New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga

Novos registros de ácaros (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associados com morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) em dois biomas brasileiros: Pantanal e Caatinga

Juliana Cardoso de Almeida Mayara Almeida Martins Patrícia Gonçalves Guedes Adriano Lucio Peracchi Nicolau Maues Serra-Freire About the authors

Abstract

A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternusTrachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.

Keywords:
Periglischrus; Mesoperiglischrus; Cameronieta; Caatinga; Pantanal; Brazil

Resumo

Ácaros ectoparasitos de morcegos são reportados pela primeira vez para os Estados do Ceará e Mato Grosso. Os espécimes de morcegos com seus ectoparasitos foram coletados em áreas dos biomas Caatinga e Pantanal. Foi coletado o total de 450 espinturnicídeos representados por dois gêneros e dez espécies sobre 15 espécies de morcegos na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra das Almas, Ceará, Nordeste Brasileiro e em sete espécies de morcegos coletadas na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Centro-Oeste Brasileiro foram encontrados 138 espinturnicídeos representados por dois gêneros e quatro espécies. A ocorrência do gênero Cameronieta e da espécie Mesoperiglischrus natali, além de quatro novas associações (P. iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; Periglischrus micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternusTrachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

Palavras-chave:
Periglischrus; Mesoperiglischrus; Cameronieta; Caatinga; Pantanal; Brasil

Introduction

The family Spinturnicidae comprises hematophagous mites found exclusively on bats. These mites go through five life cycle stages, including the egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph, and adult. The egg and larval stages occur inside a pregnant female (RUDNICK, 1960Rudnick A. A revision of the mites of the family Spinturnicidae (Acarina). Univ Calif Publ Entomol 1960; 17(2): 157-284.), and, according to Almeida et al. (2015)Almeida JC, Serra-Freire NM, Perachhi AL. Anatomical location of Periglischrus iheringi (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with the great fruit-eating bat (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2015; 24(3): 361-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612015022. PMid:26331866.
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, nymph and adult mites mostly infest the plagiopatagium of bats. The most recent taxonomy for the Spinturnicidae lists four genera in the New World (HERRIN & TIPTON, 1975Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72.): Cameronieta Machado-Allison, 1965, which are exclusive to mormoopidae bats; Periglischrus Kolenati, 1857, the largest genus, found in phyllostomidae bats; Spinturnix Von Hayden, 1826, a cosmopolitan genus, with a majority of known species occurring in association with Old World bats of the subfamily Vespertilionoidae, and seven species recorded in the New World (HERRIN & TIPTON, 1975Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72.); Paraspinturnix Rudnick, 1960, a monotypic genus that parasitizes the anal orifice of Myotis bats; and a fifth genus Mesoperiglischrus (DUSBÁBEK, 1968Dusbábek F. Los acaros cubanos de la familia Spinturnicidae (Acarina), com notas sobre su especificidad de hospedeiros. Poeyana Serie A 1968; 57: 1-31.) presented by Morales-Malacara in the 10th Internacional Congress of Acarology (2001) as a valid genus with two species found in Natalidae bats (MORALES-MALACARA, 2001Morales-Malacara JB. New morphological analysis of the bat wing mites of the genus Periglischrus (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) [online]. Australia: CSIRO; 2001 [cited 2015 Aug 4]. Available from: http://samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9780643069800_sample_294964.pdf
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).

