bogaraveo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
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Anisakis sp., Aphanopus carbo, Conger conger, Helicolenus dactylopterus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Pomatoschistus microps, Sardina pilchardus, Scomber scombrus, Solea sp., Spondyliosoma cantharus, Trachurus picturatus, T. trachurus, Trigla lucerna, Trisopterus luscus, surface of internal organs, visceral cavity, mesentery, liver, muscles, Grazina Freitas et al. (1986)Grazina-Freitas MS, Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT. Patologia de peixes marinhos. Casos estudados no Laboratório Nacional de Investigação Veterinária. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 61-66., Saraiva et al. (2000b)Saraiva A, Cruz C, Santos MJ, Ferreira S. Nematode parasites from digestive tract of L. from the Northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Conger Conger congerBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2000b; 20(4): 163-166., Silva & Eiras (2003)Silva MER, Eiras JC. Occurrence of s sp. in fishes off the Portuguese West Coast and evaluation of its zoonotic potential. AnisakiBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2003; 23(1): 13-17., MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
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, Cruz et al. (2005Cruz C, Vaz A, Saraiva A. Larval anisakids from horse mackerel in Portugal. Helminthologia 2005; 42(1): 3-7., 2007Cruz C, Barbosa C, Saraiva A. Distribution of larval anisakids in blue whiting off Portuguese fish market. Helminthologia 2007; 44(1): 21-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11687-006-0051-8.
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, 2009Cruz C, Saraiva A, Santos MJ, Eiras JC, Ventura C, Soares JP, et al. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) infestation in (Osteichthyes, Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. AnisakisAphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 115-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2115.
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), (Freitas et al. 2009Freitas MV, Marques JF, Cabral HN. Parasitological diversity of the common goby, Pomastochistus microps (Krøyer, 1838), in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast. J Appl Ichthyology 2009; 25(2): 168-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2008.01205.x.
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), Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
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, Sequeira et al. (2010)Sequeira V, Gordo LS, Neves A, Paiva RB, Cabral HN, Marques JF. Macroparasites as biological tags for stock identification of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) in Portuguese waters. Fish Res 2010; 106(3): 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.08.014.
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, Hermida et al. (2015)Hermida M, Pereira A, Correia AT, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters. Trachurus picturatusJ Helminthol 2015; 90(4): 410-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000504. PMid:26121918.
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Camallanus sp., Pagellus bogaraveo, pyloric cecae, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
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, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
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Capillaria sp., Citharus linguatula, Dicologlossa cuneata, Platichthys flesus, Synaptura lusitanica, gut lumen, Marques et al. (2011)Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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Contracaecum aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802), Alosa alosa, Pleuronectes platessa, stomach, intestine, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127., Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
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C. gadi (Müller, 1776), Merluccius merluccius, stomach, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127..

C. magnum Smedley 1934, [= Hysterothylacium magnum (Smedley, 1934], Solea solea, intestine, Rodrigues et al. (1975a)Rodrigues HO, Carvalho Varela M, Rodrigues SS, Cristófaro R. Notas sobre dois trematódeos digenéticos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico - costa continental portuguesa e costa do Norte de África. Actas Soc Biol Rio de 1975a; 17(3): 121-124..

Contracaecum sp., Pomatoschistus microps, digestive tract, (Costa JL et al., 2012Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
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).

Cristitectus congeri Petter, 1970, Conger conger, stomach, intestine, Saraiva et al. (2000b)Saraiva A, Cruz C, Santos MJ, Ferreira S. Nematode parasites from digestive tract of L. from the Northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Conger Conger congerBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2000b; 20(4): 163-166..

Cucullanus campanae Lebre & Petter, 1984, Dicologlossa cuneata, Microchirus azevia, M. variegatus, Platichthys flesus, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, S. solea, digestive tract, Durieux et al. (2007)Durieux EDH, Marques JF, Sasal P, Bégout M-L, Cabral HN. Comparison of macroparasites between two nursery: continental shelf systems in the Bay of Biscay and the Portuguese coast. Solea soleaJ Fish Biol 2007; 70(6): 1921-1930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01460.x.
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, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
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C. heterochrous Rudolphi, 1802, Microchirus azevia, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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C. hians Dujardin, 1845, Conger conger, intestine, stomach, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127., Saraiva et al. (2000b)Saraiva A, Cruz C, Santos MJ, Ferreira S. Nematode parasites from digestive tract of L. from the Northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Conger Conger congerBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2000b; 20(4): 163-166..

C. longispiculum Rodrigues, Carvalho Varela, Rodriges & Cristófaro, 1973, Conger conger, stomach, intestine, Rodrigues et al. (1973)Rodrigues HO, Carvalho Varela M, Rodrigues SS, Cristófaro R. Alguns nematódeos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico: costa continental portuguesa e costa do Norte da África. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1973; 71(3): 247-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761973000200005.
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, Saraiva et al. (2000b)Saraiva A, Cruz C, Santos MJ, Ferreira S. Nematode parasites from digestive tract of L. from the Northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Conger Conger congerBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2000b; 20(4): 163-166..

Cucullanus sp., Arnoglossus laterna, gut lumen, Marques et al. (2011)Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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Dichelyne minutus (Rudolphi, 1819), Platichthys flesus, digestive tract, Marques et al. (2006cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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).

Goezia sp., Scomber scombrus, intestine, Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
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Huffmanella sp., Trisopterus luscus, intestine submucosa, Esteves et al. (2009)Esteves A, Seixas F, Carvalho S, Nazário N, Mendes M, Martins C. sp. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) muscular parasite from . HuffmanelaTrisopterus luscus captured off the Portuguese coastDis Aquat Organ 2009; 84(3): 251-255. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02048. PMid:19565703.
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Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802), Halobatrachus dydactilus, Microchirus variegatus, Platichthys flesus, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), Solea solea, Trachurus trachurus, digestive tract, intestine, Carvalho Varela & Cunha Ferreira (1987)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha Ferreira V. Helminth parasites of the common sole, , and the senegalese sole, on the Portuguese continental coast. Solea soleaSolea senegalensisAquaculture 1987; 67(1-2): 135-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(87)90018-4.
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, MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
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, Marques et al. (2005aMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN, Palm HW. First record of Beveridge Neifar and Euzet, 2004 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) plerocerci from Teleost fishes off the Portuguese coast, with a description of the surface morphology. Progrillotia dasyatidisParasitol Res 2005a; 96(4): 206-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-1341-7. PMid:15864648.
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, bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Costa JL, Costa MJ, Cabral HN. Metazoan parasites as biological indicators of population structure of on the Portuguese coast. Halobatrachus didactylusJ Appl Ichthyology 2005b; 21(3): 220-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2005.00655.x.
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, 2006cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2010Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Aggregation patterns of macroendoparasites in phylogenetically related fish hosts. Parasitology 2010; 137(11): 1671-1680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000491. PMid:20500921.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010000...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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), Costa JL et al. (2012)Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
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.

Hysterothylacium sp., Solea senegalensis, S. solea, intestine, Carvalho Varela & Cunha-Ferreira, 1987.

H. reliquens (Norris & Overstreet, 1975), Microchirus azevia, M. boscanion, M. variegatus, digestive tract Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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).

Hysterothylacium sp., Microchirus azevia, Micromesistius poutassou, Pagellus bogaraveo, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), Trachurus trachurus, digestive tract, liver, muscles, encapsulated in body cavity and outside of the viscera, Cruz et al. (2005Cruz C, Vaz A, Saraiva A. Larval anisakids from horse mackerel in Portugal. Helminthologia 2005; 42(1): 3-7., 2007Cruz C, Barbosa C, Saraiva A. Distribution of larval anisakids in blue whiting off Portuguese fish market. Helminthologia 2007; 44(1): 21-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11687-006-0051-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11687-006-005...
), Marques et al. (2006aMarques JF, Cabral HN, Busi M, D’Amelio S. Molecular identification of species from Pleuronectiformes off the Portuguese coast. AnisakisJ Helminthol 2006a; 80(1): 47-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2005325. PMid:16469172.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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), Hermida et al. (2012a)Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Distribution of (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of . Hatschekia pagellibogneraveiPagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, PortugalFolia Parasitol (Praha) 2012a; 59(2): 148-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2012.020. PMid:22779115.
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.

Luzonema cruzi Rodrigues, Varela, Rodrigues, Cristófaro, 1973, Letrhinus atlanticus, intestine, Rodrigues et al. (1973)Rodrigues HO, Carvalho Varela M, Rodrigues SS, Cristófaro R. Alguns nematódeos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico: costa continental portuguesa e costa do Norte da África. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1973; 71(3): 247-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761973000200005.
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.

Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896), Pagellus bogaraveo, intestine, Hermida et al. (2013b)Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
.

Proleptus obtusus, Dujardin, 1845, Scyliorhinus canicula, stomach, Rodrigues et al. (1973)Rodrigues HO, Carvalho Varela M, Rodrigues SS, Cristófaro R. Alguns nematódeos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico: costa continental portuguesa e costa do Norte da África. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1973; 71(3): 247-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761973000200005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761973...
.

P. robustus (Van Beneden, 1871), Mustelus canis, Raja clavata, stomach, spiral valve, Tendeiro & Valdez (1955b)Tendeiro J, Valdez V. Helmintologia ictiológica. II. sobre os helmintes de alguns peixes da costa portuguesa. Bol Cult Guiné Port 1955b; 10(37): 81-127., Rodrigues et al. (1973)Rodrigues HO, Carvalho Varela M, Rodrigues SS, Cristófaro R. Alguns nematódeos de peixes do Oceano Atlântico: costa continental portuguesa e costa do Norte da África. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1973; 71(3): 247-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761973000200005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761973...
.

Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779), Mugil cephalus, Pomatoschistus microps, digestive tract, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
, Costa JL et al. (2012)Costa JL, Marques JF, Alves J, Gamito R, Fonseca VS, Gonçalves CI, et al. Is parasitism in fish a good metric to assess ecological water quality in transitional waters? What can be learned from two estuarine resident species? Ecol Indic 2012; 19: 154-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.08.025.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011...
.

Thynnascaris aduncum [(=Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802)], Scomber scombrus, stomach, pyloric cecae, testes, intestine, Rego et al. (1985)Rego AA, Carvalho Varela M, Mendonça MM, Afonso-Roque MM. Helmintofauna da sarda ( L.) peixe da costa continental Portuguesa. Scomber scombrusMem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1985; 80(1): 97-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985000100015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761985...
.

Hirudinea

Caliobdella sp., Solea senegalensis, skin, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Hemibdella soleae (Van Beneden & Hesse, 1863), Dicologlossa cuneata, Microchirus azevia, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), Synapturichthys kleinii (=Solea kleinii), S. senegalensis, Synaptura lusitanica, skin, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Crustacea

Acanthochondria cornuta (Müller O.F., 1776), Platichthys flesus, gill chamber, gill arches, Marques & Cabral (2007)Marques JF, Cabral HN. Effects of sample size on fish parasite prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity estimates. J Appl Ichthyology 2007; 23(2): 158-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00823.x.
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, Marques et al. (2006cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
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, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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), Cavaleiro & Santos (2009Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae). Platichthys flesusParasitology 2009; 136(8): 855-865. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003118200900626X. PMid:19470193.
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, 2011Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Site selection of (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae) in (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae). Acanthochondria cornutaPlatichthys flesusParasitology 2011; 138(8): 1061-1067. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182011000606. PMid:21733262.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182011000...
).

A. solea (Krøyer, 1838), Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, S. solea, gill arches, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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).

Bomolochus soleae Claus, 1864, Dicologlossa cuneata, Synapturichthys kleinii (=Solea kleinii), S. senegalensis, S. solea, gills, Durieux et al. (2007)Durieux EDH, Marques JF, Sasal P, Bégout M-L, Cabral HN. Comparison of macroparasites between two nursery: continental shelf systems in the Bay of Biscay and the Portuguese coast. Solea soleaJ Fish Biol 2007; 70(6): 1921-1930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01460.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

Caligus brevicaudatus A. Scott, 1901, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, S. solea, skin, Marques et al. (2006cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

C. dicentrarchi Cabral & Raibaut 1983, Dicentrarchus labrax, skin, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

C. elongatus Von Nordman, 1832, Microchirus azevia, M. variegatus, Solea solea, skin, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
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, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

C. minimus Otto, 1821, Dicentrarchus labrax, mouth cavity and gills, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

C. musaicus Cavaleiro, Santos & Ho, 2010, Platichthys flesus, skin and fins, Cavaleiro et al. (2010)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ, Ho J. Caligus musaicus n. sp. (Copepoda, Caligidae) parasitic on the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus) off Portugal. Crustaceana 2010; 83(4): 457-464. http://dx.doi.org/101163/001121610X489359.
http://dx.doi.org/101163/001121610X48935...
.

C. pageti Russell, 1925, Dicentrarchus labrax, mouth, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

C. pelamydis Krøyer, 1863, Scomber scombrus, Trachurus trachurus, gills, opercula, branchial chamber internal wall, MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007...
, Castro & Santos (2013)Castro S, Santos MJ. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, , (Teleostei, Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution. Scomber scombrusParasitol Res 2013; 112(10): 3579-3586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3543-8. PMid:23912195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-354...
.

Caligus sp., Dicentrarchus labrax, Platichthys flesus, Trachurus picturatus, skin, gills, operculum, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79., Cavaleiro & Santos (2009)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae). Platichthys flesusParasitology 2009; 136(8): 855-865. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003118200900626X. PMid:19470193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182009006...
.

