Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Volume: 40, Issue: 10, Published: 2011
  • Genetic divergence among accessions of Arachis repens based on vegetative morphological traits Forage Crops

    Azevedo, José Marlo Araújo de; Silva, Hellen Sandra Freires da; Assis, Giselle Mariano Lessa de; Santos, Laís Fernanda Andrade dos; Wolter, Priscila Ferreira

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to verify the existence of genetic variability among accessions of Arachis repens based on vegetative morphological characters, identifying those which contribute least for distinction of those accessions. Nineteen accessions were evaluated in a completely randomized design with ten replicates, established in 4-m² plots. The traits evaluated were: basal leaflet length, basal leaflet width, apical leaflet length, apical leaflet width, petiole length, internode average length and internode diameter. The data obtained were submitted to univariate statistical analysis and accessions were grouped by the Scott-Knott test, at 1% of probability. The analysis of canonical variables and Tocher method were used to study the genetic divergence among accessions. Six heterogeneous groups were formed by Tocher method and eight groups were formed by technique of canonical variables, in which a consistency among grouping set by the different techniques used was observed. There is genetic divergence among accessions of A. repens on the basis of vegetative morphology traits, but there is the need to extend variability in Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Amendoim Forrageiro (Active Germplasm Bank of Forage Peanut). Apical leaflet length is the trait that contributes least to the accessions' distinctions, but it is important to maintain the standard cluster, and it should not be discarded
  • Sward canopy structure and performance of beef heifers under supplementation in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures maintained with three grazing intensities in a continuous stocking system Forage Crops

    Casagrande, Daniel Rume; Ruggieri, Ana Cláudia; Moretti, Matheus Henrique; Berchielli, Telma Teresinha; Vieira, Bruno Ramalho; Roth, Anna Paula de Toledo Piza; Reis, Ricardo Andrade

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to assess the sward canopy structure of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures maintained in three grazing intensities under continuous stocking system during the rainy season, along with the behavior and performance of grazing beef heifers supplemented with mineral salt or an energy/protein supplement. Three levels of forage allowance were assessed: 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kg of forage/kg of live weight, combined with two supplements (ad libitum mineral salt, and an energy/protein supplement at 0.3% of live weight/day, supplied daily). The experiment was designed as a randomized block study with two replications. The supplements did not influence the variables related to the canopy structure. Canopy height was greater at higher forage allowances during the late summer and early fall. Similarly, the stem mass was greater in pastures with higher forage allowances. Animals fed protein supplement spent less time grazing than animals supplemented with mineral salt. Stocking rate was higher in pastures with lower forage allowance levels, which increased the live weight gain per grazing area. Daily weight gain did not vary according to the forage allowance levels. The use of an energy/protein supplement did not affect the stocking rate; however, it increased individual live weight gain and live weight gain per grazing area compared with mineral salt supplementation. The use of energy/protein supplements is an efficient alternative to enhance animal performance and production under grazing systems during the rainy season
  • Use of conditioners in the production of Tifton 85 grass hay Forage Crops

    Castagnara, Deise Dalazen; Ames, João Paulo; Neres, Marcela Abbado; Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Rabello de; Silva, Francieli Batista; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; Stangarlin, José Renato; Franzener, Gilmar

    Abstract in English:

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the curve of dehydration, bromatological composition and occurrence of fungi in Tifton 85 grass, submitted to four methods of dehydration. The curves of dehydration were studied in a completely randomized design with a 4 × 11 factorial scheme with four drying systems (1 conditioning + 1 turn-over; 2 conditionings + 1 turn-over; no conditioning + 1 turn-over and no conditioning + 2 turn-overs) and 11 sampling times (0, 3, 15, 18, 21, 24, 39, 42, 45 and 47 hours after the cutting), with six replicates. For the bromatological composition and fungi occurrence, the experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme with the four drying methods of Tifton 85 grass and three periods of evaluation (before the cutting, at the time of the baling and 30 days after storage) with six replicates. It was found that after the first hour after cutting and at the end of the period of dehydration, Tifton 85 plants that were treated with conditioners showed higher levels of dry matter. Stored hay that was treated with conditioners presented higher levels of acid detergent insoluble protein. Until baling, the drying methods did not alter the crude protein content of hay; however, after storage, the hay submitted only to turn-over showed crude protein content higher (13.90%) than those submitted to conditioners (9.94%). There was an increase in the occurrence of fungi after storage, but the application of conditioners and one turn-over resulted in lower CUF/g, compared with other treatments, enhancing the effect of conditioners on accelerating the dehydration rate and obtaining better hay storage conditions
  • Thermal-biological aspects on seed germination of hairy bird's-foot trefoil under different temperatures Forragicultura

