Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals

Infecção natural por endoparasitas em animais silvestres de vida-livre

Luciane Holsback Mauro José Lahm Cardoso Rafael Fagnani Thaís Helena Constantino Patelli About the authors

Abstracts

The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidiumsp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati,Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobiussp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.

Wildlife; gastrointestinal parasites; Mato Grosso do Sul; São Paulo


O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar a frequência de ocorrência e a variedade de parasitas intestinais de animais silvestres de vida livre. Amostras de fezes de mamíferos e aves silvestres de centros de reabilitação dos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo, foram analisadas pelos métodos de sedimentação e de centrífugo-flutuação. Foram encontrados ovos, oocistos, cistos e/ou trofozoítos de parasitas em 71% das amostras. Oocistos deCryptosporidium sp. foram detectados em amostras de fezes de gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus) e maritacas (Pionus maximiliani). Cistos de Giardiaforam identificados nas fezes de um veado catingueiro (Mazama gouazoubira). Entre os parasitas mais comuns, foram encontrados ovos de Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina eAncylostoma tubaeforme, além de ovos de Cestoda. Vários ovos de Enterobius sp. foram encontrados nas fezes de bugio (Alouatta seniculus). Neste trabalho concluiu-se que, apesar de pequeno o número de amostras, a diversidade de parasitas encontrados foi relevante. Informações adicionais sobre a endofauna parasitária em animais silvestres são necessárias, pois podem sugerir a interação e proximidade com animais domésticos e/ou o homem. Além disso, maiores estudos sobre os parasitas de animais silvestres de vida livre são primordiais para a compreensão da intensidade de alterações antrópicas no meio silvestre.

Animais silvestres; parasitas gastrintestinais; Mato Grosso do Sul; São Paulo


With the advance of agriculture and cattle-raising into natural areas, humans and their domestic animals have recently been coming into greater contact with populations of wild animals in their habitats. This closer contact facilitates the spread of infectious agents and parasites to new hosts and environments, thereby establishing new relationships between hosts and parasites, and new ecological niches in the disease transmission chain (CORRÊA; PASSOS, 2001Corrêa SHR, Passos EC. Wild animals and public health. In: Fowler ME, Cubas ZS. Biology, medicine, and surgery of South American wild animals. Ames: Iowa University Press; 2001. p. 493-499.).

Infection routes are directly related to causal agents, which means that knowledge of the disease transmission chain may provide an opportunity to ascertain how these agents reach new susceptible hosts. Thus, in relation to epidemiological factors, wild animals may have an extremely important role in the transmission of zoonoses, both in captivity and in the wild (MARVULO, 2007Marvulo MFV. Zoonoses. In: Cubas ZS, Dias JLC, Silva JCR. Tratado de Animais Selvagens. São Paulo: Roca; 2007. p. 1250-1256.).

The emergence of infectious diseases with zoonotic potential has dominated research on wildlife pathogens over recent years (McCALLUM; DOBSON, 1995McCallum H, Dobson A. Detecting disease and parasite threats to endangered species and ecosystems. Trends Ecol Evol 1995; 10(5): 190-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(00)89050-3
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(00)...
; HOLMES, 1996Holmes JC. Parasites as threats to biodiversity in shrinking ecosystems. Biodivers Conserv 1996; 5(8): 975-983. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00054415
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00054415...
;DASZAK et al., 2000Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife – threats to biodiversity and human health. Science 2000; 287(5452): 443-449. PMid:10642539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5452.443
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.287.54...
; RHYAN; SPRAKER, 2010Rhyan JC, Spraker TR. Emergence of disease from wildlife reservoirs. Vet Pathol 2010; 47(1): 34-39. PMid:20080482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985809354466
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03009858093544...
). As a result, not only have studies on the biodiversity and ecology of parasites been neglected, but also efforts to control them have been impaired. The research focus has been directed toward humans and domestic animals. However, there is also a need to obtain greater understanding of how these emerging pathogens interact with sets of organisms living together in wild ecosystems (THOMPSON et al., 2010Thompson RCA, Lymbery AJ, Smith A. Parasites, emerging disease and wildlife conservation. Int J Parasitol 2010; 40(10): 1163-1170. PMid:20452354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2010.04.009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2010....
).