Clavellisa scombri (Kurz, 1877), Scomber scombrus, gills, Castro & Santos (2013)Castro S, Santos MJ. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, , (Teleostei, Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution. Scomber scombrusParasitol Res 2013; 112(10): 3579-3586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3543-8. PMid:23912195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-354...
.

Colobomatus labracis Delamare Debouteville & Nunes Ruivo, 1952, Dicentrarchus labrax, pre-opercular channels, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

Ergasilus sp., Dicologlossa cuneata, gills, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

Holobomolochus confusus (Stock, 1953) [= Cresseyus confusus (Stock, 1953)], Platichthys flesus, nasal cavity, Cavaleiro & Santos (2009)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae). Platichthys flesusParasitology 2009; 136(8): 855-865. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003118200900626X. PMid:19470193.
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.

Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988, Scophthalmus rhombus, Dicologlossa cuneata, skin, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
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, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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).

L. pectoralis (Müller O.F., 1776), Platichthys flesus, Solea senegalensis, skin, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
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), Cavaleiro & Santos (2007)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European Flounder (Linnaeus, 1758) along the North-Central Portuguese coast. Platichthys flesusJ Parasitol 2007; 93(5): 1218-1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1. PMid:18163362.
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.

Lernanthropus kroyeri Van Beneden, 1851, Dicentrarchus labrax, gills, Santos (1996)Santos MJ. Observations on the parasitofauna of wild sea bass ( L.) from Portugal. Dicentrarchus labraxBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 77-79..

Lernaeocera caparti Machado Cruz, 1959, Merluccius merluccius, gills, Machado Cruz (1959a)Machado Cruz JA. sp. nov.: copépode parasite de Merluccius merluccius (Linné). Lernaeocera capartiPubl Inst Zool Dr A Nobre 1959a; 64: 1-12..

L. lusci (Basset-Smith, 1896), Lepidorhombus boscii, Trisopterus luscus, tegument, Eiras (1984Eiras JC. Unusual attachment sites of the parasitic copepod Lernaeocera lusci (Basset-Smith, 1896) upon L. Trisopterus luscusBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1984; 4(2): 28-29., 1986Eiras JC. Some aspects of the infection of bib, (L.), by the parasitic copepod (Basset-Smith, 1896) in Portuguese waters. Trisopterus luscusLernaeocera lusciJ Fish Biol 1986; 28(2): 141-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1986.tb05151.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.19...
), Eiras & Santos (1990Eiras JC, Santos PJ. The morphology and morphometry of Basset-Smith, 1896 (Copepoda, Pennellidae). Lernaeocera lusciPubl Inst Zool Dr A Nobre 1990; 219: 1-10., 1992Eiras JC, Santos PJ. New host record (Risso, 1810), for (Bassett-Smith, 1896) (Copepoda, Pennellidae). Lepidorhombus bosciiLernaeocera lusciCrustaceana 1992; 63(1): 91-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854092X00316.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156854092X0031...
).

Lernaeocera sp., Microchirus azevia, gills, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Peniculus fistula Nordmann, 1832, Pagellus bogaraveo, Trachurus picturatus, T. trachurus, fins, Candeias (1955)Candeias A. Peniculus fistula Nordm. on two new hosts Trachurus trachurus (L.) and Trachurus picturatus (Bowd). Notas e Estudos Inst Biol Marit 1955; 8: 16., MacKenzie et al. (2008)MacKenzie K, Campbell N, Mattiucci S, Ramos P, Pinto AL, Abaunza P. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus L. Fish Res 2008; 89(2): 136-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.031.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2007...
, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Rebelula edwardsii (Kölliker, 1853) (=Lophoura edwardsii Kölliker, 1853), Coelorhynchus caelorhynchus, behind the posterior part of dorsal fin, Candeias (1952a)Candeias A. (Kolliker) on a . Rebelula edwardsiiCoelorhynchus coelorhynchus (Risso) from the coast of PortugalNotas e Estudos Inst Biol Marit 1952a; 1: 15..

Peroderma cylindricum Heller, 1865, Sardina pilchardus, tegument, Candeias (1952b)Candeias A. On Peroderma cylindricum (Heller) parasite of Sardina pilchardus (Walb.) from the Atlantic. Notas e Estudos Inst Biol Marit 1952b; 4: 10..

Aega sp., Citharus linguatula, skin, Marques et al. (2009)Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Gnathia maxillaris (Montagu, 1804), Coryphoblennius galerita, Lipophrys pholis, skin, Davies et al. (1994)Davies AJ, Eiras JC, Austin RTE. Investigations into the transmission of Haemogregarina bigemina Laveran & Mesnil, 1901 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) between intertidal fishes in Portugal. J Fish Dis 1994; 17(3): 283-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.1994.tb00223.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.19...
.

Gnathia sp., Helicolenus dactylopterus, Lepidorhombus boscii, Microchirus azevia, Pagellus bogaraveo, Platichthys flesus, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. solea, Zeugopterus punctatus, mouth, oesophagous, gills, gill chamber, tegument, fins, Sequeira et al. (2010)Sequeira V, Gordo LS, Neves A, Paiva RB, Cabral HN, Marques JF. Macroparasites as biological tags for stock identification of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) in Portuguese waters. Fish Res 2010; 106(3): 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.08.014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010...
, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
), Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Nerocila orbignyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1832), Halobatrachus dydactylus, Monochirus hispidus, Platichthys flesus, skin, Marques et al. (2005aMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN, Palm HW. First record of Beveridge Neifar and Euzet, 2004 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) plerocerci from Teleost fishes off the Portuguese coast, with a description of the surface morphology. Progrillotia dasyatidisParasitol Res 2005a; 96(4): 206-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-1341-7. PMid:15864648.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-005-134...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
), Cavaleiro & Santos (2009)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae). Platichthys flesusParasitology 2009; 136(8): 855-865. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003118200900626X. PMid:19470193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182009006...
.

Paragnathia formica (Hesse, 1864), Mugil cephalus, tegument, Menezes & Cascalho (1984)Menezes J, Cascalho AFR. Larval paragnathiosis in mullets. Bol Inst Nac Inv Pescas 1984; 12(1): 17-23..

Rocinela danmoniensis Leach, 1818, Pagellus bogaraveo, tegument, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Rocinela sp., Arnoglossus laterna, Citharus linguatula, Microchirus azevia, Scophthalmus maximus, S. rhombus, Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, Synaptura lusitanica, skin, Marques et al. (2006bMarques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host-parasite associations. Mar Biol 2006b; 150(2): 285-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0339-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-033...
, cMarques JF, Teixeira CM, Cabral HN. Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fish Res 2006c; 81(2-3): 293-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006...
, 2009Marques JF, Santos MJ, Cabral HN. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci Mar 2009; 73(3): 461-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, 2011Marques JF, Santos MJ, Teixeira CM, Batista MI, Cabral HN. Host-parasite relationships in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes): the relative importance of host biology, ecology and phylogeny. Parasitology 2011; 138(1): 107-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001009. PMid:20819241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182010001...
).

Parasites of freshwater fish from mainland Portugal

Flagellata

Trypanosoma granulosum Laveran & Mesnil, 1902, Anguilla anguilla, blood, rivers Ancora, Ardena, Este, Febros, Olivais and Tamente, França (1907)França C. Le trypanosome de l’anguille (T. granulosum) Laveran and Mesnil. Arch Inst Bacteriol Câmara Pestana 1907; 2: 113-121., Eiras (1988Eiras JC. Laveran and Mesnil, 1902 (Protozoa, Kinetoplastida) infecting L. in Portugal. Trypanosoma granulosumAnguilla anguillaCiênc Biol Ecol Syst 1988; 8(1-2): 29-36., 1990bEiras JC. Observations on erythrocyte abnormalities in fish. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1990b; 10(3): 64-68.), Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183., Cruz & Eiras (1997)Cruz C, Eiras JC. Prevalence of in in Portugal. Trypanosoma granulosumAnguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1997; 17(3-4): 126-128., Saraiva & Chubb (1989)Saraiva A, Chubb JC. Preliminary observations on the parasites of (L.) from Portugal. Anguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1989; 9(4): 88-89..

Apicomplexa

Babesiosoma bettencourti (França, 1908), Anguilla anguilla, blood, rivers Ancora, Este, Febros and Olivais, Cruz & Davies (1998)Cruz C, Davies A. Some observations on Babesiosoma bettencourti (França, 1908) n. comb. (syns. Haemogregarina bettencourti França, 1908; Desseria bettencourti Siddall, 1995) from eels, Anguilla anguilla L., in Portugal. J Fish Dis 1998; 21(6): 443-448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2761.1998.00131.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2761.19...
.

Ciliophora

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, Anguilla anguilla, skin and gills, river Este, Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183., Saraiva & Chubb (1989)Saraiva A, Chubb JC. Preliminary observations on the parasites of (L.) from Portugal. Anguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1989; 9(4): 88-89..

Trichodina jadranica Raabe, 1958, Anguilla anguilla, gills, river Este, Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183., Saraiva & Chubb (1989)Saraiva A, Chubb JC. Preliminary observations on the parasites of (L.) from Portugal. Anguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1989; 9(4): 88-89..

Myxozoa

Actinomyxon Actinospore type, Tubifex tubifex, host fish unknown, river Sousa, Székely et al. (2005)Székely C, Eiras JC, Eszterbauer E. Description of a new synactinomyxon type from River Sousa, Portugal. Dis Aquat Organ 2005; 66(1): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao066009. PMid:16175962.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao066009...
.

Hoferellus gilsoni (Debaisieux, 1925), Anguilla anguilla, urinary bladder, river Este, Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183., Saraiva (1995)Saraiva A. (Yin & Sproston, 1948) Gussev, 1965 and (Kikuche, 1929) Gussev, 1965 (Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea) in Portugal. Pseudodactylogyrus anguillaeP. biniBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1995; 15(3): 81-83., Saraiva et al. (1998)Saraiva A, Eiras JC, Cruz C. Fenómenos histopatológicos em peixes provocados por doenças de etiologia parasitária. Acta Parasitol Port 1998; 5(2): 67-72..

Myxidium giardi Cépède, 1906, Anguilla anguilla, gills and other organs, Aveiro lagoon, river Este, Azevedo et al. (1989)Azevedo C, Lorn J, Corral L. Ultrastructural aspects of Myxidium giardi (Myxozoa, Myxosporea) parasite of the european eel Anguilla anguilla.Dis Aquat Organ 1989; 6(1): 55-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao006055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao006055...
, Saraiva (1995)Saraiva A. (Yin & Sproston, 1948) Gussev, 1965 and (Kikuche, 1929) Gussev, 1965 (Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea) in Portugal. Pseudodactylogyrus anguillaeP. biniBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1995; 15(3): 81-83., Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183., Saraiva & Chubb (1989)Saraiva A, Chubb JC. Preliminary observations on the parasites of (L.) from Portugal. Anguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1989; 9(4): 88-89., Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

M. rhodei Léger, 1905, Pseudochondrostoma polylepis (=Chondrostoma polylepis), kidney, urinary ducts, river Ave, Saraiva et al. (2000a)Saraiva A, Cruz C, Ferreira S. Studies on Myxidium rhodei Léger, 1905 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) on from River Ave, North Portugal. Chondrostoma polylepisBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2000a; 20(3): 106-110..

Myxobolus branchialis (Markewitsch, 1932), Luciobarbus bocagei, gills, river Sousa, Molnár et al. (2012)Molnár K, Eszterbauer E, Marton S, Székely C, Eiras JC. Comparison of the fauna of common barbel from Hungary and Iberian barbel from Portugal. MyxobolusDis Aquat Organ 2012; 100(3): 231-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469. PMid:22968791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469...
.

M. branchilateralis Molnár, Eszterbauer, Marton, Székely & Eiras, 2012, Luciobarbus bocagei, gills, river Sousa, Molnár et al. (2012)Molnár K, Eszterbauer E, Marton S, Székely C, Eiras JC. Comparison of the fauna of common barbel from Hungary and Iberian barbel from Portugal. MyxobolusDis Aquat Organ 2012; 100(3): 231-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469. PMid:22968791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469...
.

M. cutanei Alvarez-Pellitero & González-Lanza, 1985, Luciobarbus bocagei, fins, scales, river Sousa, Molnár et al. (2012)Molnár K, Eszterbauer E, Marton S, Székely C, Eiras JC. Comparison of the fauna of common barbel from Hungary and Iberian barbel from Portugal. MyxobolusDis Aquat Organ 2012; 100(3): 231-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469. PMid:22968791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469...
.

M. cyprini Doflein, 1898, Pseudochondrostoma polylepis (=Chondrostoma polylepis), muscle, kidney, gills, urinary bladder, Ermal reservoir, Cruz et al. (1998)Cruz C, Ferreira S, Saraiva AM. Ocorrência de Myxobolus cyprini em em Portugal. Chondrostoma polylepisActa Parasitol Port 1998; 5(2): 63-66..

M. musculi Keysselit, 1908, Luciobarbus bocagei, muscles, river Sousa, Molnár et al. (2012)Molnár K, Eszterbauer E, Marton S, Székely C, Eiras JC. Comparison of the fauna of common barbel from Hungary and Iberian barbel from Portugal. MyxobolusDis Aquat Organ 2012; 100(3): 231-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469. PMid:22968791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469...
.

