Nematodes of Astyanax fasciatus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) and their parasitic indices in the São Francisco river, Brazil

Nematoides de Astyanax fasciatus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) e seus índices parasitários do rio São Francisco, Brasil

Flavia Guerra Vieira-Menezes Danielle Priscilla Correia Costa Marilia Carvalho Brasil-Sato About the authors

Abstract

The endoparasite fauna of Astyanax fasciatus from the upper São Francisco river was investigated and ecological parameters and morphological and morphometric data on the parasites are presented. A total of 74 specimens of banded astyanax were collected downstream from the Três Marias dam, municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais (18°12’32”S, 45°15’41”W) in January 2011 and January 2012. Eleven taxa of Nematoda were found: Contracaecum sp.; Hysterothylacium sp.; Goezia sp.; Brevimulticaecum sp.; Procamallanus sp.; Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) saofranciscencis; Cystidicoloides sp.; Spinitectus rodolphiheringi; Rhabdochona sp.; Spiroxys sp.; and Eustrongylides sp.. The fauna of A. fasciatus consisted of by larval specimens of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Cystidicoloides sp., and Spiroxys sp., and by adult specimens of P. saofranciscencis, whose prevalence was greater than 10%. Thus, this fish acts as an intermediate host of some species of larval nematodes especially, Anisakidae and Acanthocheilidae (Brevimulticaecum sp., new host record and new locality). It participates in transmitting species such Rhabdochona sp. to carnivorous fish and also acts as a definitive host for P. saofranciscencis and S. rodolphiheringi in the upper São Francisco river.

Keywords:
Anisakidae; Brevimulticaecum sp.; endoparasites; nematodes

Resumo

A fauna endoparasitária de Astyanax fasciatus do alto rio São Francisco foi investigada e os parâmetros ecológicos e os dados morfométricos e morfológicos dos parasitos apresentados. Um total de 74 espécimes de lambaris foi coletado à jusante da barragem de Três Marias, município de Três Marias, Minas Gerais (18°12’32”S, 45°15’41”W), em janeiro de 2011 e de 2012. Onze táxons de Nematoda foram encontrados: Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Goezia sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Procamallanus sp., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) saofranciscencis, Cystidicoloides sp., Spinitectus rodolphiheringi, Rhabdochona sp., Spiroxys sp. e Eustrongylides sp.. A fauna de A. fasciatus foi caracterizada por espécimes larvais de Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Cystidicoloides sp., Spiroxys sp. e por espécimes adultos de P. saofranciscencis, cuja prevalência foi maior que 10%. Assim, o lambari atua como hospedeiro intermediário de algumas espécies de nematoides larvais, especialmente, Anisakidae e Acanthocheilidae (Brevimulticaecum sp., novos hospedeiro e localidade); participa na transmissão de espécies como Rhabdochona sp., para peixes carnívoros, e atua também como hospedeiro definitivo para P. saofranciscencis e S. rodolphiheringi no alto Rio São Francisco.

Palavras-chave:
Anisakidae; Brevimulticaecum sp.; endoparasitos; nematoides

Introduction

Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) is popularly known as the banded astyanax and it is an abundant species in several drainage basins in the Americans (FROESE & PAULY, 2013Froese R, Pauly D, editors. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication [online]. 2013 [cited 2013 Jan 8]. Available from: http://www.fishbase.org
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). It is classified as a foraging species, and it is well distributed along the São Francisco river (BUCKUP et al., 2007Buckup PA, Menezes NA, Ghazzi MS. Catálogo das espécies de água doce do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Museu Nacional; 2007.), serving as an important food source for larger fish. Although banded astyanax do not have significant commercial value, they are often eaten as snacks, especially by the riverine population, and they are also used as bait for sport fishing (SANTOS et al., 1995Santos RA, Giamas MTD, Campos EC, Camara JJC, Vermulm H Jr. Dinâmica da nutrição do Tambiú Astyanax bimaculatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces, Characiformes, Characidae), na Represa de Ibitinga, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Bol Inst Pesca 1995; 22(1): 115-124.).