Studies on the occurrence of Spinturnicids in Brazil have been conducted with bats collected in the capital city of Brasília, in regions of the Cerrado (GETTINGER & GRIBEL, 1989Gettinger D, Gribel R. Spinturnicid mites (Gamasida: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats in Central Brazil. J Med Entomol 1989; 26(5): 491-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.491. PMid:2795621.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.4...
) in Atlantic forest areas in the states of Minas Gerais (AZEVEDO et al., 2002Azevedo AA, Linardi MP, Coutinho MTZ. Acari ectoparasites of bats from Minas Gerais, Brazil. J Med Entomol 2002; 39(3): 553-555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-39.3.553. PMid:12061455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-39.3...
; MORAS et al., 2013Moras LM, Bernardi LFO, Graciolli G, Gregorin R. Bat flies (Diptera, Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) and mites (Acari) associated with bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a high-altitude region in southern Minas Gearis, Brazil. Acta Parasitol 2013; 58(4): 556-563. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0179-x. PMid:24338319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-017...
), Pernambuco (DANTAS-TORRES et al., 2009Dantas-Torres F, Soares FAM, Ribeiro CEBP, Daher MRM, Valença GC, Valim MP. Mites (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae and Spelaeorhynchidae) associates with bats in northeast, Brazil. J Med Entomol 2009; 46(3): 712-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340. PMid:19496446.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340...
), Rio Grande do Sul (SILVA et al., 2009Silva CL, Graciolli G, Rui AM. Novos registros de ácaros ectoparasitos (Acari, Spinturnicidae) de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Rio Grande do Sul. Chiropt Neotrop 2009; 15(2): 469-471.), Rio de Janeiro (ALMEIDA et al., 2011Almeida JC, Silva SSP, Serra-Freire NM, Valim MP. Ectoparasites (Insecta and Acari) associated with bats in southeastern Brazil. J Med Entomol 2011; 48(4): 753-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133. PMid:21845932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133...
), and in the Pantanal region, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (SILVA & GRACIOLLI, 2013Silva CL, Graciolli G. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil. Acta Parasitol 2013; 58(2): 174-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0134-x. PMid:23666652.
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), besides of Confalonieri dissertation (1976) that present a biometric study of P. iheringi and P. ojastii. In the present paper, it is reported the diversity and distribution of ectoparasitic Spinturnicidae species found in surveys conducted in the Pantanal region in the state of Mato Grosso and in the Caatinga region in the state of Ceará.

Materials and Methods

Species inventories were conducted in different areas of two Brazilian biomes, the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony (RPPN, from the original Portuguese) Serra das Almas and RPPN Sesc Pantanal. The RPPN Serra das Almas (05° 15’ S/41°00’ W) comprises 6,146 hectares and is considered an Outpost of the Caatinga Biosphere Reserve situated in the municipality of Cratéus, state of Ceará (ARAÚJO et al., 2011Araújo FS, Costa RC, Lima JR, Vasconcelos SF, Girão LC, Sobrinho MS, et al. Floristics and life-forms along a topographic gradient, central-western Ceará, Brazil. Rodriguésia 2011; 62(2): 341-366.). The RPPN Sesc Pantanal (16° 41’ S/56° 24’ W) represents the largest RPPN in Brazil, with approximately 106,000 hectares between the rivers Cuiabá and São Lourenço in the municipality of Barão de Melgaço, state of Mato Grosso. It is an important area for the protection of Brazilian biodiversity and the preservation of genetic resources (SILVA & ABDON, 1998Silva JSV, Abdon MM. Delimitação do Pantanal brasileiro e suas subregiões. Pesquisa Agropecu Bras 1998; 33: 1703-1711.).

In the RPPN Serra das Almas, bats were collected during nine nights in the dry season (August 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). In the RPPN Sesc Pantanal bats were collected during 15 nights in dry season (May 2008).

In both areas, bats were collected with mist nets measuring from 6 to 18 meters in length and 2.5 meters in height placed in existing trails or above streams. The sampling period extended for six hours after sunset. Bat specimens that were returned to the wild were released at the capture site following their identification in the field and voucher specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and preserved in 70% alcohol, as previously described by Vizotto & Taddei (1973)Vizotto LD, Taddei VA. Chave para a determinação de quirópteros brasileiros. Rev. Fac. Filos. Ciên. Letr. S. José do Rio Preto, Bol. Ciênc. 1973; 1: 1-72. and Handley (1988)Handley CO. Specimen preparation. In: Kunz TH. Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press; 1988. p. 437-457., and catalogued in the National Museum (MN, from the original Portuguese) Mammal Collection and the Adriano Lucio Peracchi (ALP) collection, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Silva et al. (2015)Silva SSP, Dias D, Martins MA, Guedes PG, Almeida JC, Cruz AP, et al. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from the caatinga scrublands of the Crateus region, northeastern Brazil, with new records for the state of Ceará. Mastozool Neotrop 2015; 22(2): 335-348. and Tavares (2009)Tavares FE. Fatores condicionadores da distribuição de quirópteros (Mammalia, Chiroptera) no norte do Pantanal do Mato Grosso (MT) e médio Rio Branco (RR): ecomorfologia de guildas nas escalas de habitat e da paisagem [Thesis]. Rio de Janeiro: Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; 2009. describe the bat species collected in both study areas. The taxonomic nomenclature applied to bat species follows the one proposed by Nogueira et al. (2014)Nogueira MR, Lima IP, Moratelli R, Tavares VC, Gregorin R, Peracchi AL. Checklist of Brazilian bats, with comments on original records. Check List 2014; 10(4): 808-821. http://dx.doi.org/10.15560/10.4.808.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15560/10.4.808...
.