M. pfeifferi (Thélohan, 1895), Luciobarbus bocagei, muscles, brânquias, river Sousa, Molnár et al. (2012)Molnár K, Eszterbauer E, Marton S, Székely C, Eiras JC. Comparison of the fauna of common barbel from Hungary and Iberian barbel from Portugal. MyxobolusDis Aquat Organ 2012; 100(3): 231-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469. PMid:22968791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469...
.

M. portucalensis Saraiva & Molnár, 1990, Anguilla anguilla, edge of fins, river Este, Saraiva & Molnár (1990)Saraiva A, Molnár K. n. sp. in the fins of the European eel (L.) in Portugal. Myxobolus portucalensisAnguilla anguillaRev Iber Parasitol 1990; 50(1-2): 31-35., Saraiva (1995)Saraiva A. (Yin & Sproston, 1948) Gussev, 1965 and (Kikuche, 1929) Gussev, 1965 (Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea) in Portugal. Pseudodactylogyrus anguillaeP. biniBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1995; 15(3): 81-83., Saraiva et al. (1998)Saraiva A, Eiras JC, Cruz C. Fenómenos histopatológicos em peixes provocados por doenças de etiologia parasitária. Acta Parasitol Port 1998; 5(2): 67-72., Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183..

M. tauricus Miroshnichenko, 1979, Luciobarbus bocagei, fins, muscles, river Sousa, Molnár et al. (2012)Molnár K, Eszterbauer E, Marton S, Székely C, Eiras JC. Comparison of the fauna of common barbel from Hungary and Iberian barbel from Portugal. MyxobolusDis Aquat Organ 2012; 100(3): 231-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469. PMid:22968791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469...
.

Myxobolus sp., Anguilla anguilla, Pseudochondrostoma polylepis (=Chondrostoma polylepis), Squalius cephalus (=Leuciscus cephalus), muscles, gills, kidney, fins, urinary ducts, liver, river Este, Saraiva & Chubb (1989)Saraiva A, Chubb JC. Preliminary observations on the parasites of (L.) from Portugal. Anguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1989; 9(4): 88-89., Cruz et al. (2000)Cruz C, Saraiva A, Ferreira S. Preliminary observations on Myxobolus sp. from Cyprinid fishes in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2000; 20(2): 65-69..

Zschokkela stettinensis Wierbicka, 1987, Anguilla anguilla, urinary bladder, river Este, Saraiva (1995)Saraiva A. (Yin & Sproston, 1948) Gussev, 1965 and (Kikuche, 1929) Gussev, 1965 (Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea) in Portugal. Pseudodactylogyrus anguillaeP. biniBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1995; 15(3): 81-83., Saraiva et al. (1998)Saraiva A, Eiras JC, Cruz C. Fenómenos histopatológicos em peixes provocados por doenças de etiologia parasitária. Acta Parasitol Port 1998; 5(2): 67-72., Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183..

Monogenea

Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae (Yin & Sproston, 1948), Anguilla anguilla, gills, rivers Este and Sousa, Aveiro lagoon, Saraiva (1995)Saraiva A. (Yin & Sproston, 1948) Gussev, 1965 and (Kikuche, 1929) Gussev, 1965 (Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea) in Portugal. Pseudodactylogyrus anguillaeP. biniBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1995; 15(3): 81-83., Saraiva et al. (1998)Saraiva A, Eiras JC, Cruz C. Fenómenos histopatológicos em peixes provocados por doenças de etiologia parasitária. Acta Parasitol Port 1998; 5(2): 67-72., Rodrigues & Saraiva (1996)Rodrigues A, Saraiva A. Spatial distribution & seasonality of & (Monogenea: Pseudodactylogyridae) on the gills of the European eel Pseudoctylogyrus anguillaeP. biniAnguilla anguilla.Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 85-88., Saraiva & Chubb (1989)Saraiva A, Chubb JC. Preliminary observations on the parasites of (L.) from Portugal. Anguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1989; 9(4): 88-89., Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

Pseudodactylogyrus bini (Kikuchi, 1929), Anguilla anguilla, rivers Este and Sousa, gills, Saraiva (1995)Saraiva A. (Yin & Sproston, 1948) Gussev, 1965 and (Kikuche, 1929) Gussev, 1965 (Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea) in Portugal. Pseudodactylogyrus anguillaeP. biniBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1995; 15(3): 81-83., Rodrigues & Saraiva (1996)Rodrigues A, Saraiva A. Spatial distribution & seasonality of & (Monogenea: Pseudodactylogyridae) on the gills of the European eel Pseudoctylogyrus anguillaeP. biniAnguilla anguilla.Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(3): 85-88., Saraiva et al. (1998)Saraiva A, Eiras JC, Cruz C. Fenómenos histopatológicos em peixes provocados por doenças de etiologia parasitária. Acta Parasitol Port 1998; 5(2): 67-72..

Digenea

Deropristis inflata (Molin, 1859), Anguilla anguilla, stomach, intestine, Aveiro lagoon, Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) Odhner, 1902, Anguilla anguilla, intestine, Aveiro lagoon, Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

Lecithochirium rufoviridae (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1902, Anguilla anguilla, stomach, Aveiro lagoon, Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

Lecithochirium sp., Anguilla anguilla, gills, Aveiro lagoon, Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

Podocotyle sp., Anguilla anguilla, intestine, Aveiro lagoon, Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

Cestoda

Bothriocephalus claviceps (Goeze, 1782), Anguilla anguilla, intestine, river Este, Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183., Saraiva & Chubb (1989)Saraiva A, Chubb JC. Preliminary observations on the parasites of (L.) from Portugal. Anguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1989; 9(4): 88-89., Saraiva et al. (2005)Saraiva A, Antão A, Cruz C. Comparative studies of parasite communities in European eel Anguilla anguilla from rivers of northern Portugal. Helminthologia 2005; 42(2): 99-106..

Khawia baltica Szidat, 1941, Luciobarbus bocagei (=Barbus barbus bocagei), intestine, rivers Este, Lima, Paiva and Sousa, Chubb et al. (1997)Chubb JC, Eiras JC, Saraiva A. Khawia baltica (Cestoidea: Caryophyllidea) from . Barbus barbus bocagei (Linnaeus, 1758) from some rivers in northern PortugalFolia Parasitol (Praha) 1997; 44(2): 131-138..

Acanthocephala

Acanthocephalus clavula Dujardin, 1845, Anguilla anguilla, intestine, river Este, Aveiro lagoon, Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183., Saraiva et al. (2005)Saraiva A, Antão A, Cruz C. Comparative studies of parasite communities in European eel Anguilla anguilla from rivers of northern Portugal. Helminthologia 2005; 42(2): 99-106., Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

A. lucii (Müller, 1777), Anguilla anguilla, intestine, river Este, Saraiva & Chubb (1989)Saraiva A, Chubb JC. Preliminary observations on the parasites of (L.) from Portugal. Anguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1989; 9(4): 88-89..

Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776), Anguilla anguilla, intestine, Aveiro lagoon, Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

Nematoda

Anguillicola crassus Kuwahara, Niimi & Hagaki, 1974, Anguilla anguilla, swimbladder, Aveiro lagoon, Cruz & Silva et al. (1992)Cruz e Silva P, Grazina-Freitas MS, Carvalho Varela M. First report of Anguillicola crassus in the european eel in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1992; 12(5): 154-156., Cardoso & Saraiva (1998)Cardoso EM, Saraiva A. Distribution and seasonal occurrence of (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) in the European Eel L. from rivers of North Portugal. Anguillicola crassusAnguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1998; 18(4): 136-139..

Anisakis pegreffii Campana-Rouget & Biocca, 1955, Alosa alosa, A. fallax, visceral organs, rivers Minho and Mondego, Bao et al. (2015)Bao M, Mota M, Nachón DJ, Antunes C, Cobo F, Garci ME, et al. infection in allis shad, . AnisakisAlosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), from Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers: zoonotic and ecological implicationsParasitol Res 2015; 114(6): 2143-2154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4403-5. PMid:25810220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-440...
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A. simplex (Rudolphi, 1809), Alosa alosa, A. fallax, visceral organs, rivers Minho and Mondego, Bao et al. (2015)Bao M, Mota M, Nachón DJ, Antunes C, Cobo F, Garci ME, et al. infection in allis shad, . AnisakisAlosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), from Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers: zoonotic and ecological implicationsParasitol Res 2015; 114(6): 2143-2154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4403-5. PMid:25810220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-440...
.

Contracaecum sp., Anguilla anguilla, intestinal wall, Aveiro lagoon, Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

Cucullanus truttae Fabricius, 1794, Anguilla anguilla, intestine, river Este, Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183., Saraiva et al. (2005)Saraiva A, Antão A, Cruz C. Comparative studies of parasite communities in European eel Anguilla anguilla from rivers of northern Portugal. Helminthologia 2005; 42(2): 99-106..

Paraquimperia tenerrima (Linstow, 1878), Anguilla anguilla, intestine, river Este, Saraiva & Chubb (1989)Saraiva A, Chubb JC. Preliminary observations on the parasites of (L.) from Portugal. Anguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1989; 9(4): 88-89., Saraiva et al. (2005)Saraiva A, Antão A, Cruz C. Comparative studies of parasite communities in European eel Anguilla anguilla from rivers of northern Portugal. Helminthologia 2005; 42(2): 99-106..

Philometra ovata (Zeder, 1803), Gobio lozanoi, body cavity, river Febros, Saraiva et al. (2008)Saraiva A, Hermida M, Costa MJ, Maia C, Reis AR, Cruz C, et al. First record of (Nematoda) infection in in Portugal. Philometra ovataGobio lozanoiJ Fish Biol 2008; 73(9): 2288-2292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.02063.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
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Pseudocapillaria tomentosa (Dujardin, 1843), Anguilla anguilla, intestine, river Este, Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183..

Rhabdochona anguillae Spaul, 1927, Anguilla anguilla, intestine, river Sousa, Carvalho Saraiva & Moravéc (1998)Saraiva A, Moravéc F. Redescription of (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae), a parasite of eel, , in Europe. Rhabdochona anguillaeAnguilla anguillaFolia Parasitol (Praha) 1998; 45(3): 233-238. PMid:9805785., Saraiva et al. (2002c)Saraiva A, Pereira A, Cruz C. Observations on the occurrence and maturation of Rhabdochona anguillae (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) in the Sousa river, Portugal. Helminthologia 2002c; 39(1): 41-43..

R. gnedini Skrjabin, 1946, Luciobarbus bocagei (=Barbus barbus bocagei), intestine, river Sousa, Saraiva et al. (2002)Saraiva A, Felisberto P, Cruz C. Occurrence and maturation of Rhabdochona gnedini (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) in the barbels of the Sousa river, Portugal. Parasite 2002; 9(1): 81-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/200209181. PMid:11938701.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/20020...
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Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779), Salmo trutta fario, intestine, river Mezio, Eiras & Reichenbach-Klinke (1982)Eiras JC, Reichenbach-Klinke H-H. Nematoden als ursache von Darmknoten bei Süsswassernfischen. Fisch und Umwelt 1982; 11(1): 47-55., Saraiva et al. (1998)Saraiva A, Eiras JC, Cruz C. Fenómenos histopatológicos em peixes provocados por doenças de etiologia parasitária. Acta Parasitol Port 1998; 5(2): 67-72..

Spinitectus inermis (Zeder, 1800), Anguilla anguilla, intestine, river Sousa, Saraiva et al. (2002aSaraiva A, Moravéc F, Pereira A, Cruz C. Development of Spinitectus inermis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae), a parasite of eel, , in Europe. Anguilla anguillaFolia Parasitol (Praha) 2002a; 49(2): 118-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2002.022. PMid:12194484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2002.022...
, bSaraiva A, Pereira A, Cruz C. Observations on the occurrence and maturation of Spinitectus inermis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) in the Sousa River, Portugal. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2002b; 49(2): 167-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2002.031. PMid:12194492.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2002.031...
, 2005Saraiva A, Antão A, Cruz C. Comparative studies of parasite communities in European eel Anguilla anguilla from rivers of northern Portugal. Helminthologia 2005; 42(2): 99-106.).

Crustacea

Acanthochondria cornuta (Müller, 1776), Platichthys flesus, tegument, fins, gill arches, nasal cavities, pseudobranchiae, Viana do Castelo, Matosinhos, Aveiro, Figueira da Foz, Cavaleiro & Santos (2007)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European Flounder (Linnaeus, 1758) along the North-Central Portuguese coast. Platichthys flesusJ Parasitol 2007; 93(5): 1218-1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1. PMid:18163362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1...
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Caligus diaphanus Nordmann, 1832, Platichthys flesus, tegument, Aveiro, Cavaleiro & Santos (2007)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European Flounder (Linnaeus, 1758) along the North-Central Portuguese coast. Platichthys flesusJ Parasitol 2007; 93(5): 1218-1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1. PMid:18163362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1...
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Caligus sp., Platichthys flesus, tegument, fins, Matosinhos, Cavaleiro & Santos (2007)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European Flounder (Linnaeus, 1758) along the North-Central Portuguese coast. Platichthys flesusJ Parasitol 2007; 93(5): 1218-1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1. PMid:18163362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1...
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Ergasilus gibbus Nordmann, 1832, Anguilla anguilla, gills, river Este, Aveiro lagoon, Saraiva (1995Saraiva A. (Yin & Sproston, 1948) Gussev, 1965 and (Kikuche, 1929) Gussev, 1965 (Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea) in Portugal. Pseudodactylogyrus anguillaeP. biniBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1995; 15(3): 81-83., 1996Saraiva A. Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) on the gills of the European eel from Portugal. Ergasilus gibbusAnguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(1): 21-24.), Saraiva & Eiras (1996)Saraiva A, Eiras JC. Parasite community of european eel (L.) in the river Este, northern Portugal. Anguilla anguillaRes Rev Parasitol 1996; 56(4): 179-183., Saraiva & Chubb (1989)Saraiva A, Chubb JC. Preliminary observations on the parasites of (L.) from Portugal. Anguilla anguillaBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1989; 9(4): 88-89., Hermida et al. (2008)Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40..