    Lopes, Rodrigo Ramos; Franke, Lúcia Brandão

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O objetivo neste trabalho foi determinar as temperaturas mínima, ótima e máxima para a germinação de sementes de Lotus subbiflorus Lag. utilizando-se como parâmetros a porcentagem, a velocidade, a frequência, a entropia informacional de germinação e a entalpia líquida de ativação. O experimento foi realizado em dois lotes com quatro subamostras, cada uma de 100 sementes, e os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Foram utilizadas oito temperaturas constantes (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 ºC) com a presença de fotoperíodo. Esta espécie germina numa faixa de temperatura com valores mínimos entre 0 e 5ºC, ótimos entre 15 e 20 ºC e máximos entre 30 e 35 ºC. A velocidade de germinação apresentou-se linearmente dependente da temperatura. Os maiores valores de velocidade de germinação, que ocorreram entre 15 ºC e 20 ºC abaixo e acima desta faixa decresceram significativamente. Os menores valores de entropia informacional ocorreram entre 15 e 20 ºC, mostrando maior sincronização do processo germinvatio nessas temperaturas. O ponto mínimo da entalpia foi atingido a 278 K e o máximo, a 303 K e 290,5 K, ponto no qual a curva cruzou o eixo da abscissa

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this research was to determine the minimal, optimal and maximal temperatures for seed germination of Lotus subbiflorus Lag., using germination percentage, speed, frequency, informational entropy and enthalpy of activation of germination. The experiment was carried out in two lots with four replicates of 100 seeds each. The data were submitted to variance analysis and means were compared by Tukey's test. Eight constant temperatures (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ºC) and light exposition (darkness and 8 h of light plus 16 h of darkness) were used. This species of seed germinates in a temperature range of minimal values between 0 and 5 ºC, optimal values between 15 and 20 ºC and maximal values between 30 and 35 ºC. Germination rate was temperature dependent. The highest values of speed germination, occurring between 15 and 20 ºC below and above this range germination speed had a significant reduction. The lowest values of informational entropy occurred between 15 and 20 ºC, showing a higher synchronization of germination process in these temperatures. The enthalpy value of the system was calculated, reaching its minimum point at 278 K, and its maximum, at 303 K; the point at which the curve crossed the absciss axis was 290.5 K
  • Silage of winter cereals submitted to double purpose management Forragicultura

    Meinerz, Gilmar Roberto; Olivo, Clair Jorge; Viégas, Julio; Nörnberg, José Laerte; Agnolin, Carlos Alberto; Scheibler, Rudolf Brand; Horst, Tiago; Fontaneli, Renato Serena

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar a silagem de 12 genótipos de seis espécies de cereais de inverno de duplo propósito (forragem e grãos), submetidos ao corte na região da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. As espécies e os genótipos testados foram: trigo BRS 277, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu; aveia-preta Agro zebu, UPFA 21 -Moreninha e Comum; aveia-branca UPF 18; centeio BR 1 e BRS Serrano; Cevada BRS Marciana; e triticale BRS 148. Os genótipos foram submetidos a três cortes com o objetivo de simular o pastejo, conforme manejo indicado para duplo propósito. Após o terceiro corte, permitiu-se o desenvolvimento das culturas para a ensilagem. As silagens foram feitas em silos experimentais de PVC quando as forrageiras atingiram o estádio fenológico de grão pastoso. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos (genótipos) e três repetições (parcelas). Foram determinadas a produção de matéria seca e a composição estrutural do material ensilado, o valor nutritivo e os parâmetros fermentativos das silagens. O centeio BR 1 e a aveiabranca UPF 18 apresentaram as maiores produções de matéria seca. O trigo BRS Umbu produziu silagem com maior participação de grãos e valor nutritivo mais elevado. Todos os genótipos apresentaram condições satisfatórias para a ensilagem