Mites were collected from live bats with fine-pointed tweezers and conditioned in flasks containing 70% alcohol. In the National Reference Laboratory for Rickettsioses Vectors, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, mites were mounted as per Flechtmann (1990)Flechtmann CHW. Ácaros de importância médica e veterinária. São Paulo: Nobel; 1990. and identified according to the taxonomic keys proposed by Tibbetts (1957)Tibbetts T. Description of a new Periglischrus from a bat, Rehn, together with a key to the species of . Mormoops megalophylla seniculaPeriglischrus (Acarina; Spintumicidae)J Kans Entomol Soc 1957; 30(1): 13-19., Machado-Allison (1964Machado-Allison CE. Notas sobre Mesostigmata Neotropicales II. Cuatro nuevas espécies do Kolenti, 1857 (Acarina, Spintumicidae). PeriglischrusRev Soc Mex Hist Nat 1964; 25: 193-207., 1965aMachado-Allison CE. Notas sobre Mesostigmata Neotropicales III. : nuevo gênero y nueva especies parasita de Chiroptem (Acarina, Spintumicidae). Cameronieta thomasiActa Biol Venez 1965a; 4: 243-258., bMachado-Allison CE. Las especies venezolanas del gêneros Kolenati 1857 (Acarina, Mesostigmata, Spintumicidae). PeriglischrusActa Biol Venez 1965b; 4: 259-348.), Dusbábek (1967Dusbábek F. New species of the genus from Cuba (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). CameronietaFolia Parasitol 1967; 14(2): 149-160., 1968Dusbábek F. Los acaros cubanos de la familia Spinturnicidae (Acarina), com notas sobre su especificidad de hospedeiros. Poeyana Serie A 1968; 57: 1-31.), Herrin & Tipton (1975)Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72., Morales-Malacara (2001)Morales-Malacara JB. New morphological analysis of the bat wing mites of the genus Periglischrus (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) [online]. Australia: CSIRO; 2001 [cited 2015 Aug 4]. Available from: http://samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9780643069800_sample_294964.pdf
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and Morales-Malacara & Juste (2002)Morales-Malacara JB, Juste J. Two new species of the Genus (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) on two bat species of the Genus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Southeastern Mexico, with additional data from Panama. PeriglischrusTonatiaJ Med Entomol 2002; 39(2): 298-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-39.2.298. PMid:11931030.
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.

Results and Discussion

A total of 450 Spinturnicidae mite specimens, representing two genera and 10 species, were collected from 15 bat species captured in RPPN Serra das Almas. In the RPPN Sesc Pantanal, seven bat species were collected carrying 138 mites distributed in two genera and four species of the same family (Tables 1 and 2).

Table 1
Spinturnicid mite associations found in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony (RPPN, from the original Portuguese) Serra das Almas, Ceará state, Brazil.
Table 2
Spinturnicid mite associations found in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony (RPPN, from the original Portuguese) Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

Mite family, genera and species are presented in alphabetical order and by collection area. The host species is listed along with parasite load information. Released bats are listed following the same norms, but with month, in roman numerals, and year of capture (number of host), followed by parasite load.

The following results constitute the first survey of Spinturnicidae mites for the Caatinga in the state of Ceará and for the Pantanal biome in Mato Grosso.

Spinturnicidae (Acari, Mesostigmata)

Cameronieta Machado-Allison 1965

Cameronieta sp.

Specimes examined: Brazil, Ceará State, RPPN Serra das Almas. Host: Pteronotus gymnonotus - II/2013 (2): one ♂, one protonymph. Host: P. parnellii - II/2013 (24): 57♂, 34♀, three deutonymphs ♀, two deutonymphs ♂, 26 protonymphs; ALP 10183: five ♂, two deutonymphs ♂, one protonymph; ALP 10188: three ♂, three ♀, one deutonymph ♂.

Comments: Cameronieta genus is exclusive to mormoopidae bats (HERRIN & TIPTON, 1975Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72.) and is comprised of six species: C. strandtmanni (TIBBETTS, 1957Tibbetts T. Description of a new Periglischrus from a bat, Rehn, together with a key to the species of . Mormoops megalophylla seniculaPeriglischrus (Acarina; Spintumicidae)J Kans Entomol Soc 1957; 30(1): 13-19.); C. thomasi (MACHADO-ALLISON, 1965b)Machado-Allison CE. Las especies venezolanas del gêneros Kolenati 1857 (Acarina, Mesostigmata, Spintumicidae). PeriglischrusActa Biol Venez 1965b; 4: 259-348. and C. elongatus (FURMAN, 1966Furman DP. The spinturnicid mites of Panama. In: Wenzel RL, Tipton VJ. Ectoparasites of Panama. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History; 1966. p. 125-166.) reported from Venezuela and C. machadoi Dusbabek, 1967; C. tibbettsi Dusbabek, 1967 and C. torrei Dusbabek, 1967 reported from Cuba. Although P. parnelii have been already associated with C. elongatus and C. tibbettsi in Venezuela and Cuba, respectively (DUSBÁBEK, 1967Dusbábek F. New species of the genus from Cuba (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). CameronietaFolia Parasitol 1967; 14(2): 149-160.; HERRIN & TIPTON, 1975Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72.), the specimens collected could not be allocated to any known species because the position of sternal setae and the length of podosomal and metasternal setae (ALMEIDA et al., unpublished). Furthermore, this is the first time the genus is reported in Brazil.

