Digestibility, ingestive behavior, and nitrogen balance in goat kids fed a diet containing dehydrated passion fruit residue

Jocasta Meira Galvão Thadeu Mariniello Silva Willian Pereira Silva Paulo Roberto Silveira Pimentel Anny Graycy Vasconcelos de Oliveira Lima Thiago Vinicius Costa Nascimento Rebeca Dantas Xavier Ribeiro Jarbas Miguel da Silva Júnior Daniela Pionorio Vilaronga Castro Leilson Rocha Bezerra Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira About the authors

ABSTRACT

The objective was to determine the optimal dehydrated passion fruit pulp replacing ground corn in diets for goat kids. We used 24 crossbred castrated goat kids with initial body weight of 26.6±0.3 kg. The experimental period was 23 days, with 15 days of adjustment and acclimatization (mostly to the installation and diet). Kids were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments of 0, 80, 160, or 240 g/kg of dehydrated passion fruit residue as a supplementary inclusion in the dry matter (DM) content of the diet. The statistical model considered the fixed effect of the included amount of residue from dehydrated passion fruit. Analysis of variance was conducted using the PROC GLM of SAS. Intakes of DM and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were not affected by residue inclusion. However, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake increased linearly. The inclusion linearly decreased intake of ether extract (EE) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC). Crude protein (CP) intake was quadratically affected, with a greater value under treatment of 160 g/kg passion fruit. Dry matter and NFC digestibility decreased linearly with the amount of passion fruit included in diet. Fecal N and total N excretion values (in g/d and %N intake) increased linearly. Nitrogen balance and N retained values showed a quadratic increase, with greater values under the 160 g/kg inclusion. Time spent ruminating, DM and NDF eating efficiency, and g DM/bolus chewed were affected quadratically by inclusion of passion fruit residue. The replacement of ground corn with dehydrated passion fruit residue at a level of 160 g/kg is recommended for diets of goat kids to improve their NDF and CP intake and their N balance without affecting DM and TDN intakes.

alternative feed; feedlot; fruticulture; small ruminant

1. Introduction

Residues from the processing of tropical fruits can be used for the enrichment of silages, as well as directly in animals’ troughs (Lousada Júnior et al., 2006; Fachinello et al., 2016Fachinello, M. R.; Pozza, P. C.; Furlan, A. C.; Paula, V. R. C.; Bonagurio, L. P.; Marcato, S. M.; Leal, I. F. and Huepa, L. M. D. 2016. Nutritional evaluation of passion fruit seed meal for meat quails. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal 17:202-213. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-99402016000200008
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). Among the available options is passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) residue, which is obtained from the passion fruit pulp and seeds discarded during juice production.

The genus Passiflora, which belongs to the Passifloraceae family, contains more than 500 tropical species, and Brazil is the place of origin of most of them. The yellow passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis ), which is the main cultivated variety, is responsible for the supply of raw material for the processing industry and commercialization of fresh fruits (Lousada Junior et al . , 2005).

As an industrial byproduct of fruit production, passion fruit seeds can be obtained in large amounts at a low cost ( Sena et al., 2015Sena, J. A. B.; Villela, S. D. J.; Santos, R. A.; Pereira, I. G.; Castro, G. H. F.; Mourthé, M. H. F.; Bonfá, C. S. and Martins, P. G. M. A. 2015. Intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass traits of rams provided with dehydrated passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis f . flavicarpa ) peel, as a substitute of Tifton 85 ( Cynodon spp.). Small Ruminant Research 129:18-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2015.05.005
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). However, the product with the greatest potential for use in goat and sheep diets is the residue from the processing of passion fruit, which corresponds to approximately 65 to 70% of the total fruit. Passion fruit residue has an approximate chemical composition of dry matter (DM) ranging from 112 to 175 g/kg (as feed basis), after-drying processing DM content of 800 to 870 g/kg (as feed basis), crude protein (CP) content ranging from 75.3 to 122 g/kg DM, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content between 375 and 444 g/kg DM (Neiva Júnior et al., 2007; López-Vargas et al., 2013López-Vargas, J. H.; Fernández-López, J.; Pérez-Álvarez, J. A. and Viuda-Martos, M. 2013. Chemical, physico-chemical, technological, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa ) co-products. Food Research International 51:756-763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.01.055
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).