Larval specimens of Spiroxys sp. were found in A. fasciatus in Mexico (MORAVEC, 1998Moravec F. Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical Region. Praha: Academia; 1998.). With regard to the same host species on the Nicaraguan coast, Aguirre-Macedo et al. (2001)Aguirre-Macedo ML, Scholz T, Gozález-Solís D, Vidal-Martínez VM, Posel P, Arjona-Torres G, et al. Larval helminths parasitizing freshwater fishes from the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua. Comp Parasitol 2001; 68(1): 42-51. identified larvae of Brevimulticaecum sp., Contracaecum sp. and Spiroxys sp. Subsequently, Salgado-Maldonado (2008)Salgado-Maldonado G. Helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from Central America. Zootaxa 2008; 1915: 29-53. also discovered Procamallanus neocaballeroi (Caballero-Deloya, 1977) and Procamallanus rebecae (Andrade-Salas, Pineda-López, & García-Magaña, 1994) in Central America.

In the upper São Francisco river, Moreira et al. (1994)Moreira NIB, Oliveira CL, Costa HMA. Spirocamallanus inopinatus (Travasso, Artigas & Pereira, 1928) e . Spirocamallanus saofranciscensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Camallanidae) em peixes da represa de Três MariasArq Bras Med Vet Zootec 1994; 46(5): 485-500. recorded occurrences of larvae of Contracaecum sp. and described Procamallanus saofranciscencis (Moreira et al., 1994Moreira NIB, Oliveira CL, Costa HMA. Spirocamallanus inopinatus (Travasso, Artigas & Pereira, 1928) e . Spirocamallanus saofranciscensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Camallanidae) em peixes da represa de Três MariasArq Bras Med Vet Zootec 1994; 46(5): 485-500.) in A. fasciatus. Brasil-Sato (2003)Brasil-Sato MC. Parasitos de peixes da bacia do São Francisco. In: Godinho HP, Godinho AL. Águas, peixes e pescadores do São Francisco das Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte: PUC Minas; 2003. p. 149-165. further listed occurrences of several species of adult parasitic nematodes in fish in the São Francisco river basin: Cosmoxynema vianai Travassos, 1948; Cosmoxynemoides aguirrei Travassos, 1948; Cucullanus pinnai Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; Neocucullanus neocucullanus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; Procamallanus freitasi Moreira, Oliveira & Costa, 1991; Procamallanus inopinatus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; P. saofranciscencis, Rondonia rondoni Travassos, 1920; Travassosnema travassosi Costa, Moreira & Oliveira, 1991; Travnema araujoi Fernandes, Campos & Artigas, 1983; and Travnema travnema Pereira, 1928. Larval specimens of several nematode species were also listed by Brasil-Sato (op. cit.): Contracaecum sp., Cucullanus sp., Dichelyne sp., Eustrongylides sp., Goezia sp., Hysterothylacium sp. and Philometra sp. In addition, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MD, Albuquerque MC, Monteiro CM, Martins NA, Ederli NB, Brasil-Sato MC. First report of larval sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae) in three species of carnivorous fish from Três Marias Reservoir, São Francisco River, Brazil. SpiroxysPanam J Aquat Sci 2009; 4(3): 306-311. identified larval specimens of Spiroxys sp. in three species of carnivorous fish: Pygocentrus piraya (Cuvier, 1819); Serrasalmus brandtii Lütken, 1875; and Cichla kelberi Kullander & Ferreira, 2006), in the Três Marias Reservoir. Finally, larval specimens of Rhabdochona sp. were found in Conorhynchos conirostris Valenciennes, 1840, by Brasil-Sato & Santos (2005)Brasil-Sato MC, Santos MD. Metazoan parasites of (Valenciennes, 1840), an endemic siluriform fish of the São Francisco Basin, Brazil. Conorhynchos conirostrisRev Bras Parasitol Vet 2005; 14(4): 160-166. PMid:16445873..

The aims of this study were to investigate parasitism in A. fasciatus and contribute towards enriching knowledge of the ichthyoparasitology of the São Francisco river. Thus, it had the specific objectives of recording the species of parasitic nematodes of banded astyanax and also measuring their parasitic parameters (prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance).