Mesoperiglischrus natali (FURMAN, 1966Furman DP. The spinturnicid mites of Panama. In: Wenzel RL, Tipton VJ. Ectoparasites of Panama. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History; 1966. p. 125-166.)

Specimes examined: Brazil, Ceará State, RPPN Serra das Almas. Host: Natalus macrourus - ALP 10173: two ♂, one protonymph.

Comments: Furman (1966)Furman DP. The spinturnicid mites of Panama. In: Wenzel RL, Tipton VJ. Ectoparasites of Panama. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History; 1966. p. 125-166. described the species Periglischrus natali as a member of the genus Periglischrus. However, Dusbábek (1968)Dusbábek F. Los acaros cubanos de la familia Spinturnicidae (Acarina), com notas sobre su especificidad de hospedeiros. Poeyana Serie A 1968; 57: 1-31. described a new genus and species, Mesoperiglischrus nyctiellinus and considered P. natali to be a congener, recombining the name to M. natali. Years after Morales-Malacara (2001)Morales-Malacara JB. New morphological analysis of the bat wing mites of the genus Periglischrus (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) [online]. Australia: CSIRO; 2001 [cited 2015 Aug 4]. Available from: http://samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9780643069800_sample_294964.pdf
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analyzed morphologically the genus Periglischrus and the results supported this conclusion. Considered an exclusive parasite of the bat genus Natalus (FURMAN, 1966Furman DP. The spinturnicid mites of Panama. In: Wenzel RL, Tipton VJ. Ectoparasites of Panama. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History; 1966. p. 125-166.; MORALES-MALACARA, 2001Morales-Malacara JB. New morphological analysis of the bat wing mites of the genus Periglischrus (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) [online]. Australia: CSIRO; 2001 [cited 2015 Aug 4]. Available from: http://samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9780643069800_sample_294964.pdf
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), M. natali had not been reported in Brazil until this moment, but in Venezuela it has been reported in association with N. tumidirostris Miller, 1900 (HERRIN & TIPTON, 1975Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72.).

Periglischrus Kolenati, 1857

Periglischrus sp.

Specimes examined: Brazil, Ceará State, RPPN Serra das Almas. Host: Tonatia bidens - VII/2012(1): five ♂, two deutonymphs ♂, one protonymph; II/2013(2): 17♂, eight ♀, one deutonymph ♀, eight protonymphs; ALP 10157: four ♂, three ♀, one protonymph; ALP 10384: one ♂, one ♀, two protonymphs; ALP 10460: three ♀, one protonymph.

Comments: Herrin & Tipton (1975)Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72. described Periglischrus tonatii as a primary parasite of the genus Tonatia, and reported the occurrence of the mite in association with T. silvicola, T. brasiliensis and T. carrikeri, all of which currently belong to the genus Lophostoma (Lee et al., 2002Lee TE, Hoofer SR, Van Den Bussche RA. Molecular phylogenetics and taxonomic revision of the genus Tonatia (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). J Mammal 2002; 83(1): 49-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/83.1.49.
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). In southeast Mexico and Panama, Morales-Malacara & Juste (2002)Morales-Malacara JB, Juste J. Two new species of the Genus (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) on two bat species of the Genus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Southeastern Mexico, with additional data from Panama. PeriglischrusTonatiaJ Med Entomol 2002; 39(2): 298-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-39.2.298. PMid:11931030.
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described P. steresotrichus, a species morphologically close to P. tonatii, and P. eurysternus, which is close to P. paratorrealbai, both in association with T. evotis (currently Lophostoma evotis) and T. saurophila, respectively. The specimens obtained from T. bidens in the RPPN Serra das Almas are phenetically close to P. torrealbai, but they belong to a new species in description process.