Thus, adding value to this residue product would be both economically and environmentally relevant, but further scientific and technological studies are needed to enable the efficient, economical, and safe use of this product ( Schieber et al., 2001Schieber, A.; Stintzing, F. C. and Carle, R. 2001. By-products of plant food processing as a source of functional compounds: recent developments. Trends in Food Science and Technology 12:401-413. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(02)00012-2
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(02)00...
). Therefore, due to the variations in the chemical composition of this residue and the effects of its use in diets provided to young goats, the effects of including increasing amounts of this residue on the production performance and ingestive behavior of goat kids need to be assessed.

Based on this scenario, this experiment aimed to test the hypothesis that the inclusion of up to 240 g/kg DM from dehydrated passion fruit residue in diets of goat kids will promote positive effects on intake and digestibility of diets and will not change the standard ingestive behavior of animals. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum dehydrated passion fruit residue amount that should be added to diets of goat kids based on an evaluation of nutrient intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, and nitrogen (N) balance.

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Ethical considerations, animal management, and treatments

The trial was performed in São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia, Brazil (latitude 12°23ʹ58ʺ S and longitude 38°52ʹ44ʺ W). Research on animals was conducted according to the institutional committee on animal use (case no. 18/2016).

Twenty-four castrated Boer goat kids at five months of age (on average) with an average body weight (BW) of 26.6±0.3 kg were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments (inclusion of 0, 80, 160, or 240 g/kg DM of dehydrated passion fruit residue in the concentrated supplement). The animals were kept in individual cages (1×1 m), where they had ad libitum access to feed, minerals, and water. The experiment lasted 23 days, with 15 days used for adjustment and acclimatization (mostly to the installation and diet). An early adjustment was included to identify the animals, and they were treated for external and internal parasites.

We followed the recommendations of the National Research Council ( NRC, 2007NRC - National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: sheep, goats, cervids and New World camelids. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. ) to formulate diets to meet the requirements for an average daily gain (ADG) of 200 g. The forage (400 g/kg) was Tifton-85 grass hay chopped into 5-cm pieces. The concentrated (600 g/kg) feedstuffs were soybean meal, corn bran, a mineral mixture, and dehydrated passion fruit residue ( Table 1 ). Upon arrival at the experimental farm, passion fruit residues were spread on top of a black plastic, forming a 5 cm-thick layer. They were dried under the sun (average atmospheric temperature = 30.5 ℃) for approximately 92 h until they reached 85-88% DM and then ground to a 1-cm particle size.

Table 1
Chemical composition of ingredients used in the preparation of experimental diets

The diets ( Table 2 ) were provided in a total mixed ration (TMR). The animals were given two daily meals (at 8:00 and 15:00 h), and the TMR was mixed and weighed daily for inclusion in the two meals offered to each individual. The next day, the leftovers were collected from the trough and weighed, and the offered meals were then adjusted based on leftovers compared with the offered amount, allowing 10-20% leftovers. Additionally, the ingestion of DM and other nutrients by the animals was analyzed and calculated.

Table 2
Proportions of ingredients and chemical composition of experimental diets in dry matter (DM) basis

To determine ingredients and compositions of diets, samples were obtained from the individual ingredients and the manipulated diets, and based on the concentrations and leftovers, feeds were collected weekly and then frozen (–20 ℃) for further analyses.

2.2. Nutrient intake and digestibility

To determine the nutrient intake, the quantity of each nutrient present in the leftover feed was subtracted from the total amount of each nutrient in the offered feed.

The digestibility trial lasted from days 17 to 23 of the experiment. For each animal (total sampling), leftovers and feces were collected and quantified using appropriate canvas bags. Goats first used the canvas bags for four days to adapt to them. During the next seven days, feces was collected twice a day (at 8:00 and 15:00), and 30% of the total feces was sampled each day and stored in plastic cases in a refrigerator. For each animal, samples of feedstuffs, leftovers, and feces were collected from the totals accumulated during the assay for further processing and analysis. Samples were dried at 55 ℃ for 72 h and ground using a Willey cutting mill (1-mm mesh sieve).

Urine was sampled using a container installed at the cage, and 0.036 N H2SO4 was proportionately equivalent to 10% of the volume of urine from the prior day.

The equation DC=[(kgof fraction ingestedkgof fraction excreted)/(kgof ingested fraction)]×100 was used to determine the digestibility coefficients of DM, CP, ether extract (EE), NDF, and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC). The content of total digestible nutrients (TDN) was calculated using the following equation: TDN=(TDN intake/DM intake)×100.