Materials and Methods

A total of 74 specimens of A. fasciatus were provided by technical staff of thee regional development company CODEVASF in Três Marias, Minas Gerais, under authorization from the State Forestry Institute of Minas Gerais (IEF-MG). These fish were collected in the upper São Francisco river, located in the municipality of Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais (18°12’32”S, 45°15’41”W) in January 2011 and January 2012. The host necropsies and parasite processing procedures followed Eiras et al. (2006)Eiras JC, Takemoto RM, Pavanelli GC. Métodos de estudo e técnicas laboratoriais em parasitologia de peixes. 2. ed. Maringá: Eduem; 2006.. The parasitological descriptors used were those prescribed by Bush et al. (1997)Bush AO, Lafferty KD, Lotz JM, Shostak AW. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J Parasitol 1997; 83(4): 575-583. PMid:9267395. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3284227.
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. Nematode measurements are presented in millimeters. The measurement ranges are presented in the results tables, and these values are followed by the means and their respective standard deviations. Morphometry was ascertained using a Nikon Alphaphot-2 microscope with a calibrated reticle coupled to the ocular lens. Parasite voucher specimens were deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC), state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A numbering system was used, as indicated in the results (Table 1). The host voucher specimen was deposited in the Fish of the Museum, University of São Paulo (MZUSP, 95161), state of São Paulo, Brazil.

Table 1
Prevalence (%), mean intensity (MI), mean abundance (MA), and their respective standard deviations (SD), followed by amplitude (A), importance of values (IV), and site of infection for nematodes found in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) of the upper São Francisco river, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Results and Discussion

The parasite fauna of A. fasciatus consisted of eleven nematode species, which are presented in Table 1 with their respective parasitic indeces. Nine species were represented by larval specimens and had characterized A. fasciatus as a noteworthy intermediate host in their parasitic cycles. Five species (Brevimulticaecum sp., Contracaecum sp., Cystidicoloides sp., Hysterothylacium sp. and Spiroxys sp.) out of these nine in the larval stage presented prevalence higher than 10%. Two nematode species were represented by adult specimens: Spinitectus rodolphiheringi Vaz & Pereira, 1934 and P. saofranciscencis. For these A. fasciatus was characterized as the definitive host. The prevalence of P. saofranciscencis was higher than 10%.

The results from the morphometric analysis, i.e. characterization of the peculiarities of nematode species identified in A. fasciatus in this study, are shown in Tables 2 -5. Exceptionally, the data on Goezia sp. were based on a single specimen (n = 1; P = 1.35%) that was found in the stomach. Its measurements in millimeters (length × width) were as follows: body, 1.723 × 0.105; esophagus, 0.208 × 0.025; ventriculus, 0.028 × 0.025; nerve ring from the anterior extremity, 0.108; spines of the ventricular appendix region, 0.005; distance between the ring spines of the ventricular appendix region, 0.006; ventricular appendix, 0.743; cecum appendix, 0.088; and tail, 0.058. In the same region of Brazil, Santos-Clapp & Brasil-Sato (2014)Santos-Clapp MD, Brasil-Sato MC. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2014; 23(3): 367-374. PMid:25271458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612014059.
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also observed larvae of Goezia sp. in C. kelberi, showing low prevalence (1.8%). Four species have been described in Brazil: G. spinulosa in Arapaima gigas from Mexiana Island, Amazon river, state of Pará (SANTOS & MORAVEC, 2009Santos CP, Moravec F. Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae), a pathogenic parasite of the arapaima (Osteichthyes). Arapaima gigasFolia Parasitol (Praha) 2009; 56(1): 55-63. PMid:19391331. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2009.009.
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) and from the Araguaia river, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MENEZES et al., 2011Menezes RC, Santos SMC, Ceccarelli PS, Tavares LER, Tortelly R, Luque JL. Tissue alterations in the pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, infected by (Nematoda). Goezia spinulosaRev Bras Parasitol Vet 2011; 20(3): 207-209. PMid:21961749. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612011000300005.
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); Astronotus ocellatus, Micropterus salmoides and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans from the Araguaia and Amazon rivers (Pará) (MORAVEC, 1998Moravec F. Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical Region. Praha: Academia; 1998.); G. brasiliensis in the characid Brycon hilarii and in Pseudoplatystoma corruscans from the Paraná river, Foz do Iguaçú and G. brevicaeca in Brycon hilarii from the Paraná river, Foz do Iguaçú (MORAVEC et al., 1994Moravec F, Kohn A, Fernandes BMM. Two new species of the genus Goezia, G. brasiliensis sp. n. and sp. n. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), from freshwater fishes in Brazil. G. brevicaecaFolia Parasitol (Praha) 1994; 41(4): 271-278. PMid:7883259.; MORAVEC, 1998Moravec F. Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical Region. Praha: Academia; 1998.); and G. leporini in Leporinus macrocephalus from Batatais, state of São Paulo (MARTINS & YOSHITOSHI, 2003Martins ML, Yoshitoshi ER. A new nematode species n. sp. (Anisakidae) from cultured freshwater fish (Anostomidae) in Brazil. Goezia leporiniLeporinus macrocephalusBraz J Biol 2003; 63(3): 497-506. PMid:14758709. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842003000300016.
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).