Periglischrus caligus Kolenati, 1857

Specimes examined: Brazil, Ceará State, RPPN Serra das Almas. Host: Glossophaga soricina - ALP 10158: one ♂; ALP 10172: one ♂; ALP 10477: one ♀. Brazil, Mato Grosso State, RPPN Sesc Pantanal. Host: G. soricina - V/2008: three ♀; MN 71484: one ♂; MN 71499: six ♀; MN 71516: one ♂; MN 71521: four ♀, one deutonymph ♀; MN 71592: two ♂, two ♀, one protonymph.

Comments: Considered a primary parasite of the genus Glossophaga this species had been reported in Brazil in association with G. soricina in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Brasília and Pernambuco (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.; GETTINGER & GRIBEL, 1989Gettinger D, Gribel R. Spinturnicid mites (Gamasida: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats in Central Brazil. J Med Entomol 1989; 26(5): 491-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.491. PMid:2795621.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.4...
; DANTAS-TORRES et al., 2009Dantas-Torres F, Soares FAM, Ribeiro CEBP, Daher MRM, Valença GC, Valim MP. Mites (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae and Spelaeorhynchidae) associates with bats in northeast, Brazil. J Med Entomol 2009; 46(3): 712-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340. PMid:19496446.
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).

Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902

Specimes examined: Brazil, Ceará State, RPPN Serra das Almas. Host: Artibeus lituratus - VII/2012(2): one ♂, one ♀; ALP 10166: one protonymph. II/2013(3): three ♀, one protonymph. Host: A. planirostris - VII/2012(1): one ♂, 12 ♀, two deutonymphs ♀; I/2013(10): five ♂, eight ♀, four deutonymphs ♂, two protonymphs; ALP 10405: two ♂, five ♀, one protonymph; ALP 10412: one ♀; ALP 10441: one ♂, two ♀, one protonymph. Host: Carollia perspicillata - ALP 10434: one ♀. Host: Chiroderma vizottoi – VII/2012(1): three ♂; ALP 10196: three ♂; II/2013(7): nine ♂, two ♀; ALP 10423: one ♂. Host: Platyrrhinus lineatus – I/2013(2): four ♂, three ♀, two deutonymphs ♀; ALP 10397: one ♂, two ♀; ALP 10403: one ♂, one deutonymph ♀; ALP 10425: six ♂, one ♀, one deutonymph ♀, one deutonymph ♂, two protonymph. Brazil, Mato Grosso State, RPPN Sesc Pantanal. Host: Artibeus planirostris - V/2008 (12): 17♂, 33♀, four deutonymphs ♂, two deutonymphs ♀, seven protonymphs; MN 71505: one deutonymph ♀; MN 71502: two ♂, two ♀, one deutonymph ♀, two protonymphs; MN 71503: one ♂; MN 71504: two ♀; MN 71524: one ♂, two ♀, one protonymph; MN 71587: two ♂, two ♀. Host: A. lituratus, MN 71496: one ♂, three ♀; MN 71506: two ♂; MN 71514: one ♂. Host: P. lineatus - MN 71507: three ♂, three ♀, one protonymph. Host. P. incarum - MN 71523: three ♂, one ♀, one deutonymph ♀; MN 71581: one ♂.