The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals in two wild animal rehabilitation centers in the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul.

Between January 2007 and May 2008, fecal samples were collected from mammals and birds that had been newly introduced (less than five days earlier) to wild animal rehabilitation centers in Jundiai, SP, and Campo Grande, MS. The samples were collected in the mornings using sterile collecting tubes, preserved in 5% potassium dichromate, stored under refrigeration (4°C) and sent to the Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases Laboratory of the State University of Northern Paraná, Luis Meneghel Campus, in Bandeirantes, PR, not more than one week after collection. The numbers and species of the animals that participated in this study are specified in Table 1. A total of 38 samples belonging to major groups were analyzed: five primates samples, thirteen felid samples, five canid samples, two marsupial samples, one deer samples adn twelve samples (mostly in a pool) from several birds.

Table 1.
Distributions of the species studied and parasites observed in fecal samples from wild animals at rehabilitation centers in the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul.

Prior to coproparasitological analyses, fecal samples from the carnivores were subjected to the centrifugal-sedimentation technique in water-ether. Subsequently, the feces were examined by means of simple sedimentation and centrifugal-flotation methods in sucrose solution (d = 1.203 g/cm3), as described by Ferreira et al. (1962)Ferreira LF, Morteo RE, Silva JR. Padronização de técnicas para exame parasitológico das fezes. J Bras Med 1962; 6: 241-257..

In the present study, several biological forms of gastroenteric parasites were found in 71% of the 38 samples analyzed (Table 1). All 15 samples of mammals and birds from São Paulo (100%) and 52% of the samples from Mato Grosso do Sul were positive for one or more parasite. Although the original locations of the animals evaluated in this study were unknown, the greater occurrence of parasites in the wild animals at the rehabilitation center in São Paulo (chi-square = 7.91; p = 0.005) may have been due to the smaller environmental conservation area in relation to Mato Grosso do Sul. There was consequently a greater possibility of contact between wild animals, humans and domestic animals in São Paulo. The animals brought into these centers were mostly animals that had been run over or, in the case of cougars, cubs that had been caught by the competent environmental agencies (such as the Environmental Police). The birds originated from wild animal trafficking and domesticated pets that had been abandoned by their previous owners.

Parasites were found in 85% (11/13) of the felid fecal samples:Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara cati eggs were found in 46%, Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora sp. oocysts in 15% and Giardia cysts and Toxascaris leonina eggs in 8% of these animals.

Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most prevalent intestinal parasites in humans and domestic animals, and are increasingly recognized as common parasites of several wild animals (FAYER, 2004Fayer R. Cryptosporidium: a water-borne zoonotic parasite. Vet Parasitol 2004; 126(1-2): 37-56. PMid:15567578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.09.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2004....
; THOMPSON, 2004Thompson RCA. The zoonotic significance and molecular epidemiology of Giardia and giardiasis. Vet Parasitol 2004; 126(1-2): 15-35. PMid:15567577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.09.008
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2004....
; THOMPSON; MONIS, 2004Thompson RCA, Monis PT. Variation in Giardia: Implications for taxonomy and epidemiology. Adv Parasitol 2004; 58: 69-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(04)58002-8
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(04)...
; APPELBEE et al., 2005Appelbee AJ, Thompson RCA, Olson ME. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Mammalian Wildlife. Current Status and Future Needs. Trends Parasitol 2005; 21(8): 370-376. PMid:15982929. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2005.06.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2005.06.0...
).