Nitrogen contents (obtained in triplicate) in diet, feces, and urine were analyzed according to the AOAC (2012)AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2012. Official methods of analysis. 19th ed. Washington, DC, USA. . The nitrogen balance (g/d) was calculated with the following equation: N-balance (g/g) = N intake (g/d) [fecal N excreted (g/d) + urinary N excreted in (g/d)] . Notal N excretion was calculated from the sum of the fecal N + urinary N excreted. Nitrogen excretion was also considered as the %N intake. Nitrogen retention was obtained as the difference between N balance and basal endogenous nitrogen (BEN), considering the endogenous tissue and dermal N losses to be 0.35 and 0.018 in metabolic weight, respectively ( AFRC, 1993AFRC - Agricultural and Food Research Council. 1993. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. CAB International, Wallingford. 159p. ). The BEN was obtained using the equation: BEN(g/day)=(0.018+0.35)×BW0.75.

2.3. Ingestive behavior

Each animal’s behavioral activities ( Martin and Bateson, 1993Martin, P. and Bateson, P. 1993. Measuring behaviour. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 222p. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139168342
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) were scored by two trained observers at 5-min intervals for 24 h, and during this process, the observers took care to have minimal impacts on the animals’ activities. During nighttime, artificial lighting was used.

Both observers considered the total ruminating chews and boluses ruminated throughout the day. Rumination efficiency, eating efficiency, and total chewing time (h/day) were determined according to Bürger et al. (2000)Bürger, P. J.; Pereira, J. C.; Queiroz, A. C.; Silva, J. F. C.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Cecon, P. R. and Casali, A. D. P. 2000. Ingestive behavior in Holstein calves fed diets with different concentrate levels. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 29:236-242. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982000000100031
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.

2.4. Chemical analyses

The samples obtained from the ingredients, remaining feedstuffs, and feces were dried for 72 h at 55 ℃ and ground in a 1-mm sieve for further laboratory analysis. Triplicate samples were used for the analyses of DM (967.03 method), ash (942.05 method), CP (981.10 method), and EE (920.29 method) according to the AOAC (2012)AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2012. Official methods of analysis. 19th ed. Washington, DC, USA. .

The NDF was determined following recommendations of Van Soest et al . (1991) after extracting ash and protein (NDFap) based on the Ankom manual of procedures (Ankom200 Technology Corporation, New York, US) with some modifications. The method developed by Robertson and Van Soest (1981)Robertson, J. B. and Van Soest, P. J. 1981. The detergent system of analysis and its application to human food. p.123-158. In: The analysis of dietary fiber in food. James, W. P. T. and Theander, O., eds. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA. and the method 973.18 of the AOAC (2012)AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2012. Official methods of analysis. 19th ed. Washington, DC, USA. were used for the determination of ADF and acid detergent lignin (ADL). The NFC was determined as described by Mertens (1997)Mertens, D. R. 1997. Creating a system for meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80:1463-1481. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76075-2
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based on NDFap values. The acid and neutral detergent-insoluble protein were determined using the method recommended by Licitra et al. (1996)Licitra, G.; Hernandez, T. M. and Van Soest, P. J. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 57:347-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00837-3
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.

Spectrophotometric analysis (Folin-Ciocalteu method; Singleton and Rossi, 1965Singleton, V. L. and Rossi, J. A. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16:144-158. ; Georgé et al. , 2005), which was performed in triplicate with gallic acid as the standard, was used to determine the total phenolic content in the feedstuffs. The results are stated as equivalents of gallic acid (mg/g) and were determined based on a calibration curve assembled using several dilutions of gallic acid. The total flavonoid content was determined through a spectrophotometric analysis after reaction with aluminum chloride, as recommended by Fu et al. (2010)Fu, W.; Chen, J.; Cai, Y.; Lei, Y.; Chen, L.; Pei, L.; Zhou, D.; Liang, X. and Ruan, J. 2010. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective potential of the extract from Parathelypteris nipponica (Franch. et Sav.) Ching. Journal Ethnopharmacology 130:521-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.039
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. Total flavonoid contents were expressed as equivalents of quercetin (mg/g) based on a calibration curve elaborated using different quercetin levels. The concentration of condensed tannin (g/kg DM) was measured based on the mean difference between total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and tannin content.