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the silage of 12 genotypes of six species of double purpose winter cereals (forage and grains) submitted to harvest at Depressão Central region of Rio Grande do Sul state. Species and genotypes tested were: BRS 277, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu wheat; Agro Zebu, UPFA 21 - Moreninha and Commom black-oat; UPF 18 white oat; BR 1 and BRS Serrano rye; BRS Marciana barley; and BRS 148 triticale. Genotypes were submitted to tree harvests with the objective to simulate grazing, according to double purpose management. After the third harvest, the development of cultures was permitted for silage production. The genotypes were distributed in 36 experimental plots in a completely randomized experimental design with 12 treatments (genotypes) and three replications (plots). Silages were made in PVC experimental silos when forages achieved phenological stage of soft dough. Fermentative parameters, dry matter production, structural and botanical composition of ensilage material and nutritive value of silages were determined. BR 1 rye and UPF 18 white oat presented the highest dry matter yield. BRS Umbu wheat produced silage with higher grain participation and better nutritive value. All genotypes presented satisfactory conditions for ensilage
  • Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of tillers of guinea grass of different age and grazing severities Forage Crops

    Montagner, Denise Baptaglin; Nascimento Júnior, Domicio do; Sousa, Braulio Maia de Lana; Vilela, Hélio Henrique; Euclides, Valéria Pacheco Batista; Silva, Sila Carneiro da; Sbrissia, André Fischer; Carloto, Marciele Neves

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of tiller age on morphogenic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombaca subjected to intermittent stocking and three stubble heights: 30 cm, 50 cm and 50-30 cm. Stubble heights were assigned to experimental units in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Grazing was performed when canopy intercepted 95% of light incidence. Leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate and number of live leaves per tiller were higher in the summer when compared with the winter. Contrarily, stem elongation rate, phyllochron and leaf lifespan were lower in the summer when compared with the winter. During the summer, young tillers had higher leaf appearance and elongation rates when compared with the older ones. Young and mature tillers had the highest values of live leaves per tiller in the summer. There was no difference between summer and winter for the final length of leaf blade between tillers of the same age, except in mature tillers, which had higher final leaf length during the summer. Senescence rate of leaves was higher in young tillers, followed by mature and old tillers. Age of tiller affects morphogenic and structural characteristics of pasture, showing that young tillers have better growth compared with mature and old tillers
  • Spatial variability of forage yield and soil physical attributes of a Brachiaria decumbens pasture in the Brazilian Cerrado Forage Crops

    Pariz, Cristiano Magalhães; Carvalho, Morel de Passos e; Chioderoli, Carlos Alessandro; Nakayama, Fernando Takayuki; Andreotti, Marcelo; Montanari, Rafael

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to analyze variability, linear and spatial correlations of forage dry mass yield (FDM) and dry matter percentage (DM%) of Brachiaria decumbens with the bulk density (BD), gravimetric (GM) and volumetric (VM) moisture, mechanical resistance to penetration (RP) and organic matter content (OM), at depths 1 (0-0.10 m) and 2 (0.10-0.20 m), in a Red Latosol (Oxisol), in order to select an indicator of soil physical quality and identify possible causes of pasture degradation. The geostatistical grid was installed to collect soil and plant data, with 121 sampling points, over an area of 2.56 ha. The linear correlation between FDM × DM% and FDM × BD2 was low, but highly significant. Spatial correlations varied inversely and positively, respectively. Except for DM% and BD, at both depths, the other attributes showed average to high variability, indicating a heterogeneous environment. Thus, geostatistics emerges as an important tool in understanding the interactions in pasture ecosystems, in order to minimize possible causes of degradation and indicate better alternatives for soil-plant-animal management. The decrease in FDM and increased BD1 are indicators of physical degradation (compaction) of Red Latosol (Oxisol), particularly in the places with the highest concentration of animals and excessive trampling, in Cerrado conditions, in the municipality of Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.
  • Growth analysis of Coastcross-1 bermudagrass grown under nitrogen doses at two regrowth ages Forragicultura