Giardia has been reported in several wild mammal species. However, little information is available about the species and genotypes that occur naturally in these mammals (APPELBEE et al., 2005Appelbee AJ, Thompson RCA, Olson ME. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Mammalian Wildlife. Current Status and Future Needs. Trends Parasitol 2005; 21(8): 370-376. PMid:15982929. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2005.06.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2005.06.0...
; KUTZ et al., 2009Kutz SJ, Thompson RCA, Polley L. Wildlife with Giardia: villain or victim and vector? In: Ortega-Pierres G, Caccio S, Fayer R, Mank TG, Smith HV, Thompson RCA, editors. Giardia and Cryptosporidium: From Molecules to Disease. Wallingford: CABI; 2009. p. 94-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9781845933913.0094
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9781845933913....
; THOMPSON et al., 2009Thompson RCA, Colwell DD, Shury T, Appelbee AJ, Read C, Njiru Z, et al. The molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in coyotes from Alberta, Canada, and observations on some cohabiting parasites. Vet Parasitol 2009; 159(2): 167-170. PMid:19019549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.10.003
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008....
). In most cases, when appropriate tools for characterizing this parasite were applied, the Giardia genotype found in free-living terrestrial and aquatic mammals was usually of human origin, i.e. ofGiardia duodenalis genotype (THOMPSON et al., 2009Thompson RCA, Colwell DD, Shury T, Appelbee AJ, Read C, Njiru Z, et al. The molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in coyotes from Alberta, Canada, and observations on some cohabiting parasites. Vet Parasitol 2009; 159(2): 167-170. PMid:19019549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.10.003
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008....
). Giardia cysts found in one of the cougars (Puma concolor) in the present study were genotyped and were also of human origin (SOARES et al., 2011Soares RM, de Souza SLP, Silveira LH, Funada MR, Richtzenhain LJ, Gennari SM. Genotyping of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from exotic and wild animals kept in captivity in Brazil. Vet Parasitol 2011; 180(3-4): 344-348. PMid:21530084. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.03.049
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011....
). In all these cases, epidemiological evidence suggests that human beings are the source of infection, through direct or indirect environmental contamination from raising domestic animals. The impact of these zoonotic species of Giardia in the wild is unknown. The evidence for an association of Giardia infection with clinical disease in primates is sparse (GRACZYK et al., 2002Graczyk TK, Bozso-Nizeyi JB, Sebide B, Thompson RCA, Read C, Cranfield MR. Anthropozoonotic Giardia duodenalis genotype (assemblage) a infections in habitats of free-ranging human-habituated gorillas, Uganda. J Parasitol 2002; 88(5): 905-909. PMid:12435128.).

The reemergence of infection by Cryptosporidium in humans, particularly in immune-deficient patients, has stimulated research, monitoring and characterization of this parasite in wild species in order to identify possible reservoirs for water-borne infection of human beings (THOMPSON et al., 2005Thompson RC, Olson ME, Zhu G, Enomoto S, Abrahamsen MS, Hijjawi NS. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis. Adv Parasitol 2005; 59: 77-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(05)59002-X
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-308X(05)...
). Several varieties ofCryptosporidium have been identified, but with little or no significance for public health (CACCIO et al., 2005Caccio SM, Thompson RCA, McLauchlin J, Smith HV. Unravelling Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology. Trends Parasitol 2005; 21(9): 430-437. PMid:16046184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2005.06.013
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2005.06.0...
; HUNTER; THOMPSON, 2005Hunter PR, Thompson RCA. The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Int J Parasitol 2005; 35(11-12): 1181-1190. PMid:16159658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2005.07.009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2005....
; SLAPETA, 2009Slapeta J. Centenary of the genus Cryptosporidium: from morphological to molecular species identification. In: Ortega-Pierres G, Caccio S, Fayer R, Mank TG, Smith HV, Thompson RCA, editors. Giardia and Cryptosporidium: From Molecules to Disease. Wallingford: CABi; 2009. p. 94-106.). The diversity ofCryptosporidium spp. found in wildlife deserves further study in terms of ecology, evolution, biology and potential impact on the health of these animals (THOMPSON et al., 2010Thompson RCA, Lymbery AJ, Smith A. Parasites, emerging disease and wildlife conservation. Int J Parasitol 2010; 40(10): 1163-1170. PMid:20452354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2010.04.009
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2010....
).