2.5. Statistical analyses

The statistical model considered the fixed effect of the included amount of dehydrated passion fruit residue (0, 80, 160, and 240 g/kg DM), and initial body weight was used as a covariate once it reached significance. The statistical model was as follows:

Yij=μ+Ti+βWijW+eij,

in which Y ij = observed value of the dependent variable in animal j receiving treatment i ; µ = general mean; T i = fixed effect of treatment i ( i = effect of dehydrated passion fruit residue); β = linear regression coefficient relative to covariate W ij ; W ij = covariate effect (initial BW of animal j receiving treatment i ); and e ij = random effect of experimental error. Analysis of variance was conducted using the PROC GLM SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.1), and means were subjected to regression analysis using the PROC REG command of SAS statistical package. P-values less than 0.05 were assumed to indicate significance, and 0.05<P<0.10 was considered to indicate a trend. Results of the cubic effect analysis that were not significant are not presented in the tables.

3. Results

Linear decreases in EE (P = 0.001) and NFC (P = 0.003) intake and a linear increase in NDFap intake (P = 0.005) were observed with increasing amounts of dehydrated passion fruit residue in diets ( Table 3 ). The inclusion of increasing amounts of dehydrated passion fruit residue in the goat diet also had a positive quadratic effect on CP intake (P = 0.028) and resulted in linear decreases in digestibility of DM (P = 0.035), NFC (P = 0.007), and TDN (P = 0.056). Moreover, the inclusion of this dehydrated residue quadratically increased N intake (P = 0.028), N balance (P = 0.029), and N retained (P = 0.032), with greater values for the 160 g/kg DM inclusion treatment. Additionally, the inclusion resulted in a linear increase in fecal N excretion (P = 0.025) and total N excretion (P = 0.041). The intake of DM (P = 0.143) and TDN (P = 0.286), digestibility of EE (P = 0.778) and NDFap (P = 0.238), urinary N excretion (P = 0.582), and BEN (P = 0.883) were not affected by the inclusion of dehydrated passion fruit residue in goat kid diets. Significant effects were presented in the %N intake, fecal N (P = 0.043), and total N (P = 0.012) excretions and reduced N balance (P = 0.033) due to dehydrated passion fruit residue inclusion.

Table 3
Feed intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance of goat kids fed passion fruit residue, on dry matter (DM) basis

The inclusion of dehydrated passion fruit residue in goat diets did not change time spent eating (P = 0.751), number of times/day that goat kids went to the feeder (P = 0.400), ruminated (P = 0.131), or idled (P = 0.413), or ruminating efficiency of DM (P = 0.228) ( Table 4 ). However, the addition of at least 80 g/kg passion fruit residue to goat kid diets had a positive quadratic effect on eating efficiency of DM (P<0.01) and NDF (P = 0.003) and the amount of DM/bolus chewed (g) (P = 0.026). A linear increase in time that goat kids spent ruminating (P<0.01) and a linear decrease in time spent idling (P = 0.062) in the feedlot were also observed. In addition, the inclusion of dehydrated passion fruit residue in goat kid diets tended to be associated with a negative quadratic effect on the number of boluses/day chewed (P = 0.092) and showed linear increases in ruminating efficiency of NDF (P = 0.064) and number of chews per bolus/day (P = 0.092).

Table 4
Ingestive behavior of goat kids fed passion fruit residue

4. Discussion

The range of DM intake (from 1.02 to 1.14 kg/day; 4.52 to 6.03% BW) of goat kids was greater than that reported by other authors ( Sultana et al., 2015Sultana, N.; Alimon, A. R.; Huque, K. S.; Sazili, A. Q.; Yaakub, H.; Hossain, J. and Baba, M. 2015. The feeding value of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) foliage as replacement to conventional concentrate diet in Bengal goats. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences 3:164-173. https://doi.org/10.14737/journal.aavs/2015/3.3.164.173
https://doi.org/10.14737/journal.aavs/20...
; Garcez et al., 2019Garcez, B. S.; Alves, A. A.; Araújo, D. L. C.; Oliveira, M. E.; Pompeu, R. C. F. F.; Rogério, M. C. P.; Moreira, A. L. and Lima, I. S. S. 2019. Performance and grazing behavior of growing goats supplemented with palm tree fruit. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 48:e20180159. https://doi.org/10.1590/rbz4820180159
https://doi.org/10.1590/rbz4820180159...
), and the DM intake met the nutritional requirements established by the NRC (2007)NRC - National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: sheep, goats, cervids and New World camelids. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. that was consistent with the prediction of voluntary DM intake in stall-fed growing goats. Almeida et al. (2019b) suggested that, on average, animals weighing 25 kg would eat 1.0 to 1.2 kg of DM per day (5.5 to 6.0% BW).