Holomobolochus confusus (Hemmingsen & MacKenzie 2001), Platichthys flesus, nasal cavities, Matosinhos, Cavaleiro & Santos (2007)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European Flounder (Linnaeus, 1758) along the North-Central Portuguese coast. Platichthys flesusJ Parasitol 2007; 93(5): 1218-1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1. PMid:18163362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1...
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Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller, 1776), Platichthys flesus, tegument, fins, Viana do Castelo, Matosinhos, Aveiro Figueira da Foz, Cavaleiro & Santos (2007)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European Flounder (Linnaeus, 1758) along the North-Central Portuguese coast. Platichthys flesusJ Parasitol 2007; 93(5): 1218-1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1. PMid:18163362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1...
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L. salmonis (Krøyer, 1838), Salmo trutta, tegument, river Minho catchment, Bao et al. (2016)Bao M, Costal D, Garci ME, Pascual S, Hastie LC. Sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonisLernaea cyprinacea) found on sea trout (Salmo trutta) and anchor worms (. ) in the River Minho catchment, an important area for conservation in NW SpainAquatic Conserv: Mar Freshw Ecosyst 2016; 26(2): 386-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2572.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2572...
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Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus 1758, Salmo trutta, tegument, river Minho catchment, Bao et al. (2016)Bao M, Costal D, Garci ME, Pascual S, Hastie LC. Sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonisLernaea cyprinacea) found on sea trout (Salmo trutta) and anchor worms (. ) in the River Minho catchment, an important area for conservation in NW SpainAquatic Conserv: Mar Freshw Ecosyst 2016; 26(2): 386-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2572.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2572...
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Lernaea sp., Leuciscus cephalus, skin, river Frio, Saraiva & Valente (1988)Saraiva A, Valente ACN. Black spot disease and sp. infestation on L. (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in Portugal. LernaeaLeuciscus cephalusBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1988; 8(1): 7-8..

Nerocila orbignyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1832), Platichthys flesus, fins, gill arches, Matosinhos, Cavaleiro & Santos (2007)Cavaleiro F, Santos MJ. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European Flounder (Linnaeus, 1758) along the North-Central Portuguese coast. Platichthys flesusJ Parasitol 2007; 93(5): 1218-1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1. PMid:18163362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1071R1.1...
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Parasites of marine fish from the Archipelago of Madeira

Apicomplexa

Goussia cruciata (Thélohan, 1894) Labbé, 1896, Trachurus picturatus, liver, Costa et al. (2013b)Costa G, Santamaria MTG, Vasconcelos J, Perera CB, Melo-Moreira E. Endoparasites of (Pisces: Carangidae) from the Madeira and Canary Islands: selecting parasites for use as tags. Trachurus picturatusSci Mar 2013b; 77(1): 61-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03707.07A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03707.0...
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Myxozoa

Ceratomyxa sparusaurati Sitjà-Bobadilla, Palenzuela & Alvarez-Pellitero, 1995, Sparus aurata, gall bladder, Costa et al. (1998)Costa G, Lom J, Andrade C, Barradas R. First report of (Protozoa: Myxosporea) and the occurrence of epitheliocystis in cultured sea bream, . Ceratomyxa sparusauratiSparus aurata L. from MadeiraBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1998; 18(5): 165-167..

C. tenuispora Kabata, 1960, Aphanopus carbo, gall bladder, Costa et al. (1996)Costa G, Eiras JC, Chubb J, MacKenzie K, Berland B. Parasites of the black scabbard fish, Lowe, 1839 from Madeira. Aphanopus carboBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(1): 13-16., Casal et al. (2007)Casal G, Costa G, Azevedo C. Ultrastructural description of Ceratomyxa tenuispora (Myxozoa) a parasite of the marine fish Aphanopus carbo (Trichiuridae), from the Atlantic coast of Madeira Island (Portugal). Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2007; 54(3): 165-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2007.023. PMid:19245187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2007.023...
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Ceratomyxa sp., Aphanopus carbo, Pagellus bogaraveo, gall bladder, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, Hermida et al. (2013b)Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
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Monogenea

Choricotyle chrysophryi Van Beneden & Hesse, 1863, Pagellus bogaraveo, gills, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Grubea cochlear Diesing, 1858, Scomber japonicus, gills, Costa et al. (2007)Costa G, Freitas N, Dellinger TH, MacKenzie K. Gill monogeneans of the chub mackerel, from Madeiran waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. Scomber japonicusJ Helminthol 2007; 81(1): 33-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207333. PMid:17381864.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207...
, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
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Heteraxinoides atlanticus Gaevskaya & Kovaliova, 1979, Trachurus picturatus, gills, Costa G et al. (2012)Costa G, Melo-Moreira E, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAA. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. J Helminthol 2012; 86(3): 368-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000502. PMid:21875447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000...
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Kuhnia scombri Kuhn, 1829 (Sproston, 1945), Scomber japonicus, gills, Costa et al. (2007)Costa G, Freitas N, Dellinger TH, MacKenzie K. Gill monogeneans of the chub mackerel, from Madeiran waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. Scomber japonicusJ Helminthol 2007; 81(1): 33-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207333. PMid:17381864.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207...
, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
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K. sprostonae Price, 1961, Scomber japonicus, gills, Costa et al. (2007)Costa G, Freitas N, Dellinger TH, MacKenzie K. Gill monogeneans of the chub mackerel, from Madeiran waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. Scomber japonicusJ Helminthol 2007; 81(1): 33-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207333. PMid:17381864.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207...
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K. scombercolias Nasir & Fuentes Zambrano, 1983, Scomber japonicus, gills, Costa et al. (2007)Costa G, Freitas N, Dellinger TH, MacKenzie K. Gill monogeneans of the chub mackerel, from Madeiran waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. Scomber japonicusJ Helminthol 2007; 81(1): 33-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207333. PMid:17381864.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207...
, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Lamellodiscus virgula Euzet & Oliver, 1967, Pagellus bogaraveo, gills, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Octoplectanocotyla aphanopi Pascoe, 1987, Aphanopus carbo, gills, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Pseudaxine trachuri Parona & Perugia, 1889, Trachurus picturatus, gills, Costa G et al. (2012)Costa G, Melo-Moreira E, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAA. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. J Helminthol 2012; 86(3): 368-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000502. PMid:21875447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000...
.

Pseudokuhnia minor (Goto, 1984), Scomber japonicus, gills, Costa et al. (2007)Costa G, Freitas N, Dellinger TH, MacKenzie K. Gill monogeneans of the chub mackerel, from Madeiran waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. Scomber japonicusJ Helminthol 2007; 81(1): 33-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207333. PMid:17381864.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207...
, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Digenea

Diphterostomum vividum (Nicoll, 1912) Bray & Gibson, 1986, Pagellus bogaraveo,Hermida et al. (2013b)Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
.

Halvorsenius exilis Gibson, MacKenzie & Cottle, 1981, Scomber japonicus, intestine, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Lecithochirium fusiforme Lühe, 1901, [= Lecithochirium grandiporum (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1901] Conger conger, stomach, Costa et al. (2009b)Costa G, Santos MJ, Costa L, Biscoito M, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAAP, Melo-Moreira E. Helminth parasites from the stomach of conger eel, , from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean. Conger congerJ Parasitol 2009b; 95(4): 1013-1015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1. PMid:20050008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1...
.

L. musculus (Looss, 1907) Nasir & Diaz, 1971, Conger conger, stomach, Costa et al. (2009b)Costa G, Santos MJ, Costa L, Biscoito M, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAAP, Melo-Moreira E. Helminth parasites from the stomach of conger eel, , from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean. Conger congerJ Parasitol 2009b; 95(4): 1013-1015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1. PMid:20050008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1...
.

Nematobothrium scombri (Taschenberg, 1879), Scomber japonicus, intestine, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Pachycreadium carnosum (Rudolphi, 1819) Cortini & Ferretti, 1959, Pagellus bogaraveo, pyloric cecae, intestine, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Prodistomum orientale (Layman, 1930) Bray & Gibson, 1990, Scomber japonicus, intestine, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Schikhobalotrema longivesiculatum Orecchia & Paggi, 1975, Parablennius parvicornis, intestine, Gibson & Costa (1997)Gibson DI, Costa G. Helminth parasites of Madeiran rockpool fishes, with a redescription of Orecchia & Paggi, 1975 (Digenea: Haplosplanchnidae), and some comments on their zoogeographical relationships. Schikhobalotrema longivesiculatumSyst Parasitol 1997; 38(1): 73-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005833826648.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:100583382664...
.

Cestoda

Campbelliella heteropoeciloacantha Palm, 2004, Aphanopus carbo, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Gryllotia sp., Cataetyx laticeps, in cysts on the outer wall of stomach, Costa et al. (2016)Costa G, Khadem M, Dellinger T, Biscoito M, Melo-Moreira E. Larval cestodes infecting the deep-water fish (Pisces: Bythitidae) from Madeira Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean. Cataetyx laticepsActa Parasitol 2016; 61(1): 187-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0025. PMid:27149705.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0025...
.

Heteronybelinia yamagutii Dollfus, 1960, Aphanopus carbo, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Heteronybelinia sp., Aphanopus carbo, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Nybelinia lingualis Cuvier, 1817, Aphanopus carbo, Pseudaxine trachuris, Trachurus picturatus, stomach wall, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, Costa G et al. (1996, 2003b, 2012Costa G, Melo-Moreira E, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAA. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. J Helminthol 2012; 86(3): 368-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000502. PMid:21875447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000...
, 2013b).

N. thyrsites Korotaeva, 1971, Aphanopus carbo, Trachurus picturatus, external stomach wall, digestive tract, Costa et al. (2003b)Costa G, Veltkamp CJ, Chubb JC. Larval trypanorhynchs (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from black-scabbard fish, and oceanic horse mackerel, . Aphanopus carboTrachurus picturatus in Madeira (Portugal)Parasite 2003b; 10(4): 325-331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2003104325. PMid:14710629.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/20031...
, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Nybelinia sp., Mauligobius maderensis, Scomber japonicus, intestine, Gibson & Costa (1997)Gibson DI, Costa G. Helminth parasites of Madeiran rockpool fishes, with a redescription of Orecchia & Paggi, 1975 (Digenea: Haplosplanchnidae), and some comments on their zoogeographical relationships. Schikhobalotrema longivesiculatumSyst Parasitol 1997; 38(1): 73-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005833826648.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:100583382664...
, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Pseudogrillotia epinepheli Scholz, Garippa & Scalla, 1993, Serranus atricauda, inside nodules attached to the wall of internal organs, Costa et al. (2013a)Costa G, Khadem M, Silva S, Moreira EM, D’Amélio S. Endohelminth parasites of the blacktail comber (Pisces: Serranidae), from Madeira Archipelago (Atlantic Ocean). Serranus atricaudaDis Aquat Organ 2013a; 103(1): 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02564. PMid:23482385.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02564...
.

Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788, Abudefduf luridus, Scomber japonicus, Sphoeroides marmoratus, Thalassoma pavo, intestine, Costa & Biscoito (2003)Costa G, Biscoito M. Helminth parasites of some coastal fishes from Madeira, Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2003; 23(6): 281-286., Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Sphyriocephalus tergestinus Pintner, 1913, Aphanopus carbo, stomach wall, digestive tract, Costa et al. (2003b, 1996), Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Tentacularia coryphaenae (Bosc, 1802), Aphanopus carbo, Centrophorus squamosus, Scomber japonicus, Trachurus picturatus, stomach wall, Costa et al. (1996)Costa G, Eiras JC, Chubb J, MacKenzie K, Berland B. Parasites of the black scabbard fish, Lowe, 1839 from Madeira. Aphanopus carboBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(1): 13-16., Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, Costa G et al. (2003b, 2012Costa G, Melo-Moreira E, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAA. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. J Helminthol 2012; 86(3): 368-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000502. PMid:21875447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000...
, 2014).

Acanthocephala

Bolbosoma vasculosum (Rudolphi, 1819), Aphanopus carbo, Scomber japonicus, Serranus atricauda, Trachurus picturatus, connective tissues of viscera, digestive tract, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, Costa G et al. (2000, 2012Costa G, Melo-Moreira E, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAA. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. J Helminthol 2012; 86(3): 368-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000502. PMid:21875447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000...
, 2013a).

Bolbosoma sp., Aphanopus carbo, Pagellus bogaraveo, Scomber japonicus, external stomach wall, Costa et al. (1996)Costa G, Eiras JC, Chubb J, MacKenzie K, Berland B. Parasites of the black scabbard fish, Lowe, 1839 from Madeira. Aphanopus carboBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(1): 13-16., Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
, Hermida et al. (2013b)Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
.