Ancylostoma tubaeforme is a cosmopolitan nematode in cats (ANDERSON, 2000Anderson RC. Nematode parasites of vertebrates: their development and transmission. Walingford: CABI Publishing; 2000. 672 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851994215.0000
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851994215....
) and, in Neotropical regions, it has been reported in jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), jaguars (Panthera onca) and Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi) (THATCHER, 1971Thatcher VE. Some hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma from Colombia and Panama. Proc Helminthol Soc Washington 1971; 38(1): 245-248.; MARTINÉZ, 1987Martinéz FA. Zoonoparásitos de mamíferos silvestres. Vet Arg 1987; 4(33): 266-271.). Beldomenico et al. (2006)Beldomenico PM, Kinsella JM, Uhart MM, Gutierrez GL, Pereira J, Ferreyra HV, et al. Helminths of Geoffroy's cat, Oncifelis geoffroyi (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Monte desert, Central Argentina. Acta Parasitol 2006; 50(3): 263-266. identified helminth eggs in seven wild felids in Argentina and found several species, including Ancylostoma tubaeforme,Toxocara cati and Taenia sp.

Infection of these animal species may indicate that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic cats. However, unfortunately, information about the helminthic fauna in Neotropical felids is rare and scarce (BELDOMENICO, 2006Beldomenico PM, Kinsella JM, Uhart MM, Gutierrez GL, Pereira J, Ferreyra HV, et al. Helminths of Geoffroy's cat, Oncifelis geoffroyi (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Monte desert, Central Argentina. Acta Parasitol 2006; 50(3): 263-266.).

Regarding the canid samples analyzed, 20% of the animals presentedGiardia cysts, Eimeria sp. oocysts andToxocara canis eggs. In the samples of a Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox) and Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf) were identified Cestoda eggs and Eimeria oocysts. In a study carried in wild canids of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil, revealed the presence of Ancylostomiae, Trichuridae eggs among others parasites in feces of Cerdocyon thous and Chrysocyon brachyuru, however, only one sample (20%) of Cerdocyon thous was found Cestoda eggs (SANTOS et al., 2012Santos JLC, Magalhães NB, Santos HA, Ribeiro RR, Guimarães MP. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2012; 21(3): 270-277. PMid:23070438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612012000300016
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612012...
).

In the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira), only two Giardia sp. cysts were identified. Since this was the only animal of this species in the reserves, studies on possible parasites that could be found in this species were compromised. Several studies have been published about deer parasites in New Jersey (SAMUEL et al., 1968Samuel WM, Trainer DO. Trichostrongylus axei (Cobbold, 1879) in white-tailed deer. J Parasitol 1968; 54(6): 1091. PMid:5757684. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3276968
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3276968...
), southern Chile (DIAZ et al., 1977Diaz L, Rioseco H, Cubillos V. Prospeccion y patologia del parasitismo en cervideos autóctonos y exóticos en el sur de Chile. Bol Chil Parasitol 1977; 32: 86-89. PMid:610724.), Hawaii (McKENZIE et al., 1989McKenzie ME, Davidson WR. Helminth parasites of intermingling axis deer, wild swine and domestic cattle from the island of Molokai, Hawaii. J Wildl Dis 1989; 25(2): 253-257.) and Brazil (NASCIMENTO, 1996Nascimento AA. Helmintos parasitos de cervídeos, provenientes dos municípios de Corumbá, Coxim e Pedro Gomes (região do Pantanal), estado do Mato Grosso do Sul e de Promissão, São Paulo [Dissertação]. Jaboticabal: Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho; 1996., 2000Nascimento, AA, Bonuti, MR, Mapeli, EB, Tebaldi, JH, Arantes, IG, Zettermann, CD. Infecções naturais em cervídeos (Mammalia: Cervidae) procedentes dos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo por nematódeos Trichostrongyloidea Cram, 1927. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci 2000; 37(2): 153-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-95962000000200012
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-95962000...
). However, there are few reports on protozoa in deer. In southern Chile, presence of Moniezia and Sarcocystis has been reported (DIAZ et al., 1977Diaz L, Rioseco H, Cubillos V. Prospeccion y patologia del parasitismo en cervideos autóctonos y exóticos en el sur de Chile. Bol Chil Parasitol 1977; 32: 86-89. PMid:610724.).

In the feces samples from coatis (Nasua nasua), trophozoites containing several unidentified flagella were found.