    Pereira, Odilon Gomes; Oliveira, Marco Antônio de; Pinto, José Cardoso; Santos, Manoel Eduardo Rozalino; Ribeiro, Karina Guimarães; Cecon, Paulo Roberto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Avaliaram-se os índices de crescimento do capim Coastcross-1 sob cinco doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg/ha.ano) e duas idades de rebrotação (28 e 42 dias). As doses de nitrogênio foram arranjadas em esquema fatorial 5 × 2, em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A adubação nitrogenada foi parcelada em três aplicações, realizadas logo após os cortes. Maiores valores de relação folha/colmo e razão de peso foliar foram obtidos aos 28 dias, em comparação aos 42 dias de rebrotação. Houve redução linear na relação folha/colmo com a adubação nitrogenada (de 1,6 para 1,0 nas doses de 0 e 133 kg/ha.corte de N). Por outro lado, a adubação nitrogenada aumentou linearmente a área foliar específica do capim Coastcross-1 aos 28 dias de rebrotação (de 10,3 a 20,8 m²/kg com o incremento de 0 a 133 kg/ha.corte de N), resultando em elevação da sua razão de área foliar. Na ausência de nitrogênio, a área foliar específica foi maior aos 42 dias (14,3 m²/kg) em relação aos 28 dias de rebrotação (8,6 m²/kg). A idade de rebrotação e a adubação nitrogenada modificam o padrão de acúmulo de forragem e as características do pasto de capim Coastcross-1. Durante a estação de maior crescimento, o pasto de capim Coastcross-1 adubado com maior dose de nitrogênio deve ser manejado com menor idade de rebrotação (28 dias).

    Abstract in English:

    The Coastcross-1 growth index in relation to five nitrogen doses (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg/ha.year) and two regrowth ages (28 and 42 days) were evaluated. Nitrogen doses were arranged in a 5 × 2 factorial scheme in a randomized complete block design with three repetitions. Nitrogen fertilization was performed in three applications right after the forage harvesting. Higher values for leaf/stem and leaf weight ratio were observed at 28-d regrowth, in comparison with the 42 days of regrowth. Linear reduction of leaf/stem ratio from 1.6 to 1.0 at 0 and 133 kg N/ha.harvest, respectively was observed. The specific leaf area of bermudagrass at 28-d regrowth resulted in increased leaf area ratio (from 10.3 to 20.8 m²/kg with the increase of 0 to 133 kg N/ha. Harvest). At the absence of N treatment, specific leaf rate was higher at 42-d (14.3 m²/kg) in relation to the 28-d of regrowth (8.6 m²/kg). Regrowth age and nitrogen fertilization modify the pattern of forage accumulation and the characteristics of Coastcross-1 pasture. During the summer, the Coastcross-1 grass pasture fertilized with the highest N-dose should be managed at a younger regrowth age (28-d).
  • Heterogeneity of residual variance in random regression models in the description of meat quail growth Melhoramento, Genética E Reprodução

    Bonafé, Cristina Moreira; Torres, Robledo de Almeida; Teixeira, Rafael Bastos; Silva, Felipe Gomes da; Sousa, Mariele Freitas; Leite, Carla Daniela Suguimoto; Silva, Luciano Pinheiro da; Caetano, Giovani da Costa

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Para comparar a influência da heterogeneidade da variância residual nos parâmetros genéticos estimados para a curva de crescimento de codornas de corte, foram utilizados dados provenientes de 26.835 e 27.447 observações, de 3.909 e 4.040 codornas de corte das linhagens UFV-1 e UFV-2, respectivamente. Foi avaliado o peso corporal nas duas linhagens, aos 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias de idade, por meio de modelo animal em regressão aleatória, considerando na modelagem as variâncias residuais em classes de idades. Observou-se aumento no Log e L, significativo pelo teste da razão de verossimilhança (LRT), com o aumento do número de classes heterogêneas. Na modelagem da variância residual, foram consideradas classes de idade: homogênea: CL1 (uma classe): 1-42 dias; e as heterogêneas: CL2 (duas classes): 1 e 7-42 dias; CL3 (três classes): 1, 7 e 14-42 dias; CL4 (quatro classes): 1, 7, 14 e 21-42 dias; CL5 (cinco classes): 1, 7, 14 e 21 e 28-42 dias; CL6 (seis classes): 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35-42 dias; CL7 (sete classes): 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias de idade. O modelo que considerou homogeneidade de variância residual mostrou-se inadequado. As estimativas de variâncias, herdabilidades e correlações foram influenciadas pela modelagem da variância residual. A utilização de heterogeneidade de variância residual (CL7) para modelar as variâncias associadas à curva de crescimento das codornas de corte é necessária.