Rhadinorhynchus cadenati (Golvan & Houin, 1964), Trachurus picturatus, intestine, Costa et al. (2013b)Costa G, Santamaria MTG, Vasconcelos J, Perera CB, Melo-Moreira E. Endoparasites of (Pisces: Carangidae) from the Madeira and Canary Islands: selecting parasites for use as tags. Trachurus picturatusSci Mar 2013b; 77(1): 61-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03707.07A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03707.0...
.

R. pristis (Rudolphi, 1802), Conger conger, Scomber japonicus, stomach, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
, Costa et al. (2004bCosta G, Pontes T, Rego AA. Prevalence, intensity and abundance of Rhadinorhynchus pristis (Acanthocephala, Rhadinorhynchidae) in chub mackerel, (Pisces, Scombridae) from Madeira Island. Scomber japonicusActa Parasitol 2004b; 49(1): 41-44., 2009bCosta G, Santos MJ, Costa L, Biscoito M, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAAP, Melo-Moreira E. Helminth parasites from the stomach of conger eel, , from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean. Conger congerJ Parasitol 2009b; 95(4): 1013-1015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1. PMid:20050008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1...
).

Nematoda

Anisakis brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, Aphanopus carbo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Costa et al. (2003a)Costa G, Pontes T, Mattiucci S, D’Amélio S. The occurrence and infection dynamics of larvae in the black-scabbard fish, , chub mackerel, . AnisakisAphanopus carboScomber japonicus, and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus from Madeira, PortugalJ Helminthol 2003a; 77(2): 163-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156. PMid:12756070.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156...
.

A. pegreffii Campana Rouget & Biocca, 1955, Aphanopus carbo, Pagellus bogaraveo, Scomber japonicus, Trachurus picturatus, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Costa et al. (2003aCosta G, Pontes T, Mattiucci S, D’Amélio S. The occurrence and infection dynamics of larvae in the black-scabbard fish, , chub mackerel, . AnisakisAphanopus carboScomber japonicus, and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus from Madeira, PortugalJ Helminthol 2003a; 77(2): 163-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156. PMid:12756070.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156...
, 2004aCosta G, Madeira A, Pontes T, D’Amélio S. Anisakid nematodes of the blackspot seabream, from Madeiran waters, Portugal. Pagellus bogaraveo,Acta Parasitol 2004a; 49(2): 156-151.), Pontes et al. (2005)Pontes T, D’Amelio S, Costa G, Paggi L. Molecular characterization of larval anisakid nematodes from marine fishes of Madeira by a PCR-based approach, with evidence for a new species. J Parasitol 2005; 91(6): 1430-1434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1. PMid:16539027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1...
, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. physeteris (Bayliss, 1923), Pagellus bogaraveo, Scomber japonicus, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Costa et al. (2003a)Costa G, Pontes T, Mattiucci S, D’Amélio S. The occurrence and infection dynamics of larvae in the black-scabbard fish, , chub mackerel, . AnisakisAphanopus carboScomber japonicus, and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus from Madeira, PortugalJ Helminthol 2003a; 77(2): 163-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156. PMid:12756070.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156...
, Pontes et al. (2005)Pontes T, D’Amelio S, Costa G, Paggi L. Molecular characterization of larval anisakid nematodes from marine fishes of Madeira by a PCR-based approach, with evidence for a new species. J Parasitol 2005; 91(6): 1430-1434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1. PMid:16539027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1...
, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. simplex s.l., Pagellus bogaraveo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Costa et al. (2004aCosta G, Madeira A, Pontes T, D’Amélio S. Anisakid nematodes of the blackspot seabream, from Madeiran waters, Portugal. Pagellus bogaraveo,Acta Parasitol 2004a; 49(2): 156-151., 2009bCosta G, Santos MJ, Costa L, Biscoito M, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAAP, Melo-Moreira E. Helminth parasites from the stomach of conger eel, , from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean. Conger congerJ Parasitol 2009b; 95(4): 1013-1015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1. PMid:20050008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1...
), Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. simplex s.s., Aphanopus carbo, Centrophorus squamosus, Conger conger, Pagellus bogaraveo, Scomber japonicus, Trachurus picturatus, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Pontes et al. (2005)Pontes T, D’Amelio S, Costa G, Paggi L. Molecular characterization of larval anisakid nematodes from marine fishes of Madeira by a PCR-based approach, with evidence for a new species. J Parasitol 2005; 91(6): 1430-1434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1. PMid:16539027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1...
, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
, Costa et al. (2003aCosta G, Pontes T, Mattiucci S, D’Amélio S. The occurrence and infection dynamics of larvae in the black-scabbard fish, , chub mackerel, . AnisakisAphanopus carboScomber japonicus, and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus from Madeira, PortugalJ Helminthol 2003a; 77(2): 163-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156. PMid:12756070.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156...
, 2004aCosta G, Madeira A, Pontes T, D’Amélio S. Anisakid nematodes of the blackspot seabream, from Madeiran waters, Portugal. Pagellus bogaraveo,Acta Parasitol 2004a; 49(2): 156-151., 2014Costa G, Chada T, Melo-Moreira E, Cavallero S, D’Amélio S. Endohelminth parasites of the leafscale gulper shark, (Bonnaterre, 1788) (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae) off Madeira Archipelago. Centrophorus squamosusActa Parasitol 2014; 59(2): 316-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-014-0247-x. PMid:24827105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-014-024...
).

A. typica (Diesing, 1860), Pagellus bogaraveo, Scomber japonicus, Trachurus picturatus, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Mattiucci et al. (2002)Mattiucci S, Paggi L, Nascetti G, Portes Santos C, Costa G, Di Beneditto AP, et al. Genetic markers in the study of (Diesing, 1860): larval identification and genetic relationships with other species of Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis typicaAnisakisSyst Parasitol 2002; 51(3): 159-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014554900808. PMid:11912342.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:101455490080...
, Costa et al. (2003a)Costa G, Pontes T, Mattiucci S, D’Amélio S. The occurrence and infection dynamics of larvae in the black-scabbard fish, , chub mackerel, . AnisakisAphanopus carboScomber japonicus, and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus from Madeira, PortugalJ Helminthol 2003a; 77(2): 163-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156. PMid:12756070.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156...
, Pontes et al. (2005)Pontes T, D’Amelio S, Costa G, Paggi L. Molecular characterization of larval anisakid nematodes from marine fishes of Madeira by a PCR-based approach, with evidence for a new species. J Parasitol 2005; 91(6): 1430-1434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1. PMid:16539027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1...
, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. ziphidarum Paggi, Nascetti, Webb, Mattiucci, Cianchi & Bullini, 1988, Aphanopus carbo, Pagellus bogaraveo, Scomber japonicus, Trachurus picturatus, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Costa et al. (2003a)Costa G, Pontes T, Mattiucci S, D’Amélio S. The occurrence and infection dynamics of larvae in the black-scabbard fish, , chub mackerel, . AnisakisAphanopus carboScomber japonicus, and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus from Madeira, PortugalJ Helminthol 2003a; 77(2): 163-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156. PMid:12756070.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156...
, Pontes et al. (2005)Pontes T, D’Amelio S, Costa G, Paggi L. Molecular characterization of larval anisakid nematodes from marine fishes of Madeira by a PCR-based approach, with evidence for a new species. J Parasitol 2005; 91(6): 1430-1434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1. PMid:16539027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1...
, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

Anisakis sp., Aphanopus carbo, Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pagellus bogaraveo, Scomber japonicus, Trachurus picturatus, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Costa et al. (1996)Costa G, Eiras JC, Chubb J, MacKenzie K, Berland B. Parasites of the black scabbard fish, Lowe, 1839 from Madeira. Aphanopus carboBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(1): 13-16., Pontes et al. (2005)Pontes T, D’Amelio S, Costa G, Paggi L. Molecular characterization of larval anisakid nematodes from marine fishes of Madeira by a PCR-based approach, with evidence for a new species. J Parasitol 2005; 91(6): 1430-1434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1. PMid:16539027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-565R1.1...
, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
, Cruz et al. (2009)Cruz C, Saraiva A, Santos MJ, Eiras JC, Ventura C, Soares JP, et al. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) infestation in (Osteichthyes, Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. AnisakisAphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 115-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, Sequeira et al. (2010)Sequeira V, Gordo LS, Neves A, Paiva RB, Cabral HN, Marques JF. Macroparasites as biological tags for stock identification of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) in Portuguese waters. Fish Res 2010; 106(3): 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.08.014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010...
, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
, Costa G et al. (2003a, 2012Costa G, Melo-Moreira E, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAA. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. J Helminthol 2012; 86(3): 368-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000502. PMid:21875447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X11000...
, 2013b).

Clavellisa scombri (Kurz, 1877), Scomber japonicus, intestine, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Cristitectus congeri Petter, 1970, Conger conger, stomach, Costa et al. (2009b)Costa G, Santos MJ, Costa L, Biscoito M, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAAP, Melo-Moreira E. Helminth parasites from the stomach of conger eel, , from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean. Conger congerJ Parasitol 2009b; 95(4): 1013-1015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1. PMid:20050008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1...
.

Hysterothylacium fabri (Rudolphi, 1819), Scomber japonicus, intestine, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Hysterothylacium sp., Boops boops, Diplodus vulgaris, Pagellus bogaraveo, Scomber japonicus, Serranus atricauda, Thalassoma pavo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Costa & Biscoito (2003)Costa G, Biscoito M. Helminth parasites of some coastal fishes from Madeira, Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2003; 23(6): 281-286., Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
, Costa et al. (2004aCosta G, Madeira A, Pontes T, D’Amélio S. Anisakid nematodes of the blackspot seabream, from Madeiran waters, Portugal. Pagellus bogaraveo,Acta Parasitol 2004a; 49(2): 156-151., 2013aCosta G, Khadem M, Silva S, Moreira EM, D’Amélio S. Endohelminth parasites of the blacktail comber (Pisces: Serranidae), from Madeira Archipelago (Atlantic Ocean). Serranus atricaudaDis Aquat Organ 2013a; 103(1): 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02564. PMid:23482385.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02564...
).

Onchophora melanocephala (Rudolphi, 1819), Scomber japonicus, body cavity, Costa et al. (2009a)Costa G, Freitas N, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAA, Melo-Moreira E, Rigby MC. (Nematoda, Camallanidae) from the chub mackerel, . Oncophora melanocephalaScomber japonicus (Teleostei, Scombridae), caught off Madeira Island (Portugal)Acta Parasitol 2009a; 54(3): 253-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-009-0032-4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-009-003...
.

Onchophora sp., Scomber japonicus, intestine, Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

Procammallanus (Spirocamallanus) halitrophus Fusco & Overstreet, 1978, Serranus atricauda, intestine, Costa et al. (2013a)Costa G, Khadem M, Silva S, Moreira EM, D’Amélio S. Endohelminth parasites of the blacktail comber (Pisces: Serranidae), from Madeira Archipelago (Atlantic Ocean). Serranus atricaudaDis Aquat Organ 2013a; 103(1): 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02564. PMid:23482385.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02564...
.

Pseudoterranova ceticola (Deardorff & Overstreet, 1981), Centrophorus squamosus, stomach, Costa et al. (2014)Costa G, Chada T, Melo-Moreira E, Cavallero S, D’Amélio S. Endohelminth parasites of the leafscale gulper shark, (Bonnaterre, 1788) (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae) off Madeira Archipelago. Centrophorus squamosusActa Parasitol 2014; 59(2): 316-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-014-0247-x. PMid:24827105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-014-024...
.

Spirocamallanus sp., Mauligobius maderensis, intestine, Gibson & Costa (1997)Gibson DI, Costa G. Helminth parasites of Madeiran rockpool fishes, with a redescription of Orecchia & Paggi, 1975 (Digenea: Haplosplanchnidae), and some comments on their zoogeographical relationships. Schikhobalotrema longivesiculatumSyst Parasitol 1997; 38(1): 73-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005833826648.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:100583382664...
.

Hirudinea

Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853, Helicolenus dactylopterus, gonads, Sequeira et al. (2010)Sequeira V, Gordo LS, Neves A, Paiva RB, Cabral HN, Marques JF. Macroparasites as biological tags for stock identification of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) in Portuguese waters. Fish Res 2010; 106(3): 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.08.014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010...
.

Crustacea

Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Hesse, 1878), Pagellus bogaraveo, gills, Hermida et al. (2012aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Distribution of (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of . Hatschekia pagellibogneraveiPagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, PortugalFolia Parasitol (Praha) 2012a; 59(2): 148-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2012.020. PMid:22779115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2012.020...
, 2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Aega deshaysiana (=Aegapheles deshaysiana) (Milne Edwards, 1840), Pagellus bogaraveo, tegument, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Gnathia maxillaris (Montagu, 1808), Coryphoblennius galerita, Lipophrys pholis, skin, Davies et al. (1994)Davies AJ, Eiras JC, Austin RTE. Investigations into the transmission of Haemogregarina bigemina Laveran & Mesnil, 1901 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) between intertidal fishes in Portugal. J Fish Dis 1994; 17(3): 283-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.1994.tb00223.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.19...
.

Gnathia sp., Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pagellus bogaraveo, mouth, oesophagous, gills, gill chamber, tegument, fins, Sequeira et al. (2010)Sequeira V, Gordo LS, Neves A, Paiva RB, Cabral HN, Marques JF. Macroparasites as biological tags for stock identification of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) in Portuguese waters. Fish Res 2010; 106(3): 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.08.014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010...
, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Meinertia oestroides (Risso, 1826), Boops boops,Costa & Biscoito (2003)Costa G, Biscoito M. Helminth parasites of some coastal fishes from Madeira, Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2003; 23(6): 281-286..