Comments: This species is the most often cited in studies of bat parasites, and it is found in association with emballonuridae, noctilionidae, mormoopidae and with a majority of Phyllostomidae subfamilies (HERRIN & TIPTON, 1975Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72.). Given this wide range of hosts, it is possible that P. iheringi in fact comprises a number of species (HERRIN & TIPTON, 1975Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72.). In Brazil, this mite has been reported in Artibeus lituratus (GETTINGER & GRIBEL, 1989Gettinger D, Gribel R. Spinturnicid mites (Gamasida: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats in Central Brazil. J Med Entomol 1989; 26(5): 491-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.491. PMid:2795621.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.4...
; DANTAS-TORRES et al., 2009Dantas-Torres F, Soares FAM, Ribeiro CEBP, Daher MRM, Valença GC, Valim MP. Mites (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae and Spelaeorhynchidae) associates with bats in northeast, Brazil. J Med Entomol 2009; 46(3): 712-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340. PMid:19496446.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340...
; SILVA et al., 2009Silva CL, Graciolli G, Rui AM. Novos registros de ácaros ectoparasitos (Acari, Spinturnicidae) de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Rio Grande do Sul. Chiropt Neotrop 2009; 15(2): 469-471.; ALMEIDA et al., 2011Almeida JC, Silva SSP, Serra-Freire NM, Valim MP. Ectoparasites (Insecta and Acari) associated with bats in southeastern Brazil. J Med Entomol 2011; 48(4): 753-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133. PMid:21845932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133...
; CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.), A. planirostris (GETTINGER & GRIBEL, 1989Gettinger D, Gribel R. Spinturnicid mites (Gamasida: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats in Central Brazil. J Med Entomol 1989; 26(5): 491-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.491. PMid:2795621.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.4...
; DANTAS-TORRES et al., 2009Dantas-Torres F, Soares FAM, Ribeiro CEBP, Daher MRM, Valença GC, Valim MP. Mites (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae and Spelaeorhynchidae) associates with bats in northeast, Brazil. J Med Entomol 2009; 46(3): 712-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340. PMid:19496446.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340...
), D. cinerea (GETTINGER & GRIBEL, 1989Gettinger D, Gribel R. Spinturnicid mites (Gamasida: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats in Central Brazil. J Med Entomol 1989; 26(5): 491-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.491. PMid:2795621.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.4...
), A. fimbriatus (SILVA et al., 2009Silva CL, Graciolli G, Rui AM. Novos registros de ácaros ectoparasitos (Acari, Spinturnicidae) de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Rio Grande do Sul. Chiropt Neotrop 2009; 15(2): 469-471.), A. obscurus (ALMEIDA et al., 2011Almeida JC, Silva SSP, Serra-Freire NM, Valim MP. Ectoparasites (Insecta and Acari) associated with bats in southeastern Brazil. J Med Entomol 2011; 48(4): 753-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133. PMid:21845932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133...
), Anoura caudifer (GETTINGER & GRIBEL, 1989Gettinger D, Gribel R. Spinturnicid mites (Gamasida: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats in Central Brazil. J Med Entomol 1989; 26(5): 491-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.491. PMid:2795621.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.4...
; SILVA et al., 2009Silva CL, Graciolli G, Rui AM. Novos registros de ácaros ectoparasitos (Acari, Spinturnicidae) de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Rio Grande do Sul. Chiropt Neotrop 2009; 15(2): 469-471.), Anoura sp. (SILVA et al., 2009Silva CL, Graciolli G, Rui AM. Novos registros de ácaros ectoparasitos (Acari, Spinturnicidae) de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Rio Grande do Sul. Chiropt Neotrop 2009; 15(2): 469-471.), Carollia perspicillata (ALMEIDA et al., 2011Almeida JC, Silva SSP, Serra-Freire NM, Valim MP. Ectoparasites (Insecta and Acari) associated with bats in southeastern Brazil. J Med Entomol 2011; 48(4): 753-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133. PMid:21845932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133...
; CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.), Glossophaga soricina (SILVA et al., 2009Silva CL, Graciolli G, Rui AM. Novos registros de ácaros ectoparasitos (Acari, Spinturnicidae) de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Rio Grande do Sul. Chiropt Neotrop 2009; 15(2): 469-471.), Plathrrynus lineatus (DANTAS-TORRES et al., 2009Dantas-Torres F, Soares FAM, Ribeiro CEBP, Daher MRM, Valença GC, Valim MP. Mites (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae and Spelaeorhynchidae) associates with bats in northeast, Brazil. J Med Entomol 2009; 46(3): 712-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340. PMid:19496446.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340...
; SILVA & GRACIOLLI, 2013Silva CL, Graciolli G. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil. Acta Parasitol 2013; 58(2): 174-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0134-x. PMid:23666652.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-013...
), Desmodus rotundus (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.), Chrotopterus auritus (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.), Peropteryx macrotis (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.), Eptesicus brasiliensis (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.) and Sturnira lilium (AZEVEDO et al., 2002Azevedo AA, Linardi MP, Coutinho MTZ. Acari ectoparasites of bats from Minas Gerais, Brazil. J Med Entomol 2002; 39(3): 553-555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-39.3.553. PMid:12061455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-39.3...
; ALMEIDA et al., 2011Almeida JC, Silva SSP, Serra-Freire NM, Valim MP. Ectoparasites (Insecta and Acari) associated with bats in southeastern Brazil. J Med Entomol 2011; 48(4): 753-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133. PMid:21845932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133...
; DANTAS-TORRES et al., 2009Dantas-Torres F, Soares FAM, Ribeiro CEBP, Daher MRM, Valença GC, Valim MP. Mites (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae and Spelaeorhynchidae) associates with bats in northeast, Brazil. J Med Entomol 2009; 46(3): 712-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340. PMid:19496446.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340...
; CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.).

Here, we report for the first time an association between P. iheringi and C. vizottoi. Because of the vast number of cases we found, this association is likely correct.

