Ticks in wild animals at a resort and the first documentation of Amblyomma sculptum infesting Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae)

Carrapatos em animais selvagens em um resort e o primeiro registro de Amblyomma sculptum infestando Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae)

Izabela Mesquita Araújo Paulo Cesar Magalhães-Matos Matheus Dias Cordeiro Adlilton Pacheco Bruno Silva Rocha Luis Felipe Barbosa Braga Feitoza Argemiro Sanavria Adivaldo Henrique Fonseca About the authors

Abstract

The study aimed to identify species of ticks present in the environment and among captive animals, in Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ticks were isolated from captive animals by manual examination and free-living ticks in the environment were captured using the flannel drag technique. A total of 91 ticks were obtained (51 adults, 25 nymphs and 15 larvae). The specimens were identified morphologically as Amblyomma sp., Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma sculptum , and were distributed among five species of native mammals and an exotic bird. This study also reports the first case of infestation of the Australian emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) by A. sculptum.

Keywords:
Ticks; Amblyomma; wild animal; Rio de Janeiro; Brazil

Resumo

O estudo teve como objetivo identificar espécies de carrapatos presentes no ambiente e entre animais de cativeiro em Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os carrapatos foram removidos manualmente de animais de cativeiro e no ambiente usando a técnica de arrasto em flanela. Um total de 91 carrapatos foram capturados (51 adultos, 25 ninfas e 15 larvas). Os espécimes foram identificados morfologicamente como Amblyomma sp., Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma ovale e Amblyomma sculptum, e foram distribuídos entre cinco espécies de mamíferos nativos e uma ave exótica. Este estudo também relata o primeiro caso de infestação do emu australiano (Dromaius novaehollandiae) por A. sculptum .

Palavras-chave:
Carrapatos; Amblyomma; animais selvagens; Rio de Janeiro; Brasil

Ticks are haematophagous ectoparasites with a cosmopolitan distribution and a wide variety of species ( GUGLIELMONE et al., 2014 Guglielmone AA, Robbins RG, Apanaskevich DA, Petney TN, Estrada-Peña A, Horak IG. The hard ticks of the world (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae). 1ª ed. London: Springer; 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7497-1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-74...
). In Brazil, most species of ticks belong to the genus Amblyomma ( DANTAS-TORRES et al., 2012 Dantas-Torres F, Chomel BB, Otranto D. Ticks and tick-borne diseases: a One Health perspective. Trends Parasitol 2012; 28(10): 437-446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2012.07.003. PMid:22902521.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2012.07....
), which parasitize a great diversity of hosts. Humans may also play host to these ticks when coming into contact with their natural habitat and hosts ( BARROS-BATTESTI et al., 2006 Barros-Battesti DM, Arzua M, Bechara GH. Carrapatos de importância médico-veterinária da região neotropical: um guia ilustrado para identificação de espécies . 1ª ed. São Paulo: Vox/ICTTD-3/Butantan; 2006. ).

In Brazil, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of knowing the species of ticks on captive animals in public and private conservation units ( GONZALEZ et al., 2017 Gonzalez IHL, Labruna MB, Chagas CRF, Salgado PAB, Monticelli C, Morais LH, et al. Ticks infesting captive and free-roaming wild animal species at the São Paulo Zoo, São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2017; 26(4): 496-499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1984-29612017036. PMid:28700000.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1984-2961201...
; MAGALHÃES-MATOS et al., 2017 Magalhães-Matos PC, Moraes MFD, Valim JRA, Castro GNS, Santos PN, Manier BSML, et al. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and lice (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae ) infesting free-living coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766) with sylvatic and synanthropic habits in the Atlantic rainforest of Southern Brazil. Syst Appl Acarol 2017; 22(6): 779-784. http://dx.doi.org/10.11158/saa.22.6.3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11158/saa.22.6.3 ...
; NASCIMENTO et al., 2017 Nascimento KKG, Veríssimo SMM, Raia VA, Guimarães RCS, Seade GCC, Azevedo ACP, et al. Tick fauna of wild animals received and attended at the Santarém Zoological Park, western Pará State, Brazil. Cienc Rural 2017; 47(10). http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20170159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20...
).

Therefore, this study aimed to identify tick species occurring in the environment and among captive animals at a resort and safari in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro.

The study was carried out between September 2016 and February 2017 at a Porto Bello safari belonging to a Resort in Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22°54'58.135”S, 44°4'23.046”W). This safari has an area of 300.000 m2 and houses about 500 animals of the South American, European and African fauna, which coexist in the same environment. Among the species that inhabit the safari are zebras (Equus burchellii Linnaeus, 1758), camels ( Camelus dromedaries Linnaeus, 1758), dromedaries (Camelus bactrianus Linnaeus, 1758), llamas (Lama glama Linnaeus, 1758), deer ( Rusa unicolor Kerr, 1792), capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766), tapirs (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758), peccaries (Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus, 1758), and a variety of wild birds such as macaws (Ara chloropterus Gray, 1859), emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae Latham, 1790) and ostriches (Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758).