The inclusion of dehydrated passion fruit residue (240 g/kg DM) increased the NDFap content by 143% and reduced NFC by 21.2% due to the higher NDFap (401 g/kg DM) and lower NFC (487 g/kg DM) contents in the residue than in ground corn (132 g/kg NDFap and 751 g/kg NDFap as DM) and, consequently, increased NDFap intake. In general, fruit residues show high variation in their NDFap contents because of differences in the cell wall composition ( Azevêdo et al., 2011Azevêdo, J. A. G.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Pina, D. S.; Detmann, E.; Valadares, R. F. D.; Pereira, L. G. R.; Souza, N. K. P. and Silva, L. F. C. 2011. Intake, total digestibility, microbial protein production and the nitrogen balance in diets with fruit by-products for ruminants. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 40:1052-1060. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011000500017
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-3598201100...
; Almeida et al., 2019a). The proportion of each cell wall component influences the fiber intake, mainly because the components influence the cell wall digestibility, which in turn affects the nutrient intake ( Van Soest et al., 1991Van Soest, P. J.; Robertson, J. B. and Lewis, B. A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polyssacharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
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; Almeida et al., 2019b). Dehydrated passion fruit residue in goat kid diets reduced the digestibility of DM, TDN, and NFC. The lower digestibility of NFC from the dehydrated passion fruit diet compared with the control diet could be explained by the high lignin content of this residue, as also observed by Sena et al. (2015)Sena, J. A. B.; Villela, S. D. J.; Santos, R. A.; Pereira, I. G.; Castro, G. H. F.; Mourthé, M. H. F.; Bonfá, C. S. and Martins, P. G. M. A. 2015. Intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass traits of rams provided with dehydrated passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis f . flavicarpa ) peel, as a substitute of Tifton 85 ( Cynodon spp.). Small Ruminant Research 129:18-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2015.05.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.20...
and Almeida et al. (2019a). The presence of lignin tends to increase the indigestible fraction of the fiber, reducing the potentially digestible fraction ( Wilson 1994Wilson, J. R. 1994. Cell wall characteristics in relation to forage digestion by ruminants. The Journal of Agricultural Science 122:173-182. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600087347
https://doi.org/10.1017/S002185960008734...
; Fox et al., 2003Fox, D. G.; Tylutki, T. P.; Tedeschi, L. O.; Van Amburgh, M. E.; Chase, L. E.; Pell, A. N.; Overton, T. R. and Russell, J. B. 2003. The Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion. Cornell University, New York. ).

Although the inclusion of dehydrated passion fruit residue did not influence the time spent eating, the increase of dietary fiber concentration and intake increased the time spent ruminating and reduced the time spent idling in goat kids. The consequence of this effect was an increase in chewing (g DM/bolus) and a decrease in eating efficiencies of DM and NDFap among the kids.

In addition, dehydrated passion fruit residue can increase the free tannins, which can negatively affect fibrolytic bacteria by changing their membranes ( Makkar, 2003Makkar, H. P. S. 2003. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Ruminant Research 49:241-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00142-1
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). Some researchers have reported that the presence of a high tannin concentration (>50 g/kg DM) in fruit residues results in the inhibition of voluntary intake and increases the number of chews and bolus chewing time due to astringents resulting from the formation of complexes by salivary proteins and tannins ( Muir, 2011Muir, J. P. 2011. The multi-faceted role of condensed tannins in the goat ecosystem. Small Ruminant Research 98:115-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.03.028
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.20...
; Bezerra et al., 2015Bezerra, L. R.; Edvan, R. L.; Oliveira, R. L.; Silva, A. M. A.; Bayão, G. F. V.; Pereira, F. B. and Oliveira, W. D. C. 2015. Hemato-biochemical profile and milk production of crossbred Girolando cows supplemented with product dehydrated cashew. Semina: Ciências Agrárias 36:3329-3340. https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2015v36n5p3329
https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2015v3...
; Gxasheka et al., 2015)Gxasheka, M.; Tyasi, T. L.; Qin, N. and Lyu, Z. C. 2015. An overview of tannins rich plants as alternative supplementation on ruminant animals: a review. International Journal of Agriculture Research Review 3:343-349. .

The N balance increased due to the addition of dehydrated passion fruit residue at the level 160 g/kg DM in goat kid diets, which indicated that the animals retained protein from the diets (N retained increases), achieving the main objective of the nutritional planning.