Eggs from Enterobius sp. (Oxyuridae) were identified in the fecal sample from a red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus). This is one of the few reports of this parasite in this species of non-human primate. In a scientific excursion to the Pantanal area of the state of Mato Grosso (the banks of the rivers São Lourenço and Cuiabá) many decades ago, researchers performed necropsies on 455 birds, 62 mammals, 63 fish, 25 reptiles and two amphibians. Among these, 43% were parasitized: 33% by nematodes, 27% by trematodes, 18% by cestodes, 7% by acanthocephalans and 3% by pentastomids. In this excursion, the first report of the genus Enterobius (Enterobius minutus species) was made in a howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) (TRAVASSOS et al., 1927Travassos L, Pinto C, Muniz J. Excursão scientifica ao estado de Mato Grosso na zona do pantanal (margens dos rios S. Lourenço e Cuyabá) realisada em 1922. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1927; 20(2): 249-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761927000200004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761927...
).

Enterobius nematodes are Oxyuridae that are found in humans and primates and have anthropozoonotic importance (DILRUKSDHI et al., 2006). Species ofStrongyloides and Enterobius in non-human primates, including the human parasites Enterobius vermicularis,Strongyloides stercoralis and S. fuelleborni have been described by Inglis (1961)Inglis WG. The oxyurid parasites (Nematoda) of primates. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1961; 136(1): 103-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1961.tb06081.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.19...
, Yamaschita (1963)Yamashita J. Ecological relationships between parasites and primates. Primates 1963; 4., Collet et al. (1986)Collet JY, Galdikas BM, Sugarjito J, Jojosudharmo S. A coprological study of parasitism in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Indonesia. J Med Primatol 1986; 15(2): 121-129. PMid:3959059. and Monteiro et al. (2003)Monteiro RV, Jansen AM, Pinto RM. Coprological helminth screening in Brazilian free ranging golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia (L., 1766) (Primates, Callitrichidae). Braz J Biol 2003; 63(4):727-729. PMid:15029386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842003000400022
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842003...
.

Another study published with similar findings was conducted in 2001, on 125 monkeys of the species Macaca sinica sinica, Trachypithecus vetulus philbricki and Semnopithecus priam thersites in the Polonnaruwa Nature Sanctuary and Archaeological Reserve in Sri Lanka. The samples were analyzed by means of the fecal flotation test and the researchers identified the genus Enterobius in 52% of the monkeys studied, among other parasites (EKANAYABE et al., 2006Ekanayabe DK, Arulkanthan A, Horadagoda NU, Sanjeevani GKM, Kieft R, Gunatilake S, et al. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other enteric parasites among wild non-human primates en Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. AmJ Med Hyg 2006; 74(2): 322-329.).

In relation to the birds, a pool of feces was collected from the cages and examined. Several Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani), Eimeria sp. oocysts andStrongyloides sp. embryonated eggs in blue-and-yellow (Ara ararauna) and red-and-green macaws (Ara chloroptera) were identified.

Studies conducted on these birds in the state of Pernambuco showed the presence of Ascaridia sp., Strongyloides sp.,Heterakis spp., Strongyloidea and Spiruroidea; Trematoda and Cestoda eggs; Balantidium coli, Entamoeba coli andE. histolytica cysts; and coccidian oocysts. Among these, higher occurrence of Capillaria sp., Strongyloidea,Strongyloides sp. and Ascaridia sp. was found, with prevalences of 76.5, 13.7, 5.9 and 2% respectively (FREITAS et al., 2002Freitas MFL, Oliveira JB, Cavalcanti MDB, Leite AS, Magalhães VS, Oliveira RA, et al. Parásitos gastrointestinales de aves silvestres en cautiverio en el estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Parasitol Latinoam 2002; 57(1-2): 50-54.).

Despite the small number of samples collected, it could be concluded that the diversity of parasites found in fecal samples from the animals evaluated was noteworthy, considering the lack of information on occurrence and diversity of the vast majority of parasites in free-living wild animals under Brazilian conditions.

Studies on endoparasite fauna in wild animals and consequent detection of infection in these animals might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. Therefore, further studies on parasites in wild animals are necessary in order to better understand the intensity of anthropic changes to wild environments.

References

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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851994215.0000
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2005.06.004
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2005.06.013
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5452.443
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    17 June 2013
  • Date of issue
    abr-jun 2013

History

  • Received
    28 Sept 2012
  • Accepted
    10 Dec 2012
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