During the study period, visits were made to the safari with the objective of collecting ticks from the animals and searching the environment by dragging white flannel over the vegetation, as described by Oliveira et al. (2000) Oliveira PR, Borges LMF, Lopes CML, Leite RC. Population dynamics of the free-living stages of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (Acari: Ixodidae) on pastures of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Vet Parasitol 2000; 92(4): 295-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(00)00322-8. PMid:10996741.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(00...
.

Immediately after collection, all ticks were packed in polypropylene tubes containing RNAlater® solution. Thereafter, they were transported to the laboratory. Taxonomic identification was performed based on morphology using dichotomic keys specific for ixodid ticks, the key proposed by Martins et al. (2010) Martins TF, Onofrio VC, Barros-Battesti DM, Labruna MB. Nymphs of the genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) of Brazil: descriptions, redescriptions, and identification key. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2010; 1(2): 75-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2010.03.002. PMid:21771514.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2010...
for nymphs and the key modified by Guimarães et al. (2001) Guimarães JH, Battesti DMB, Tucci EC. Ectoparasitos de importância veterinária. 1ª ed. São Paulo: Plêiade/Fapesp; 2001. in Barros-Battesti et al. (2006) Barros-Battesti DM, Arzua M, Bechara GH. Carrapatos de importância médico-veterinária da região neotropical: um guia ilustrado para identificação de espécies . 1ª ed. São Paulo: Vox/ICTTD-3/Butantan; 2006. and Nava et al. (2014) Nava S, Beati L, Labruna MB, Cáceres AG, Mangold AJ, Guglielmone AA. Reassessment of the taxonomic status of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) with the description of three new species, Amblyomma tonelliae n. sp., Amblyomma interandinum n. sp. and Amblyomma patinoi n. sp., and reinstatement of Amblyomma mixtum Koch, 1844, and Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888 (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2014; 5(3): 252-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.11.004. PMid:24556273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013...
for adults.

In total, 91 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were obtained, 51 adults, 25 nymphs and 15 larvae. The identities of tick species and their respective hosts are shown in Table 1 .

Table 1
Ticks captured in vegetation and collected in wild animals kept in captivity on a safari, in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888 was captured in the environment and was also found parasitizing capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766), tapirs (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758), peccary ( Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus, 1758) and an emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae Latham, 1790 ( Table 1 , Figure 1 ). According to Guimarães JH, Battesti DMB, Tucci EC. Ectoparasitos de importância veterinária. 1ª ed. São Paulo: Plêiade/Fapesp; 2001. , it is common to find A. sculptum in large and medium-sized mammals. The ticks are mainly found on capybaras and tapirs, as they play a fundamental role in the lifecycle of the tick, serving as the main hosts for all parasitic stages.

Figure 1
An emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) infested by a nymph of Amblyomma sculptum in the left temporal region of the head (arrow).

This is the first record of A. sculptum from an emu, a large bird that is not capable of flying, native to Australia and present over almost the entire continent, especially in semi-arid regions ( THOMPSON, 2001 Thompson RC. Raising Emus and Ostriches [online]. Beltsville: U.S. Department of Agriculture; 2001 [cited 2017 Oct 10 ]. Available from: https://pubs.nal.usda.gov/sites/pubs.nal.usda.gov/files/srb9706_0.htm
https://pubs.nal.usda.gov/sites/pubs.na...
). To date, there is limited knowledge regarding the species of ticks that commonly parasitize emus, with only a recent study reporting the parasitism by Ixodes cornuatus Roberts, 1960 of a captive emu at the Healesville sanctuary, Australia ( KWAK & MADDEN, 2017 Kwak ML, Madden C. The first record of infestation by a native tick (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Australian emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and a review of tick paralysis in Australian birds. Exp Appl Acarol 2017; 73(1): 103-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-017-0168-0. PMid:28849543.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-017-01...
). In the present study, eight semi-engorged nymphs of A. sculptum were found fixed to the temporal region of the head and proximal part of the neck of captive animals at a safari in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ( Table 1 , Figure 1 ). Of these nymphs, two were deposited at the collection of Wingless Vector Arthropods of Importance in the Health of Communities of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CAVAISC – FIOCruz), in Rio de Janeiro, with deposit numbers CAVAISC-IXO 3296.