Periglischrus micronycteridis Furman, 1966

Specimes examined: Brazil, Ceará State, RPPN Serra das Almas. Host: Micronycteris sanborni - ALP 10155: one ♂, one ♀, one protonymph; ALP 10160: one ♀; ALP 10385: three ♀; ALP 10442: one ♀; ALP 10459: five ♀, one protonymph.

Comments: This species represents a primary parasite of the genus Micronycteris (FURMAN, 1966Furman DP. The spinturnicid mites of Panama. In: Wenzel RL, Tipton VJ. Ectoparasites of Panama. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History; 1966. p. 125-166.). In the state of Rio de Janeiro, it has been found in association with M. megalotis Gray, 1842 by Almeida et al. (2011)Almeida JC, Silva SSP, Serra-Freire NM, Valim MP. Ectoparasites (Insecta and Acari) associated with bats in southeastern Brazil. J Med Entomol 2011; 48(4): 753-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133. PMid:21845932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133...
. The association with M. sanborni is reported here for the first time in Brazil.

Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964

Specimes examined: Brazil, Ceará State, RPPN Serra das Almas. Host: Sturnira lilium - ALP 10133: one ♂, two ♀; ALP 10150: five ♂, four ♀, two deutonymphs ♂, two protonymphs; ALP 10189: one ♀, one deutonymph ♂, one protonymph; ALP 10445: two ♂, two deutonymphs ♀, two protonymphs.

Comments: Species commonly found in association with the genus Sturnira. In Brazil, it has been reported in association with C. perspicillata in the state of Pernambuco (DANTAS-TORRES et al., 2009Dantas-Torres F, Soares FAM, Ribeiro CEBP, Daher MRM, Valença GC, Valim MP. Mites (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae and Spelaeorhynchidae) associates with bats in northeast, Brazil. J Med Entomol 2009; 46(3): 712-715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340. PMid:19496446.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/033.046.0340...
), S. tildae in Espírito Santo (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.) and with S. lilium in Brasília (GETTINGER & GRIBEL, 1989Gettinger D, Gribel R. Spinturnicid mites (Gamasida: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats in Central Brazil. J Med Entomol 1989; 26(5): 491-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.491. PMid:2795621.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.4...
), Minas Gerais (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.; AZEVEDO et al., 2002Azevedo AA, Linardi MP, Coutinho MTZ. Acari ectoparasites of bats from Minas Gerais, Brazil. J Med Entomol 2002; 39(3): 553-555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-39.3.553. PMid:12061455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-39.3...
) and Rio de Janeiro (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.; ALMEIDA et al., 2011Almeida JC, Silva SSP, Serra-Freire NM, Valim MP. Ectoparasites (Insecta and Acari) associated with bats in southeastern Brazil. J Med Entomol 2011; 48(4): 753-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133. PMid:21845932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133...
).

Periglischrus paracutisternus Machado-Allison & Antequera, 1971

Specimes examined: Brazil, Ceará State, RPPN Serra das Almas. Host: Trachops cirrhosus - VII/2012(2): seven ♂, three ♀, one deutonymph ♂; II/2013(3): five ♂, three ♀; ALP 10137: one ♂, one ♀, one protonymph; ALP 10139: nine ♂, 14♀, one deutonymph ♀, eight protonymphs; ALP 10156: one ♂, one ♀; ALP 10419: 12♂, two ♀, two deutonymphs ♀, two protonymphs. Brazil, Mato Grosso State, RPPN Sesc Pantanal. Host: T. cirrhosus - MN 71578: six ♂, two protonymphs.

Comments: In Venezuela, Herrin & Tipton (1975)Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72. found this species in association with T. cirrhosus, its primary host. This is the first time that this association is reported to Brazil.

Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison, 1965

Specimes examined: Brazil, Ceará State, RPPN Serra das Almas. Host: Artibeus planirostris - ALP 10391: seven ♂, ten ♀, one deutonymph ♀, five protonymphs; Host: P. discolor - ALP 10190: five ♂, one deutonymph ♀, one protonymph; ALP 10195: one ♂, two ♀, two protonymphs; ALP 10454: one ♀.

