Technological innovations in animal production related to environmental sustainability

Inovações tecnológicas na produção animal relacionadas à sustentabilidade ambiental

Abstracts

According to FAO, meat production will double by 2050 to meet the demand of growing and more affluent population. The soaring demand presents an environmental challenge for intensive animal production. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly methane (CH4) increases as animal numbers increase, however, mitigation strategies such as dietary manipulation (e.g., lipid supplementation), ionophores, defaunation and biotechnologies can be used to reduce emissions per animal. Emissions from manure storage can also be reduced using biological and thermochemical conversion technologies with added benefit of producing bio-energy while treating livestock wastes. At the animal level, reduction of overfeeding protein and balancing the amounts of protein degraded in rumen and those allowed to bypass the rumen will reduce N excretion. Synchronizing energy and protein supply to animals also offers better utilization of nutrients with concomitant decrease in urine N, which contains high levels of urea that can be converted into ammonia when mixed with feces. Phosphorus in manure represents a significant renewable resource and there are several technologies that remove and recover P from manure including chemical precipitation, biological P removal and crystallization. The development of technologies for GHG and nutrient reduction offers the opportunity for environmental sustainability.

entenic fermentation; methane; ruminants


De acordo com a FAO, a produção de carne deve duplicar até 2050, devido à grande demanda e enriquecimento da população. Essa crescente necessidade apresenta um desafio ambiental para a produção intensiva de animais. A emissão de gás do efeito estufa, particularmente metano (CH4), se eleva com o aumento do número de animais, entretanto, estratégias de mitigação, tais como a manipulação da dieta, por exemplo, suplementação lipídica, ionóforos, defaunação e biotecnologias podem ajudar a reduzir a remessa por animal. Emissões por armazenamento de esterco também podem ser reduzidas se utilizarem tecnologias biológicas e termoquímicas com o benefício adicional de se produzir bio-energia durante o tratamento de resíduos animais. No que diz respeito ao animal, a redução da superalimentação proteica e a manutenção do equilíbrio entre proteína degradada no rúmen e proteína bypass podem reduzir a excreção de nitrogênio. Balanceamento de energia e suplementação proteica dos animais também podem oferecer melhor utilização dos nutrientes e, concomitantemente, diminuir o nitrogênio na urina, que contém altos níveis de ureia que, por sua vez, pode ser convertida em amônia quando misturada às fezes. Fósforo nos resíduos (estrume) representa um importante recurso renovável, e várias tecnologias existem para remover e recuperar esse mineral sem excluir precipitação química, remoção biológica e cristalização. O desenvolvimento de tecnologias relacionadas ao efeito estufa oferece oportunidade para a sustentabilidade ambiental.

fermentação entérica; metano; ruminantes


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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    28 Mar 2013
  • Date of issue
    Dec 2012

History

  • Received
    10 Nov 2011
  • Accepted
    15 May 2012
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