Ticks of the species Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 and Amblyomma incisum Neumann, 1906 were found in the inspected capybara ( Table 1 ). This large rodent has previously been described as the main host for all parasitic stages of A. dubitatum ( NAVA et al., 2010 Nava S, Venzal JM, Labruna MB, Mastropaolo M, González EM, Mangold AJ, et al. Hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16S rDNA) of Amblyomma dubitatum (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol 2010; 51(4): 335-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9331-6. PMid:20084537.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-93...
). However, A. ovale is most commonly recorded in wild and domestic carnivores ( GUGLIELMONE et al., 2003 Guglielmone AA, Estrada-Peña A, Mangold AJ, Barros-Battesti DM, Labruna MB, Martins JR, et al. Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): hosts, distribution and 16S rDNA sequences. Vet Parasitol 2003; 113(3-4): 273-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00083-9. PMid:12719142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(03...
; LABRUNA et al., 2005a Labruna MB, Jorge RSP, Sana DA, Jácomo ATA, Kashivakura CK, Furtado MM, et al. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil. Exp Appl Acarol 2005a; 36(1): 149-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-005-2563-1. PMid:16082932.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-005-25...
; MAGALHÃES-MATOS et al., 2017 Magalhães-Matos PC, Moraes MFD, Valim JRA, Castro GNS, Santos PN, Manier BSML, et al. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and lice (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae ) infesting free-living coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766) with sylvatic and synanthropic habits in the Atlantic rainforest of Southern Brazil. Syst Appl Acarol 2017; 22(6): 779-784. http://dx.doi.org/10.11158/saa.22.6.3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11158/saa.22.6.3 ...
), with small rodents as hosts during the immature stages ( GUGLIELMONE et al., 2003 Guglielmone AA, Estrada-Peña A, Mangold AJ, Barros-Battesti DM, Labruna MB, Martins JR, et al. Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): hosts, distribution and 16S rDNA sequences. Vet Parasitol 2003; 113(3-4): 273-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00083-9. PMid:12719142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(03...
). Amblyomma incisum primarily parasitizes the tapir in adulthood ( LABRUNA et al., 2005b Labruna MB, Keirans JE, Camargo LMA, Ribeiro AF, Soares RM, Camargo EP. Amblyomma latepuncatatum, a valid tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) long misidentified with both and Amblyomma scalpturatum. J Parasitol 2005b; 91(3): 527-541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-446R. PMid:16108543.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-446R ...
) and little is known about hosts for the immature stages ( GUIMARÃES et al., 2001 Guimarães JH, Battesti DMB, Tucci EC. Ectoparasitos de importância veterinária. 1ª ed. São Paulo: Plêiade/Fapesp; 2001. ; SZABÓ et al., 2009 Szabó MP, Pereira LF, Castro MB, Garcia MV, Sanches GS, Labruna MB. Biology and life cycle of Amblyomma incisum (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol 2009; 48(3): 263-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-008-9234-y. PMid:19130270.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-008-92...
). In the present study, although no specimen of A. incisum was found in the tapirs, the animals sharing an enclosure may have facilitated the infestation of capybaras by a nymph of this species of tick. No ticks were found in the inspected Chelonoidis spp. ( Table 1 ).

Therefore, it is important to perform acarological surveys in captive animals, especially in places where humans are common (such as safaris and zoos) since many species of ticks therein are vectors of pathogens that cause human diseases. In this study, three species of ticks that are of great importance for public health were identified, namely A. sculptum , A. dubitatum and A. ovale, which are responsible for the transmission of Rickettsia bacteria that cause spotted fever ( SZABÓ et al., 2013 Szabó MPJ, Pinter A, Labruna MB. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted- fever tick vectors in Brazil. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2013; 3: 27. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2013.00027. PMid:23875178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2013.00...
).

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our gratitude to the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Rio de Janeiro - FAPERJ (A.H.F., grant number E 26/201.144/2014) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq) (A.H.F. 305480/2013-8), for their financial assistence.