Table 2
Morphometry of the larval specimens of the Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., and Brevimulticaecum sp. in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) of the upper São Francisco river, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Table 3
Morphometry of Procamallanus saofranciscencis Moreira, Oliveira & Costa, 1994 (male and female specimens) and Procamallanus sp. (larval specimens) in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) of the upper São Francisco river, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Table 4
Morphometry of larval specimens of Cystidicoloides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Spiroxys sp. in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) of the upper São Francisco river, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Table 5
Morphometry of Spinitectus rodolphiheringi Vaz & Pereira, 1934 (male, female, and juvenile specimens) in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) of the upper São Francisco river, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Differing from our study, Santos & Moravec (2009)Santos CP, Moravec F. Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae), a pathogenic parasite of the arapaima (Osteichthyes). Arapaima gigasFolia Parasitol (Praha) 2009; 56(1): 55-63. PMid:19391331. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2009.009.
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and Martins & Yoshitoshi (2003)Martins ML, Yoshitoshi ER. A new nematode species n. sp. (Anisakidae) from cultured freshwater fish (Anostomidae) in Brazil. Goezia leporiniLeporinus macrocephalusBraz J Biol 2003; 63(3): 497-506. PMid:14758709. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842003000300016.
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found high prevalences of adults and larvae in the species G. spinulosa (90%) and G. leporini (65%), respectively. Massive presence of these species gives rise to attacks mainly on the stomach, causing gross lesions and high mortality among the fish.

With regard to S. rodolphiheringi, one male, one female, and one juvenile were found in A. fasciatus. Their measurements and features were in line with what was reported by Moravec (1998)Moravec F. Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical Region. Praha: Academia; 1998.. In the São Francisco river, adult specimens of S. rodolphiheringi were found in Franciscodoras marmoratus (Reinhardt, 1874) (SANTOS & BRASIL-SATO, 2004Santos MD, Brasil-Sato MC. Parasitos metazoários de (Reinhardt, 1874), “serrudo” (Siluriformes: Doradidae) do rio São Francisco, Brasil. Franciscodoras marmoratusRev Bras Parasitol Vet 2004; 13(1): 18-22.). Thus, the presence of adult specimens of S. rodolphiheringi in A. fasciatus increases the list of known hosts in the São Francisco basin.