Rocinela danmoniensis Leach, 1818, Pagellus bogaraveo, tegument, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
)

Parasites of marine fish from the Archipelago of the Azores

Myxozoa

Ceratomyxa sp., Aphanopus carbo, gall bladder, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Monogenea

Choricotyle chrysophryi Van Beneden & Hesse, 1863, Pagellus bogaraveo, gills, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Lamellodiscus virgula Euzet & Oliver, 1967, Pagellus bogaraveo, gills, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Digenea

Accacladocoelium petasiporum Odhner, 1928, Pagellus bogaraveo, stomach, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Derogenes varicus (Müller, 1784) Looss, 1901, Pagellus bogaraveo, stomach, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Lecithochirium musculus (Looss, 1907) Nasir & Diaz, 1971, Aphanopus carbo, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Lecithocladium excisum (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1901, Pagellus bogaraveo, stomach, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Lepocreadium album (Stossich, 1890), Pagellus bogaraveo, stomach, pyloric cecae, anterior intestine, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Odrhenium sp., Helicolenus dactylopterus, mesenteries, Sequeira et al. (2010)Sequeira V, Gordo LS, Neves A, Paiva RB, Cabral HN, Marques JF. Macroparasites as biological tags for stock identification of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) in Portuguese waters. Fish Res 2010; 106(3): 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.08.014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010...
.

Pachycreadium carnosum (Rudolphi, 1819) Cortini & Ferretti, 1859, Pagellus bogaraveo, pyloric cecae, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Pycnadenoides senegalensis Fischthal & Thomas, 1972, Pagellus bogaraveo, pyloric cecae, intestine, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Cestoda

Heteronybelinia yamagutii, (Dollfus, 1960), Aphanopus carbo, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Nybelinia lingualis Cuvier, 1817, Aphanopus carbo, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Acanthocephala

Bolbosoma vasculosum (Rudolphi, 1819), Aphanopus carbo, digestive tract, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
.

Bolbosoma sp., Pagellus bogaraveo, intestine, Hermida et al. (2013b)Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
.

Rhadinorhynchus pristis (Rudolphi, 1802), Pagellus bogaraveo, stomach, pyloric cecae, intestine, Hermida et al. (2013bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
).

Nematoda

Anisakis pegreffii Campana-Rouget & Biocca, 1955, Pagellus bogaraveo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. physeteris (Bayliss, 1923), Pagellus bogaraveo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. simplex s.l., Pagellus bogaraveo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. simplex s.s., Pagellus bogaraveo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

A. simplex x A. pegreffii, Pagellus bogaraveo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

Anisakis sp., Aphanopus carbo, Helicolenus dactylopterus, digestive tract, surface of viscera, Cruz et al. (2009)Cruz C, Saraiva A, Santos MJ, Eiras JC, Ventura C, Soares JP, et al. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) infestation in (Osteichthyes, Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. AnisakisAphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 115-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
, Sequeira et al. (2010)Sequeira V, Gordo LS, Neves A, Paiva RB, Cabral HN, Marques JF. Macroparasites as biological tags for stock identification of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) in Portuguese waters. Fish Res 2010; 106(3): 321-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.08.014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010...
.

Contracaecum sp., Pagellus bogaraveo, most larvae encapsulated in fish body cavity, mesenteries, on the ouside of the viscera, Hermida et al. (2012b)Hermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
.

Crustacea

Argulus foliaceus Linnaeus, 1758, Perca fluviatilis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Cyprinus carpio, Esox lucius, tegument, Menezes et al. (1990a)Menezes J, Ramos MA, Pereira TG, Silva AM. Rainbow trout culture failure in a small lake as a result of massive parasitosis related to careless fish introductions. Aquaculture 1990a; 89(2): 123-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(90)90304-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(90)9...
(freshwater).

Argulus sp., Pagellus bogaraveo, pectoral fin, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Aega antillensis Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 [=Aegaphelles antillensis (Schioedte & Meinert, 1879)], Pagellus bogaraveo, gills, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Gnathia sp., Pagellus bogaraveo, mouth, oesophagous, gills, gill chamber, tegument, fins, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Hesse, 1878), Pagellus bogaraveo, gills, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Rocinela danmoniensis Leach, 1818, Pagellus bogaraveo, tegument, Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
).

Parasites of farmed fish

Flagellata

Amyloodinium ocellatum (Brown, 1931), Coris julis, Diplodus puntazzo, D. sargus sargus (=D. sargus), D. vulgaris, Sparus aurata, Solea senegalensis, gills, Menezes (1992)Menezes J. Hazards from pathogens carried by wild fish particularly wrasse used as lice cleaners. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1992; 12(6): 194-195., Pereira et al. (2011)Pereira J, Abrantes C, Martins I, Barata J, Frias P, Pereira I. Ecological and morphological features of Amyloodinium ocellatum occurrences in cultivated gilthead seabream L.: a case study. Sparus aurataAquaculture 2011; 310(3-4): 289-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.11.011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture....
, Soares et al. (2011)Soares F, Quental Ferreira H, Cunha E, Pousão-Ferreira P. Occurrence of in aquaculture fish production: a serious problem in semi-intensive earthen ponds. Amyloodinium ocellatumAquacult Eur 2011; 36(4): 13-16..

Hexamita intestinalis Dujardin, 1841, Oncorhynchus mykiss, intestine, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
.

Ichthyobodo sp., Anguilla anguilla, Coris julis, Salmo trutta fario, tegument, Cruz e Silva et al. (1986)Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Binómio patologia/maneio numa anguilicultura portuguesa. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 41-47., Menezes (1992)Menezes J. Hazards from pathogens carried by wild fish particularly wrasse used as lice cleaners. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1992; 12(6): 194-195., Saraiva et al. (1998)Saraiva A, Eiras JC, Cruz C. Fenómenos histopatológicos em peixes provocados por doenças de etiologia parasitária. Acta Parasitol Port 1998; 5(2): 67-72..

Apicomplexa

Eimeria truttae (Léger & Hesse, 1919) Stankovitch, 1924, Oncorhynchus mykiss, gut mucosa, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
.

Eimeria sp., Anguilla anguilla, Coris julis, gut mucosa, Cruz e Silva et al. (1986)Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Binómio patologia/maneio numa anguilicultura portuguesa. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 41-47., Menezes (1992)Menezes J. Hazards from pathogens carried by wild fish particularly wrasse used as lice cleaners. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1992; 12(6): 194-195..

Ciliophora

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, Anguilla anguilla, Oncorhynchus mykiss, gills, tegument, fins, Grazina Freitas & Martins (1983)Grazina-Freitas MS, Martins MS. A ictioftiriose em trutas arco-íris de cultura. Rep Trab LNIV 1983; 15: 117-122., Ventura & Paperna (1985)Ventura MT, Paperna I. Histopathology of infections in fishes. Ichthyophthirius multifiliisJ Fish Biol 1985; 27(2): 185-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1985.tb04020.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.19...
, Cruz e Silva et al. (1986)Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Binómio patologia/maneio numa anguilicultura portuguesa. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 41-47..

Trichodina anguillae Ergens, 1960, Anguilla anguilla, gills, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
.

T. truttae Müller, 1937, Oncorhynchus mykiss, gills, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
.

Trichodina sp., Coris julis, Sparus aurata, gills, skin, Cruz e Silva et al. (1977), Menezes (1992)Menezes J. Hazards from pathogens carried by wild fish particularly wrasse used as lice cleaners. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1992; 12(6): 194-195..

Myxozoa

Ceratomyxa auratae Rocha, Casal, Rangel, Castro, Severino, Azevedo & Santos, 2015, Sparus aurata, gall bladder, Rocha et al. (2015a)Rocha S, Casal G, Rangel L, Castro R, Severino S, Azevedo C, et al. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of n. sp. (Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae), a parasite infecting the gilthead seabream . Ceratomyxa aurataeSparus aurata (Teleostei: Sparidae)Parasitol Int 2015a; 64(5): 305-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2015.04.002. PMid:25892564.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2015....
.

Ceratomyxa sp., Sparus aurata, gall bladder, Rocha et al. (2015b)Rocha S, Casal G, Rangel L, Severino S, Castro R, Santos MJ, et al. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of sp. (Myxosporea), a parasite infecting (Teleostei) in a portuguese fish farm. CeratomyxaSparus aurataMicrosc Microanal 2015b;21(S5 Suppl 5): 89-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927615014257. PMid:26227725.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927615014...
.

Myxidium giardi Cépède, 1906, Anguilla anguilla, skin, gills cartilage, liver, spleen, kidney, urinary bladder, intestine, Ventura & Paperna (1984)Ventura MT, Paperna I. Histopathology of Cépède, 1906 infection in European eels, L., in Portugal. Myxidium giardiAnguilla anguillaAquaculture 1984; 43(4): 357-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(84)90244-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(84)9...
, Cruz e Silva et al. (1986)Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Binómio patologia/maneio numa anguilicultura portuguesa. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 41-47..

Ortholinea auratae Rangel, Rocha, Borkhanuddin, Cehh, Castro, Casal, Azevedo, Severino, Székely, Santos, 2014, Sparus aurata, urinary bladder, Rangel et al. (2014)Rangel LJ, Rocha S, Borkhanuddin MH, Cech G, Castro R, Casal G, et al. Ortholinea aurata n. sp. (Myxozoa, Ortholineidae) infecting the urinary bladder of the gilthead seabream (Teleostei, Sparidae), in a Portuguese fish farm. Sparus aurataParasitol Res 2014; 113(9): 3427-3437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-4008-4. PMid:24985497.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-400...
.

Zschokkella auratis Rocha, Casal, Rangel, Severino, Castro, Azevedo, Santos, 2013, Sparus aurata, gall bladder, Rocha et al. (2013)Rocha S, Casal G, Rangel L, Severino R, Castro R, Azevedo C, et al. Ultrastructural and phylogenetic description of Zschokkella auratis sp. nov. (Myxozoa), a parasite of the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata.Dis Aquat Organ 2013; 107(1): 19-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02661. PMid:24270020.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02661...
.

Monogenea

Dactylogyrus sp., Anguilla anguilla, tegument, Cruz e Silva et al. (1986)Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Binómio patologia/maneio numa anguilicultura portuguesa. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 41-47..

Diplectanum aequans (Wagener, 1857), Dicentrarchus labrax, gills, Saraiva et al. (2015aSaraiva A, Costa J, Serrão J, Cruz C, Eiras JC. A histology-based fish health assessment of farmed seabass ( L.). Dicentrarchus labraxAquaculture 2015a; 448: 375-381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.06.028.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture....
, bSaraiva A, Costa J, Serrão J, Eiras JC, Cruz C. Study of the gill health status of farmed sea bass ( L., 1758) using different tools. Dicentrarchus labraxAquaculture 2015b; 441: 16-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.02.004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture....
).

Gyrodactylus elegans Nordmann, 1832, Solea solea, gills, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
.

Gyrodactylus sp., Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta, skin, Eiras (1999)Eiras JC. Ocorrência de spp. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) em Portugal e sua importância. GyrodactylusActa Parasitol Port 1999; 2(1): 71-73..

Lamellodiscus ignoratus Palombi, 1943, Sparus aurata, gills, skin, Cruz e Silva et al. (1997)Cruz e Silva MP, Grazina-Freitas MS, Orge ML. Co-infection by monogenetic trematodes of the genus Microcotyle V. Beneden & Hesse 1863, Lamellodiscus ignoratus Palombi, 1943, the protozoan sp. Ehrenberg, 1838 and the presence of epitheliocystis, Vibrio algynoliticus and in cultured seabream (. TrichodinaV. vulnificusSparus aurata L.) in PortugalBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1997; 17(2): 40-42..

Lamellodiscus sp., Coris julis, gills, Menezes (1992)Menezes J. Hazards from pathogens carried by wild fish particularly wrasse used as lice cleaners. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1992; 12(6): 194-195..

Microcotyle sp., Coris julis, Sparus aurata, gills, skin, Menezes (1992)Menezes J. Hazards from pathogens carried by wild fish particularly wrasse used as lice cleaners. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1992; 12(6): 194-195., Cruz e Silva et al. (1997)Cruz e Silva MP, Grazina-Freitas MS, Orge ML. Co-infection by monogenetic trematodes of the genus Microcotyle V. Beneden & Hesse 1863, Lamellodiscus ignoratus Palombi, 1943, the protozoan sp. Ehrenberg, 1838 and the presence of epitheliocystis, Vibrio algynoliticus and in cultured seabream (. TrichodinaV. vulnificusSparus aurata L.) in PortugalBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1997; 17(2): 40-42..

Cestoda

Bothriocephalus sp., Pleuronectes platessa, intestine, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
.

Hirudinea

Platybdella soleae (Grassé, 1959), Pegusa lascaris (=Solea lascaris), S. senegalensis, Solea solea (=S. vulgaris), skin, Barahona-Fernandes & Dinis (1992)Barahona-Fernandes MH, Dinis MT. Leech control (Platybdella solea, Hirudinae) on flatfishes in an aquaculture unit. Publ Inst Zool. Dr. A. Nobre 1992; 226: 1-4..