Comments: A primary parasite of the bat genus Phyllostomus (MACHADO-ALLISON, 1965aMachado-Allison CE. Notas sobre Mesostigmata Neotropicales III. : nuevo gênero y nueva especies parasita de Chiroptem (Acarina, Spintumicidae). Cameronieta thomasiActa Biol Venez 1965a; 4: 243-258.), this species has been reported in Brazil in association with P. discolor in Brasilia (GETTINGER & GRIBEL, 1989Gettinger D, Gribel R. Spinturnicid mites (Gamasida: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats in Central Brazil. J Med Entomol 1989; 26(5): 491-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.491. PMid:2795621.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/26.5.4...
) and with P. hastatus in Rio de Janeiro (ALMEIDA et al., 2011Almeida JC, Silva SSP, Serra-Freire NM, Valim MP. Ectoparasites (Insecta and Acari) associated with bats in southeastern Brazil. J Med Entomol 2011; 48(4): 753-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133. PMid:21845932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09133...
) and Minas Gerais (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.). This is the first time that the association with A. planirostris is reported in Brazil; however, because we found it in only one host, this association requires further evaluation before being considered valid. The parasite has been reported in association with A. planirostris in Venezuela (HERRIN & TIPTON, 1975Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72.).

Periglischrus vargasi Hoffmann, 1944

Specimes examined: Brazil, Ceará State, RPPN Serra das Almas. Host: Anoura geoffroyi - ALP 10177: two ♀, one deutonymph ♀.

Comments: This primary parasite of the genus Anoura (HERRIN & TIPTON, 1975Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72.) has been reported in Brazil in association with A. geoffroyi and Anoura sp. in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (SILVA et al., 2009Silva CL, Graciolli G, Rui AM. Novos registros de ácaros ectoparasitos (Acari, Spinturnicidae) de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Rio Grande do Sul. Chiropt Neotrop 2009; 15(2): 469-471.) and with A. caudifer and G. soricina in Rio de Janeiro (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.).

Spinturnix Von Heyden, 1826

Spinturnix americanus (Banks, 1902)

Specimes examined: Brazil, Mato Grosso State, RPPN Sesc Pantanal. Host: Myotis riparius - MN 71589: three ♂, three ♀, one protonymph.

Comments: This mite is known to parasitize the genus Myotis in neotropical regions (HERRIN & TIPTON, 1975Herrin CS, Tipton VJ. Spinturnicidae mites of Venezuela (Acarina: Spinturnicidae). Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 1975; 20(2): 1-72.). It has been found in Brazil with M. nigricans (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.; SILVA & GRACIOLLI, 2013Silva CL, Graciolli G. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil. Acta Parasitol 2013; 58(2): 174-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0134-x. PMid:23666652.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-013...
) and Nyctinomops macrotis (CONFALONIERI, 1976Confalonieri UEC. Sobre a família Spinturnicidae Oudemans, 1902 e seus hospedeiros no Brasil, com estudo biométrico de Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans, 1902 e Periglischrus ojastii Machado-Allison, 1964 [Dissertation]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; 1976.). The association with M. riparius is the first reported to Brazil.

Conclusions

The occurrence of these Spinturnicidae species is reported here for the first time for the state of Ceará and for the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso. The 15 bat species collected in the Caatinga and seven in Pantanal carried 3 genera and 11 species of Spinturnicidae mite, totaling 588 specimens. Furthermore, the occurrence of a Cameronieta sp. and M. natali and the associations P. iheringiC. vizottoi, P. micronycteridisM. sanborni, P. paracutisternusT. cirrhosus, and S. americanusM. riparius were registered for the first time in Brazil.

The available data for the Spinturnicidae family in neotropical bats leaves wide gaps in the understanding of host associations and parasite distribution. This fact reflects the lack of research focus on bat ectoparasitic fauna. Despite the fact that collection methods are almost identical, researchers often neglect ectoparasites after capturing bats. Thus, we reaffirm the need for proper and standardized ectoparasite data collection that minimizes contamination, proper cataloguing in museums, and greater collaboration between mammalogists and ectoparasitologists in identifying species.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Associação Caatinga for authorization to conduct the fieldwork in the RPPN Serra das Almas. We thank MSc. Shirley Silva, MSc. Alexandre Cruz and Ricardo Rocha and Joyce Damascena for the assistance in the field. We thank PhD Daniela Dias for the identification of bats collected in the RPPN Serra das Almas, PhD Fabricio Escarlete and PhD Luiz Flamarion the identification of bats in the RPPN SESC Pantanal. MSc. Juliana C. Almeida and PhD Mayara A. Martins thanks FAPERJ, for theirs PhD scholarships. Specimen collection was authorized by ICMBio through license number 32684-1. This study is part of the doctorate thesis of the Juliana C. Almeida in Biology/ Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Animal/Instituto de Biologia/UFRRJ with financial support from CNPq (Process number 470935/2011-1).

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    11 Mar 2016
  • Date of issue
    Jan-Mar 2016

History

  • Received
    04 Aug 2015
  • Accepted
    30 Nov 2015
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