In this study, the features of P. saofranciscencis specimens in A. fasciatus, as well as their measurements, were equivalent to what was presented by Moravec (1998)Moravec F. Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical Region. Praha: Academia; 1998.. Procamallanus saofranciscencis was identified in fish of the families Characidae (VICENTE & PINTO, 1999Vicente JJ, Pinto RM. Nematóides do Brasil. Nematóides de peixes. Atualização: 1985-1998. Rev Bras Zool 1999; 16(3): 561-610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81751999000300001.
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) and Acestrorhynchidae (MOREIRA et al., 1994Moreira NIB, Oliveira CL, Costa HMA. Spirocamallanus inopinatus (Travasso, Artigas & Pereira, 1928) e . Spirocamallanus saofranciscensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Camallanidae) em peixes da represa de Três MariasArq Bras Med Vet Zootec 1994; 46(5): 485-500.) in the upper São Francisco river. Larval specimens of Procamallanus sp., which had already been identified in this basin, have also been found in Characidae (VICENTE & PINTO, 1999Vicente JJ, Pinto RM. Nematóides do Brasil. Nematóides de peixes. Atualização: 1985-1998. Rev Bras Zool 1999; 16(3): 561-610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81751999000300001.
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) and Pimelodidae (BRASIL-SATO & SANTOS, 2005Brasil-Sato MC, Santos MD. Metazoan parasites of (Valenciennes, 1840), an endemic siluriform fish of the São Francisco Basin, Brazil. Conorhynchos conirostrisRev Bras Parasitol Vet 2005; 14(4): 160-166. PMid:16445873.). Based on the presence of the larval specimens (Procamallanus sp.) and adults of P. saofranciscencis in A. fasciatus, it can be seen that this foraging fish takes part in the cycle of these species as intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, and this enlarges the list of hosts for this nematode group in the São Francisco basin.

Larval specimens of Cystidicoloides sp. had already been found in Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794) in the upper Paraná river by Takemoto et al. (2009)Takemoto RM, Pavanelli GC, Lizama MAP, Lacerda ACF, Yamada FH, Moreira LHA, et al. Diversity of parasites of fish from the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Braz J Biol 2009;69(S2 Suppl): 691-705. PMid:19738975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842009000300023.
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. Thus, A. fasciatus is a new host and enlarges the list of the known intermediate hosts of Cystidicoloides sp. in the São Francisco basin.

In this study, larval specimens of Rhabdochona sp. were also found in A. fasciatus. They had previously been found in C. conirostris by Brasil-Sato & Santos (2005)Brasil-Sato MC, Santos MD. Metazoan parasites of (Valenciennes, 1840), an endemic siluriform fish of the São Francisco Basin, Brazil. Conorhynchos conirostrisRev Bras Parasitol Vet 2005; 14(4): 160-166. PMid:16445873.. The results obtained in A. fasciatus in this study indicate that foraging fish play a role as intermediate hosts for some species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916, thus enlarging the list of hosts in the upper São Francisco river.

Larval specimens of Spiroxys sp. were identified in A. fasciatus in Mexico (Moravec, 1998Moravec F. Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical Region. Praha: Academia; 1998.). In the upper São Francisco river, Santos et al. (2009)Santos MD, Albuquerque MC, Monteiro CM, Martins NA, Ederli NB, Brasil-Sato MC. First report of larval sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae) in three species of carnivorous fish from Três Marias Reservoir, São Francisco River, Brazil. SpiroxysPanam J Aquat Sci 2009; 4(3): 306-311. and Santos-Clapp & Brasil-Sato (2014)Santos-Clapp MD, Brasil-Sato MC. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2014; 23(3): 367-374. PMid:25271458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612014059.
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reported occurrences of these larvae in the carnivorous fish Cichla kelberi Kulander & Ferreira, 2006). In the present study, these larvae were also found in A. fasciatus, thus showing that this fish acts as an intermediate host for these parasites.

The occurrences of larval specimens of Hysterothylacium sp., Eustrongylides sp. and Goezia sp. in A. fasciatus enlarges the list of hosts in the São Francisco river, especially given that occurrences of these species had already been identified in several families of fish in the upper São Francisco river (BRASIL-SATO, 2003Brasil-Sato MC. Parasitos de peixes da bacia do São Francisco. In: Godinho HP, Godinho AL. Águas, peixes e pescadores do São Francisco das Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte: PUC Minas; 2003. p. 149-165.; SANTOS-CLAPP & BRASIL-SATO, 2014Santos-Clapp MD, Brasil-Sato MC. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2014; 23(3): 367-374. PMid:25271458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612014059.
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).