However, when the inclusion of dehydrated passion fruit residue to replace ground corn was at the level of 240 g/kg DM, the protein degradation rate exceeded the rate of carbohydrate fermentation, and more N compounds were eliminated ( Van Soest 1994Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, New York. ; Parente et al., 2009Parente, H. N.; Machado, T. M. M.; Carvalho, F. C.; Garcia, R.; Rogério, M. C. P.; Barros, N. N. N. and Zanine, A. M. 2009. Performance of confined sheep fed different diets. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 61:460-466. ). The total N excretion increased from 32 to 42% of the N intake. Therefore, our results indicated that the experimental diets provided a balanced supply of protein and energy, which in turn may have improved the use of dietary protein. Lousada Junior et al. (2005) evaluated the feeding of sheep using byproducts of juice extraction and passion fruit, observing an increase in CP intake. Sena et al. (2015)Sena, J. A. B.; Villela, S. D. J.; Santos, R. A.; Pereira, I. G.; Castro, G. H. F.; Mourthé, M. H. F.; Bonfá, C. S. and Martins, P. G. M. A. 2015. Intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass traits of rams provided with dehydrated passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis f . flavicarpa ) peel, as a substitute of Tifton 85 ( Cynodon spp.). Small Ruminant Research 129:18-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2015.05.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.20...
added dehydrated passion fruit in amounts of up to 600 g/kg DM in diets of Santa Inês × Dorper sheep and observed similar CP digestibility with increasing N intake values, but no effect was observed on fecal N and urinary N excretion or N balance.

Replacing ground corn with dehydrated passion fruit residue guarantees an adequate protein supply and allows the concentration of N-NH3 in the rumen to supply most of the nitrogen requirement for microbial growth, which is the first priority in improving the fermentative digestibility of the fiber. According to Silva and Ørskov (1988)Silva, A. T. and Ørskov, E. R. 1988. The effect the five different supplements on the degradation of straw in sheep given untreated barley straw. Animal Feed Science and Technology 19:289-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(88)90091-0
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, when there is a sufficient protein supply to assist microorganisms in digestion, there is no effect of supplementation on the digestibility of DM and NDF, since all supplements provide ruminal N-NH3 concentrations greater than 5 mg/dL of ruminal fluid, which was suggested by Satter and Slyter (1974)Satter, L. D. and Slyter, L. L. 1974. Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro. British Journal of Nutrition 32:199-208. to support cellulolytic activity.

According to Azevêdo et al. (2011)Azevêdo, J. A. G.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Pina, D. S.; Detmann, E.; Valadares, R. F. D.; Pereira, L. G. R.; Souza, N. K. P. and Silva, L. F. C. 2011. Intake, total digestibility, microbial protein production and the nitrogen balance in diets with fruit by-products for ruminants. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 40:1052-1060. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011000500017
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-3598201100...
, passion fruit byproduct has a cell wall containing 7.79% acid detergent lignin as DM, which can make it difficult for microorganisms to access, decreasing the availability of this component and reducing CP digestibility. This can promote greater intestinal flux of N in the intestine, which would explain the greater excretion of fecal N and, consequently, total N. However, a positive N balance was observed with all the diets, which demonstrated that all of them provided an adequate N supply to the animals.

In addition, passion fruit byproduct has the potential to partially replace roughage in diets for ruminants, as long as the EE levels are respected ( Azevêdo et al., 2011Azevêdo, J. A. G.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Pina, D. S.; Detmann, E.; Valadares, R. F. D.; Pereira, L. G. R.; Souza, N. K. P. and Silva, L. F. C. 2011. Intake, total digestibility, microbial protein production and the nitrogen balance in diets with fruit by-products for ruminants. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 40:1052-1060. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011000500017
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-3598201100...
). In our study, our hypothesis included challenging the animals by replacing corn grain in the concentrated supplement, which increased the NDF of the animals’ diet and probably produced a rumen-filling effect, which, depending on its level, may restrict DM intake.

5. Conclusions

The replacement of ground corn with dehydrated passion fruit residue at the 160 g/kg level is recommended for goat kid diets to improve their intake of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein and their N balance and N retained, without affecting intakes of dry matter and total digestible nutrients. The substitution of ground corn with dehydrated passion fruit residue at the level of 240 g/kg negatively affects the N balance and retention. It is important to note that the use of this feedstuff is recommended when it is easily available and cost-effective.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    05 July 2021
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    16 July 2020
  • Accepted
    21 Oct 2020
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