References

  • Barros-Battesti DM, Arzua M, Bechara GH. Carrapatos de importância médico-veterinária da região neotropical: um guia ilustrado para identificação de espécies . 1ª ed. São Paulo: Vox/ICTTD-3/Butantan; 2006.
  • Dantas-Torres F, Chomel BB, Otranto D. Ticks and tick-borne diseases: a One Health perspective. Trends Parasitol 2012; 28(10): 437-446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2012.07.003. PMid:22902521.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2012.07.003
  • Gonzalez IHL, Labruna MB, Chagas CRF, Salgado PAB, Monticelli C, Morais LH, et al. Ticks infesting captive and free-roaming wild animal species at the São Paulo Zoo, São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2017; 26(4): 496-499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1984-29612017036. PMid:28700000.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1984-29612017036
  • Guglielmone AA, Estrada-Peña A, Mangold AJ, Barros-Battesti DM, Labruna MB, Martins JR, et al. Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): hosts, distribution and 16S rDNA sequences. Vet Parasitol 2003; 113(3-4): 273-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00083-9. PMid:12719142.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00083-9
  • Guglielmone AA, Robbins RG, Apanaskevich DA, Petney TN, Estrada-Peña A, Horak IG. The hard ticks of the world (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) 1ª ed. London: Springer; 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7497-1.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7497-1
  • Guimarães JH, Battesti DMB, Tucci EC. Ectoparasitos de importância veterinária 1ª ed. São Paulo: Plêiade/Fapesp; 2001.
  • Kwak ML, Madden C. The first record of infestation by a native tick (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Australian emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and a review of tick paralysis in Australian birds. Exp Appl Acarol 2017; 73(1): 103-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-017-0168-0. PMid:28849543.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-017-0168-0
  • Labruna MB, Jorge RSP, Sana DA, Jácomo ATA, Kashivakura CK, Furtado MM, et al. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil. Exp Appl Acarol 2005a; 36(1): 149-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-005-2563-1. PMid:16082932.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-005-2563-1
  • Labruna MB, Keirans JE, Camargo LMA, Ribeiro AF, Soares RM, Camargo EP. Amblyomma latepuncatatum, a valid tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) long misidentified with both and Amblyomma scalpturatum. J Parasitol 2005b; 91(3): 527-541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-446R. PMid:16108543.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-446R
  • Magalhães-Matos PC, Moraes MFD, Valim JRA, Castro GNS, Santos PN, Manier BSML, et al. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and lice (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae ) infesting free-living coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766) with sylvatic and synanthropic habits in the Atlantic rainforest of Southern Brazil. Syst Appl Acarol 2017; 22(6): 779-784. http://dx.doi.org/10.11158/saa.22.6.3.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.11158/saa.22.6.3
  • Martins TF, Onofrio VC, Barros-Battesti DM, Labruna MB. Nymphs of the genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) of Brazil: descriptions, redescriptions, and identification key. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2010; 1(2): 75-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2010.03.002. PMid:21771514.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2010.03.002
  • Nascimento KKG, Veríssimo SMM, Raia VA, Guimarães RCS, Seade GCC, Azevedo ACP, et al. Tick fauna of wild animals received and attended at the Santarém Zoological Park, western Pará State, Brazil. Cienc Rural 2017; 47(10). http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20170159.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20170159
  • Nava S, Beati L, Labruna MB, Cáceres AG, Mangold AJ, Guglielmone AA. Reassessment of the taxonomic status of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) with the description of three new species, Amblyomma tonelliae n. sp., Amblyomma interandinum n. sp. and Amblyomma patinoi n. sp., and reinstatement of Amblyomma mixtum Koch, 1844, and Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888 (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2014; 5(3): 252-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.11.004. PMid:24556273.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.11.004
  • Nava S, Venzal JM, Labruna MB, Mastropaolo M, González EM, Mangold AJ, et al. Hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16S rDNA) of Amblyomma dubitatum (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol 2010; 51(4): 335-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9331-6. PMid:20084537.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9331-6
  • Oliveira PR, Borges LMF, Lopes CML, Leite RC. Population dynamics of the free-living stages of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (Acari: Ixodidae) on pastures of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Vet Parasitol 2000; 92(4): 295-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(00)00322-8. PMid:10996741.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(00)00322-8
  • Szabó MP, Pereira LF, Castro MB, Garcia MV, Sanches GS, Labruna MB. Biology and life cycle of Amblyomma incisum (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol 2009; 48(3): 263-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-008-9234-y. PMid:19130270.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-008-9234-y
  • Szabó MPJ, Pinter A, Labruna MB. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted- fever tick vectors in Brazil. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2013; 3: 27. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2013.00027. PMid:23875178.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2013.00027
  • Thompson RC. Raising Emus and Ostriches [online]. Beltsville: U.S. Department of Agriculture; 2001 [cited 2017 Oct 10 ]. Available from: https://pubs.nal.usda.gov/sites/pubs.nal.usda.gov/files/srb9706_0.htm
    » https://pubs.nal.usda.gov/sites/pubs.nal.usda.gov/files/srb9706_0.htm

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    21 Feb 2019
  • Date of issue
    Jan-Mar 2019

History

  • Received
    23 Aug 2018
  • Accepted
    10 Oct 2018
Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária FCAV/UNESP - Departamento de Patologia Veterinária, Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, Zona Rural, , 14884-900 Jaboticabal - SP, Brasil, Fone: (16) 3209-7100 RAMAL 7934 - Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil
E-mail: cbpv_rbpv.fcav@unesp.br