Larvae of Brevimulticaecum sp. were first described in fish by Moravec et al. (1997)Moravec F, Prouza A, Royero R. Some nematodes of frehwater fishes in Venezuela. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 1997; 44(1): 33-47. PMid:9188173., but Bruce et al. (1994)Bruce NL, Adlard RD, Cannon LRG. Synoptic checklist of ascaridoid parasites (Nematoda) from fish hosts. Invertebr Taxon 1994; 8(3): 583-674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/IT9940583.
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asserted that fish rarely act as intermediate hosts for Brevimulticaecum sp. According to Moravec (1998)Moravec F. Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical Region. Praha: Academia; 1998., amphibians are intermediate hosts for Brevimulticaecum spp. and, as Bruce et al. (1994)Bruce NL, Adlard RD, Cannon LRG. Synoptic checklist of ascaridoid parasites (Nematoda) from fish hosts. Invertebr Taxon 1994; 8(3): 583-674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/IT9940583.
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stated, the most common definitive hosts are reptiles. In the Neotropical region (Peru, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Mexico, and Brazil), larvae have been found in the following fish species: A. fasciatus; Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (Valenciennes, 1839); Loricariichthys brunneus (Hancock, 1828); Leporinus elongatus Valenciennes, 1850; Leporinus lacustris Amaral Campos, 1945; L. friderici, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840); Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794); Myleus levis Eigenmann & McAtee, 1907; Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz, 1829); Pygocentrus nattereri (Cuvier, 1819); Serrasalmus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1837); Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801); and Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther, 1864) (MORAVEC, 1998Moravec F. Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical Region. Praha: Academia; 1998.; AGUIRRE-MACEDO et al., 2001Aguirre-Macedo ML, Scholz T, Gozález-Solís D, Vidal-Martínez VM, Posel P, Arjona-Torres G, et al. Larval helminths parasitizing freshwater fishes from the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua. Comp Parasitol 2001; 68(1): 42-51.; VIEIRA et al., 2010Vieira KRI, Vicentin W, Paiva F, Pozo CF, Borges FA, Adriano EA, et al. sp. (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae) larvae parasitic in freshwater fish in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. BrevimulticaecumVet Parasitol 2010; 172(3-4): 350-354. PMid:20684864. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.05.003.
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). Adult specimens of Brevimulticaecum regoi Sprent, 1990, were found in the rays Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841) and Potamotrygon castexi Castello & Yagolkowski, 1969, in southeastern Peru (REYDA, 2008Reyda FB. Intestinal helminths of freshwater stingrays in southeastern Peru, and a new genus and two new species of cestode. J Parasitol 2008; 94(3): 684-699. PMid:18605776. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1230.1.
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). The present study provides the first record of Brevimulticaecum sp. larvae parasitizing A. fasciatus, and this occurrence widens their known geographical distribution in the Neotropical region for the São Francisco river basin. The minimum and maximum values for the measurements on ten larval specimens of Brevimulticaecum sp., followed by their means and standard deviations, are presented in Table 2.

Conclusion

This study highlights occurrences of and quantitative data on eleven species of parasitic nematodes of A. fasciatus in the São Francisco river. The most prevalent species characterizing the nematodes fauna of A. fasciatus were, in larval form, Hysterothylacium sp. and Contracaecum sp., followed by Spiroxys sp., Cystidicoloides sp., and Brevimulticaecum sp; and, in adult form, P. saofranciscencis. Except for Contracaecum sp. and P. saofranciscencis, A. fasciatus represents a new host for these nematode species. These results aid in elucidating the biodiversity of parasites in fish in the Neotropical region; they also add to research projects under development in the São Francisco basin.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Dr Yoshimi Sato and Dr Edson Sampaio, researchers at the Hydrobiology and Fish-farming Station of CODEVASF, in Três Marias, Minas Gerais, for their assistance throughout the research process. The authors also wish to acknowledge the CEMIG/CODEVASF agreement that provided appropriate facilities for producing this article. “The first author was granted a fellowship by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, CNPq)”.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    06 Feb 2017
  • Date of issue
    Jan-Mar 2017

History

  • Received
    08 June 2016
  • Accepted
    19 Sept 2016
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