Nematoda

Contracaecum aduncum, (Rudolphi, 1802) Railliet & Henry, 1912, Pleuronectes platessa, intestine, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
.

Cucullanus minutus (Rudolphi, 1819) Tornquist, 1931, Solea solea, intestine, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
.

Raphidascaris sp., Mugil cephalus, intestine, Carvalho Varela et al. (1981)Carvalho Varela M, Cunha-Ferreira V, Silva MPC, Monteiro MT, Grazina-Freitas MS. Parasites and parasitosis in fish culture in Portugal. J World Maricul Soc 1981; 12(2): 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00271.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.19...
.

Crustacea

Caligus minimus Otto, 1821, Dicentrarchus labrax, gills, Saraiva et al. (2015aSaraiva A, Costa J, Serrão J, Cruz C, Eiras JC. A histology-based fish health assessment of farmed seabass ( L.). Dicentrarchus labraxAquaculture 2015a; 448: 375-381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.06.028.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture....
, bSaraiva A, Costa J, Serrão J, Eiras JC, Cruz C. Study of the gill health status of farmed sea bass ( L., 1758) using different tools. Dicentrarchus labraxAquaculture 2015b; 441: 16-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.02.004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture....
).

Discussion

With regard to marine fish, 180 different parasites have been detected in 74 host species in mainland Portugal, 61 parasites in 20 host species in Madeira, and 29 parasites in 3 host species in the Azores. Considering all the marine species common to the three regions, we find that parasites have been found only in 86 different hosts. As for freshwater fish, 52 parasite species were reported in mainland hosts, and one parasite species was observed infecting 5 freshwater hosts in the Azores. As far as we know, there are no reports of parasite species in freshwater fish in Madeira. On the other hand, 22 parasites have been observed in both marine and freshwater farmed fish.

It is evident that most of the reports from the three different “sampling sites” refer to hosts of major economic importance. This is not surprising. Most of the findings resulted from research projects funded by government agencies and, on a competitive basis, the study of important economic species is naturally favored. On the other hand, a large proportion of the findings were included in MSc and PhD studies, which also concerned hosts of high economic impact.

It is also obvious that, in general, the study of protistan parasites has been overlooked. Only 11 species in mainland waters, only one in Madeira, and none in the Azores have been reported. This was probably due to the sampling conditions of most of the fish, which were purchased from fishermen or collected at experimental fisheries, and the hosts were examined at a later date. These sampling conditions are not suitable for the search of protists, namely those that are ectoparasites. This limitation must be taken into account in future research, and whenever possible, the “neglected” protistan parasites must be included in research projects. On the other hand, the monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes, nematodes and crustaceans were generally the most prevalent parasites among the metazoan species.

Considering the parasites from mainland hosts, it is evident that the number of host species examined is very low relative to the number of hosts reported for the area. Moreover, most of the described parasites came from a small number of the 74 reported hosts. This means that research into fish parasites should be extended to other species, even if they are not economically relevant.

Some parasites deserve special attention for several reasons. First, some species are dangerous parasites in farming or aquarium conditions. That is the case particularly of the protists Amyloodinium ocellatum (SARAIVA et al., 2011Saraiva A, Jerónimo D, Cruz C. (Chromoalveolata: Dinoflagellata) in farmed turbot. Amyloodinium ocellatumAquaculture 2011; 320(1-2): 34-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.07.034.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture....
) and Cryptocaryon irritans, which are responsible for numerous cases of high mortality rates at farms and aquaria (COLORNI & BURGESS, 1997Colorni A, Burgess P. Cryptocaryon irritans Brown 1951, the cause of “white spot disease” in marine fish: an update. Aquarium Sci Conserv 1997; 1(4): 217-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018360323287.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:101836032328...
).

Several monogeneans and copepods that locate on the gills of the hosts are also detrimental to the hosts, especially in cases of high infection intensity, and may be important at farms.

Kudoa sp. (most probably K. thyrsites) was described in several hosts, causing a variable degree of post-mortem myoliquefaction of the host, thus rendering them unsuitable for consumption (CRUZ E SILVA & GRAZINA FREITAS, 1984Cruz e Silva MP, Grazina-Freitas MS. Kudoa sp. em músculo de pescada (Merluccius merluccius L.). Rep Trab LNIV 1984; 16: 151-154.; GRAZINA FREITAS et al., 1986Grazina-Freitas MS, Cruz e Silva MP, Ventura MT. Patologia de peixes marinhos. Casos estudados no Laboratório Nacional de Investigação Veterinária. Rep Trab LNIV 1986; 18: 61-66.; GILMAN & EIRAS, 1998Gilman MM, Eiras JC. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting (Walb., 1792) off the Portuguese coast. KudoaSardina pilchardusRes Rev Parasitol 1998; 58(2): 135-137.; MENEZES et al. 1990bMenezes J, Vigário AM, Moledo A, Pita G. Recurso sardinha: parasitose com incidência económica. Pesca e Navegação 1990b; 97(1): 22-24.; CRUZ et al., 2003Cruz C, Vaz A, Saraiva A. Occurrence of Kudoa sp. (Myxozoa) in Trachurus trachurus L. (Osteichthyes) in Portugal. Parasite 2003; 10(2): 165-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2003102165. PMid:12847925.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/20031...
). Gilman & Eiras (1998)Gilman MM, Eiras JC. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting (Walb., 1792) off the Portuguese coast. KudoaSardina pilchardusRes Rev Parasitol 1998; 58(2): 135-137. showed that this parasite is responsible for the rejection of large quantities of fish by the canning industry. This type of infection, and infection with related species, is impossible to fight and may have serious economic consequences in the exploitation of wild stocks of some species (see MORAN et al., 1999Moran JDW, Whitaker DJ, Kent ML. A review of the myxosporean genus Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947, and its impact on the international aquaculture industry and commercial fisheries. Aquaculture 1999; 17(1-2): 163-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00437-2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(98)...
).

Nematodes are another extremely important group of parasites, especially those with a zoonotic potential (Anisakis spp., Hysterothylacium spp. and Contracaecum spp.). This problem will be discussed further on.

In Madeira, 61 parasites were reported infecting 19 hosts. However, most of the parasites were found in only four host species, i.e., Trachurus picturatus, Aphanopus carbo, Pagellus bogaraveo and Scomber japonicus, all of them species of high economic value. Once again, it was easier to obtain funding to study these valuable species. Nematodes were the most prevalent parasites, followed by cestodes, monogenea and digenea. It should be noted that most of the findings on fish parasites in Madeira are mainly due to the work of Costa G. et al. (1996Costa G, Eiras JC, Chubb J, MacKenzie K, Berland B. Parasites of the black scabbard fish, Lowe, 1839 from Madeira. Aphanopus carboBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1996; 16(1): 13-16., 1998Costa G, Lom J, Andrade C, Barradas R. First report of (Protozoa: Myxosporea) and the occurrence of epitheliocystis in cultured sea bream, . Ceratomyxa sparusauratiSparus aurata L. from MadeiraBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1998; 18(5): 165-167., 2000Costa G, Chubb JC, Veltkamp CJ. Cystacanths of Bolbosoma vasculosum in the black scabbard fish Aphanopus carbo, oceanic horse mackerel and common dolphin from Madeira, Portugal. Trachurus picturatusDelphinus delphisJ Helminthol 2000; 74(2): 113-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S022149X00000159. PMid:10881281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S022149X000001...
, 2003aCosta G, Pontes T, Mattiucci S, D’Amélio S. The occurrence and infection dynamics of larvae in the black-scabbard fish, , chub mackerel, . AnisakisAphanopus carboScomber japonicus, and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus from Madeira, PortugalJ Helminthol 2003a; 77(2): 163-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156. PMid:12756070.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/JOH2002156...
, bCosta G, Veltkamp CJ, Chubb JC. Larval trypanorhynchs (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from black-scabbard fish, and oceanic horse mackerel, . Aphanopus carboTrachurus picturatus in Madeira (Portugal)Parasite 2003b; 10(4): 325-331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2003104325. PMid:14710629.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/20031...
, 2004aCosta G, Madeira A, Pontes T, D’Amélio S. Anisakid nematodes of the blackspot seabream, from Madeiran waters, Portugal. Pagellus bogaraveo,Acta Parasitol 2004a; 49(2): 156-151., bCosta G, Pontes T, Rego AA. Prevalence, intensity and abundance of Rhadinorhynchus pristis (Acanthocephala, Rhadinorhynchidae) in chub mackerel, (Pisces, Scombridae) from Madeira Island. Scomber japonicusActa Parasitol 2004b; 49(1): 41-44., 2007Costa G, Freitas N, Dellinger TH, MacKenzie K. Gill monogeneans of the chub mackerel, from Madeiran waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal. Scomber japonicusJ Helminthol 2007; 81(1): 33-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207333. PMid:17381864.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07207...
, 2009aCosta G, Freitas N, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAA, Melo-Moreira E, Rigby MC. (Nematoda, Camallanidae) from the chub mackerel, . Oncophora melanocephalaScomber japonicus (Teleostei, Scombridae), caught off Madeira Island (Portugal)Acta Parasitol 2009a; 54(3): 253-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-009-0032-4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-009-003...
, bCosta G, Santos MJ, Costa L, Biscoito M, Pinheiro de Carvalho MAAP, Melo-Moreira E. Helminth parasites from the stomach of conger eel, , from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean. Conger congerJ Parasitol 2009b; 95(4): 1013-1015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1. PMid:20050008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1760.1...
, 2012Costa FO, Landi M, Martins R, Costa MH, Costa ME, Carneiro M, et al. A ranking system for reference libraries of DNA Barcodes: application to marine fish species from Portugal. PLoS One 2012; 7(4): e35858. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035858. PMid:22558244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0...
, 2013aCosta G, Khadem M, Silva S, Moreira EM, D’Amélio S. Endohelminth parasites of the blacktail comber (Pisces: Serranidae), from Madeira Archipelago (Atlantic Ocean). Serranus atricaudaDis Aquat Organ 2013a; 103(1): 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02564. PMid:23482385.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02564...
, bCosta G, Santamaria MTG, Vasconcelos J, Perera CB, Melo-Moreira E. Endoparasites of (Pisces: Carangidae) from the Madeira and Canary Islands: selecting parasites for use as tags. Trachurus picturatusSci Mar 2013b; 77(1): 61-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03707.07A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03707.0...
, 2014Costa G, Chada T, Melo-Moreira E, Cavallero S, D’Amélio S. Endohelminth parasites of the leafscale gulper shark, (Bonnaterre, 1788) (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae) off Madeira Archipelago. Centrophorus squamosusActa Parasitol 2014; 59(2): 316-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-014-0247-x. PMid:24827105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-014-024...
, 2016Costa G, Khadem M, Dellinger T, Biscoito M, Melo-Moreira E. Larval cestodes infecting the deep-water fish (Pisces: Bythitidae) from Madeira Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean. Cataetyx laticepsActa Parasitol 2016; 61(1): 187-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0025. PMid:27149705.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0025...
), and also of Hermida et al. (2008Hermida M, Saraiva A, Cruz C. Metazoan parasite community of a European eel (Anguilla anguilla) population from an estuary in Portugal. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2008; 28(1): 35-40., 2012aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Distribution of (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of . Hatschekia pagellibogneraveiPagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, PortugalFolia Parasitol (Praha) 2012a; 59(2): 148-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2012.020. PMid:22779115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2012.020...
, bHermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
, 2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
, 2015Hermida M, Pereira A, Correia AT, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters. Trachurus picturatusJ Helminthol 2015; 90(4): 410-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000504. PMid:26121918.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000...
), Santos et al. (2009)Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
and Oliva et al. (2008)Oliva ME, Valdivia IM, Costa G, Freitas N, Carvalho MAP, Sánchez L, et al. What can metazoan parasites reveal about the taxonomy of Houttuyn in the coast of South America and Madeira Islands? Scomber japonicusJ Fish Biol 2008; 72(3): 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01725.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.20...
.

An interesting issue that was addressed was the use of parasites as biological tags for the discrimination of Aphanopus carbo fish stocks from mainland Portugal, Madeira and Azores. The results of this cooperative research involving several institutions suggested that 6 parasites (Tentacularia coryphaenae, Sphyriocephalus tergestinus, Campbelliella heteropoeciloacantha, Anisakis spp., Bolbosoma vasculosum and unidentified Acanthocephala larvae) can be used as biological tags to discriminate Aphanopus carbo stocks from Portugal (SANTOS et al., 2009Santos MJ, Saraiva A, Cruz C, Eiras JC, Hermida M, Ventura C, et al. Use of parasites as biological tags in stock identification of black scabbardfish, Lowe, 1839 (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae) from Portuguese waters. Aphanopus carboSci Mar 2009; 73(S2): 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73s2055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2009.73...
). This study illustrates the usefulness of several institutions cooperating to solve an interesting biological problem of potential economic interest, and parasites can probably be used for similar purposes involving other fish species.

Surprisingly, the 29 parasite species reported for the Azores (excluding Argulus foliaceus described in freshwater fish) were detected in only three marine host species – Aphanopus carbo (21 parasites), Pagellus bogaraveo (6) and Helicolenus dactylopterus (2) – Hermida et al. (2013aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Ectoparasites of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese waters of the north-east Atlantic. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 2013a; 93(2): 503-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000057.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315412000...
, bHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters. Sci Mar 2013b; 77(4): 607-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.17A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/scimar.03859.1...
, 2014)Hermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Gastrointestinal helminth communities of the blackspot seabream Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Portuguese north-east Atlantic waters. J Helminthol 2014; 88(2): 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X1200079X. PMid:23182041.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X12000...
, Hermida et al. (2012aHermida M, Cruz C, Saraiva A. Distribution of (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of . Hatschekia pagellibogneraveiPagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, PortugalFolia Parasitol (Praha) 2012a; 59(2): 148-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2012.020. PMid:22779115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2012.020...
, bHermida M, Mota R, Pacheco CC, Santos CL, Cruz C, Saraiva A, et al. Infection levels and diversity of anisakid nematodes in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Portuguese waters. Parasitol Res 2012b; 110(5): 1919-1928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-2718-4. PMid:22139402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-011-271...
, 2013). Furthermore, the papers by Hermida and Hermida et al. resulted from her PhD studies on the parasites of P. bogaraveo. This means that research on fish parasites in the Azores is practically nonexistent, in spite of the great diversity of fishes, and the marked economic importance of the fish in Azorean waters. This is a research field that obviously needs the attention of researchers from the central and local Fisheries authorities and from the academic sector.

According to Almaça (1996)Almaça C. Peixes dos rios de Portugal. Lisboa: Inapa Press; 1996., there are 36 freshwater fish species in Portugal, most of them belonging to the family Cyprinidae (19 species). Research on fish parasites has focused only on ten fish species, resulting in the detection of 51 different parasites, 26 of which are described in Anguilla anguilla. This does not necessarily mean that this eel is more infected than other host species, but simply reflects a greater research effort directed towards this species, possibly because the economic potential of this host is greater than that of others. However, in general, the economic importance of Portugal’s freshwater fishes is very low, and professional fisheries are almost nonexistent, with a few exceptions in some reservoirs and in major rivers.

The number of parasites detected so far is very small and, interestingly, the myxozoans are the most abundant parasites reported considering the number of species, a result that is in large part due to the paper by Molnár et al. (2012)Molnár K, Eszterbauer E, Marton S, Székely C, Eiras JC. Comparison of the fauna of common barbel from Hungary and Iberian barbel from Portugal. MyxobolusDis Aquat Organ 2012; 100(3): 231-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469. PMid:22968791.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02469...
about the myzozoans of Luciobarbus bocagei. Some species that occur in the wild may be dangerous in the case of fish farming, namely eel farming (especially Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae, P. bini, Anguillicola crassus and several species of crustaceans, namely Lernaea cyprinacea).

Most of the papers concerning freshwater fish were produced for academic purposes, and there are no major research projects on the parasites of freshwater fish. On the other hand, practically all the data pertaining to hosts were collected in the north of the country, mostly in the vicinity of Porto, and only fragmentary data are available about hosts from the country’s center and southern regions. Clearly, an integrated study should be conducted comprising the diversity of parasites and their geographic distribution, and host-parasite relationships – this could easily be done given the small number of host species, the facility of sampling by electrofishing and net fishing, and the small size of the country. The costs involved would not be high, and a number of qualified researchers with broad experience in the field would ensure the success of such a project.

The importance of fish parasites in fish farming stems from to the injuries and mortality rates they can cause on farmed species. Fish farming is scantily developed in Portugal, and the number of parasites described in aquaculture facilities is very low, i.e., only 25 different species. Some of them are not particularly dangerous and do not require special care. However, some are very important for the fish farmer and may, in favorable conditions, pose a threat to exploitation if adequate measures are not taken in time. The abundance of those species requires continuous monitoring in order to deploy adequate disinfection procedures to keep infection rates at levels that do not interfere with the survival of the hosts.

Several parasites have been linked to abnormal mortality rates in fish farming in this country. The monogeneans Microcotyle sp., Lamellodiscus ignoratus and the ciliate Trichodina sp. caused mortality in Sparus aurata, mostly in association with poor environmental conditions involving the penetration of freshwater into marine aquaculture premises, which led to a decrease in the salinity of the water. At several trout farms, the monogenean Gyrodactylus sp. caused mortality in spring and summer due to the increase in water temperature. Yearly high mortality rates have been caused by Amyloodinium ocellatum in farmed Diplodus sargus, D. vulgaris, D. puntazzo and Solea senegalensis in spring and summer owing to high water temperatures. Ciliates belonging to the order Philateridae caused high mortality rates in Scophthalmus maximus (RAMOS et al., 2007Ramos MF, Costa AR, Barandela T, Saraiva A, Rodrigues PN. Scuticociliate infection and pathology in cultured turbot from the north of Portugal. Scophthalmus maximusDis Aquat Organ 2007; 74(3): 249-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao074249. PMid:17465310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao074249...
).

The ciliate Icthyophthirius multifiliis is considered to be possibly the most important ectoparasite in freshwater fish farming, and has been reported in all the freshwater fish farms in the country, causing White Spot Disease. Despite the high mortality levels this ectoparasite may cause, monitoring of the fish and adequate prophylactic measures are usually the means to prevent high economic losses. However, several cases of mortality have been observed in Oncorhynchus mykiss (EIRAS, unpublished observations) and Anguilla anguilla, and stressed O. mykiss were reported by Ventura & Paperna (1985)Ventura MT, Paperna I. Histopathology of infections in fishes. Ichthyophthirius multifiliisJ Fish Biol 1985; 27(2): 185-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1985.tb04020.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.19...
. Another case of mortality was observed in the marine fish Coris julis due to infection by Amyloodinium ocellatum (MENEZES, 1992Menezes J. Hazards from pathogens carried by wild fish particularly wrasse used as lice cleaners. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 1992; 12(6): 194-195.).

Some observations have revealed that parasites may adversely affect several organs of farmed fish, and this problem requires particular attention because of the lesions they produce. This is the case of Diplectanum aequans and Caligus minimus, which have been found to contribute to severe histological gill alterations in farmed Dicentrarchus labrax (SARAIVA et al., 2015ab), and of Myxidium giardi, which cause pathological lesions in the kidney of elvers (VENTURA & PAPERNA, 1984Ventura MT, Paperna I. Histopathology of Cépède, 1906 infection in European eels, L., in Portugal. Myxidium giardiAnguilla anguillaAquaculture 1984; 43(4): 357-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(84)90244-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(84)9...
).

It should be noted that Lepeophtheirus salmonis, the “salmon louse,” has been detected in wild Salmo trutta in Minho catchment (BAO et al., 2016Bao M, Costal D, Garci ME, Pascual S, Hastie LC. Sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonisLernaea cyprinacea) found on sea trout (Salmo trutta) and anchor worms (. ) in the River Minho catchment, an important area for conservation in NW SpainAquatic Conserv: Mar Freshw Ecosyst 2016; 26(2): 386-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2572.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2572...
). The importance of this parasite, which causes heavy losses especially in net-cage farmed Salmo salar (COSTELLO, 2009Costello MJ. The global economic cost of sea lice to the salmonid farming industry. J Fish Dis 2009; 32(1): 115-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2008.01011.x. PMid:19245636.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.20...
; SKILBREI et al., 2013Skilbrei OT, Finstad B, Urdal K, Bakke G, Kroglund F, Strand R. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, L., smolts 1997-2009. Salmo salarJ Fish Dis 2013; 36(3): 249-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12052. PMid:23311746.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12052...
), is well known and must be taken into consideration in future farms of the host.

Overall, it can be stated that, despite the occurrence of some cases of mortality, the influence of parasites in Portuguese fish farming is negligible. This is due to the scanty development of fish farming in the country and to the action of the fish-farmers who monitor farm premises constantly in order to adopt the necessary measures to prevent parasite outbreaks. For a general overview of the influence of parasites on fish farms, see Eiras (1994)Eiras JC. Elementos de Ictioparasitologia. Porto: Fundação Eng. António de Almeida; 1994. and Carvalho Varela (2005)Carvalho Varela M. Parasitas e parasitoses em piscicultura. Lisboa: Ordem dos Médicos Veterinários; 2005..

As stated earlier, a large number of hosts were infected by potentially zoonotic nematodes (Anisakis spp., Hysterothylacium spp. and Contracaecum spp.) at all the sampling sites. The problem of human infection by fish nematodes in Portugal was discussed by Carvalho Varela & Cunha Ferreira (1984), Ramos (1998Ramos P. sp.: um risco para a Saúde Pública? AnisakisVeter Técnica 1998; 3: 30-41., 2011Ramos P. Anisakis spp. em bacalhau, sushi, e sashimi: risco de infecção parasitária e alergia. Rev Port Cienc Vet 2011; 106(577-580): 87-97.), Rombert (1993)Rombert PC. Anisakiose humana. Acta Parasitol Port 1993; 1(1): 45-47., Silva & Eiras (2003)Silva MER, Eiras JC. Occurrence of s sp. in fishes off the Portuguese West Coast and evaluation of its zoonotic potential. AnisakiBull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 2003; 23(1): 13-17., Nunes et al. (2003)Nunes C, Ladeira S, Mergulhão A. Alergia ao na população portuguesa. Anisakis simplexRev Port Imunoalergol 2003; 11: 30-40. and Bao et al. (2015)Bao M, Mota M, Nachón DJ, Antunes C, Cobo F, Garci ME, et al. infection in allis shad, . AnisakisAlosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), from Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers: zoonotic and ecological implicationsParasitol Res 2015; 114(6): 2143-2154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4403-5. PMid:25810220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-440...
. Human infection is acquired by ingesting raw or poorly cooked fish, and infections have different symptomatologies according to the nematodes ingested. The symptoms of infection are often difficult to recognize because they are similar to those of other diseases.

As far as the author knows, there are no notified cases of human infections by fish nematodes in Portugal. However, Nunes et al. (2003)Nunes C, Ladeira S, Mergulhão A. Alergia ao na população portuguesa. Anisakis simplexRev Port Imunoalergol 2003; 11: 30-40. found 8 individuals showing specific antibodies to Anisakis simplex in the bloodstream. It must be kept in mind that allergic reactions to Anisakis, including anaphylaxis, may occur even when properly cooked fish is ingested (AUDICANA et al., 2002Audicana MT, Ansotegui IJ, Corres LE, Kennedy MW. dangerous – dead and alive? Anisakis simplex:Trends Parasitol 2002; 18(1): 20-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1471-4922(01)02152-3. PMid:11850010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1471-4922(01)...
). Portuguese dishes do not usually include raw fish. However, “sushi” and “sashimi” restaurants, which have become “fashionable,” can be considered places that pose a probable risk factor for infection (RAMOS, 2011Ramos P. Anisakis spp. em bacalhau, sushi, e sashimi: risco de infecção parasitária e alergia. Rev Port Cienc Vet 2011; 106(577-580): 87-97.).

Our data indicate that infection of fish by zoonotic nematodes is frequent in Portuguese waters, and we agree with the opinion of the European Food Safety Authorithy, which considers that “All wild caught seawater and freshwater fish must be considered at risk of containing any viable parasites of human health concern if these products are to be eaten raw or almost raw” (EFSA, 2010EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) – EFSA. Scientific Opinion on risk assessment of parasites in fishery products. EFSA Journal 2010; 8(4): 1543. http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1543.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.15...
). More particularly, “For wild-caught fish, no sea fishing grounds can be considered free of A. simplex” (EFSA, 2010EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) – EFSA. Scientific Opinion on risk assessment of parasites in fishery products. EFSA Journal 2010; 8(4): 1543. http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1543.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.15...
). Furthermore, all fish species should be considered potentially dangerous and processed accordingly for human consumption. Therefore, some precautions should be adopted to prevent infection and we suggest following the recommendations of the US Food and Drug Administration for consumption of raw fish (US Food and Drug Administration, 2011US Food and Drug Administration. Fish and fisheries products: hazards and controls guidance [online]. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.; 2011 [cited 2016 May 01]. Available from: www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/GuidanceRegulation/UCM251970.pdf.).

Conclusions

  1. 1

    The studies of fish parasites in Portugal (mainland, and the archipelagos of Madeira and Azores) have been developed mostly over the last three decades. A total of 180 parasite species of marine fish have been reported in the mainland coastal waters, 52 in Madeira, 29 in the Azores, 52 in freshwater fish in the mainland, and 22 in farmed fish. This means that the great majority of fish species have never been studied from the parasitological point of view.

  2. 2

    Knowledge about parasitic protists is very scanty when it comes to metazoan parasites, and this is gap that must be filled.

  3. 3

    Most of the studies on marine fish have involved only important commercial species. The parasite fauna in other species are mostly unknown.

  4. 4

    Most of the studies on freshwater parasites have involved Anguilla anguilla, while the parasites of the majority of freshwater fish species have never been studied.

  5. 5

    A number of nematodes with zoonotic potential are common parasites in marine fish in mainland coastal waters, Madeira and Azores. This fact must be taken into account when cooking fish, and the consumption of raw or undercooked fish should be avoided.

Acknowledgements

This paper was partially funded by the “European Regional Development Fund” (ERDF) through the Operational Competitiveness Programme and National Funds – COMPETE via FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, under the project “Pest-C/MAR/LA0015/2013”. The author is indebted to several colleagues who assisted him in the bibliographical research: Aurélia Saraiva, Cristina Cruz, Graça Costa, Ken MacKenzie, Margarida Hermida, Maria João Santos. He is also grateful to the journal Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária – RBPV for offering to publish this review.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Sept 2016

History

  • Received
    16 May 2016
  • Accepted
    20 July 2016
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