    Abstract in English:

    In order to compare the residual heterogeneity variance influence on the genetic parameters estimated for the growth curve of meat quail, data from 26835 and 27447 observations, from 3909 and 4040 meat quails of the UFV-1 and UFV-2 strains, respectively, were used. Body weight was evaluated, for the two strains, at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age, through an animal model at random regression, considering residual variances in the age classes. Log e L showed increase, significant by the likelihood ratio test (LRT), with an increase in the number of heterogeneous classes. In the modeling, the following residual variances were considered in the age classes of: homogeneous: CL1 (one class): 1-42 days; and heterogeneous: CL2 (two classes): 1 and 7-42 days; CL3 (three classes): 1, 7 and 14-42 days; CL4 (four classes): 1, 7, 14 and 21-42 days; CL5 (five classes): 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28-42 days; CL6 (six classes): 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35-42 days; CL7 (seven classes): 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. The model that considered residual variance homogeneity showed unsuitable. Variance estimates, heritability and correlations were influenced by the modeling of the residual variance. The use of residual variance heterogeneity (CL7) to model the variances associated with the growth curve of meat quail is necessary.
  • The effects of ovalbumin as a protein source during the in vitro production of bovine embryos Breeding, Genetic And Reproduction

    Tetzner, Tatiane Almeida Drummond; Saraiva, Naiara Zoccal; Perecin, Felipe; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo; Ferreira, Christina Ramires; Oliveira, Clara Slade; Garcia, Joaquim Mansano

    Abstract in English:

    Embryo quality is influenced by the culture conditions that affect in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC) rates. The present study investigated the feasibility of producing bovine embryos after the replacement of fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by ovalbumin (OVA). The IVM and IVC medium were supplemented with 10% FCS, 4 mg/mL BSA, or 4 mg/mL OVA. The IVF medium was supplemented with 6 mg/mL BSA or OVA. For IVM, supplementation with FCS, BSA, and OVA did not affect nuclear maturation or cortical granule migration. Higher rates of formation of two pronuclei were obtained when FCS was employed for IVM (79.97%), regardless of the supplement used for IVF, and when BSA was used for IVF (59.4%), regardless of the supplement used for IVM. Supplementation with OVA for IVM+IVC (20.40%) and for IVF (22.15%) was inferior to supplementation with FCS for IVM+IVC (30.47%) and with BSA for IVF (28.91%) for blastocyst development. Hatching rates were lower using OVA for IVM+IVC (23.02%) and for IVF (28.93%) compared with FCS and BSA under the same conditions (40.78 and 34.82%, respectively) and BSA for IVF (36.82%). Supplementation with OVA for IVM+IVC and IVF resulted in reduced inner cell mass, trophectoderm cells and total blastocyst cell numbers (17.29, 37.88, and 55.17, respectively). In conclusion, OVA is a protein source for bovine in vitro embryo production, although the quantity and quality of bovine blastocysts using only ovalbumin in the entire in vitro production process are lower than those obtained in the presence of FCS and BSA, when used as supplements in any step of bovine in vitro embryo production.
  • Sunflower meal for broilers of 22 to 42 days of age Non Ruminants

    Araújo, Lúcio Francelino; Araújo, Cristiane Soares da Silva; Petroli, Natália Barros; Laurentiz, Antonio Carlos de; Albuquerque, Ricardo de; de Trindade Neto, Messias Alves

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the inclusion of sunflower meal in diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis fed to broilers of 22 to 42 days of age. Nine hundred and sixty birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two formulation criteria - digestible or total amino acids; two sunflower meal inclusion levels - 0 or 15%), with six replicates of 40 broilers each. Performance (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion) and data from carcass characteristics (eviscerated carcass and commercial cuts) were evaluated. On day 42, six birds from each pen were sacrificed to determine digesta viscosity, and litter samples from each replicate pen were collected to determine litter moisture. The inclusion of 15% sunflower meal in broiler diets formulated on total amino acid basis worsens feed conversion ratio. Diets formulated on digestible amino acid basis are adequate when alternative feedstuffs, such as sunflower meal, are included. The use of sunflower meal in the diet does not influence carcass and cuts yields, but digesta viscosity increases when 15% of that feedstuff is included in the diet.
  • Digestibility of amino acids from corn, soybean meal and corn germ meal in cecectomized roosters and broilers Não-Ruminantes

    Brito, Alexandre Barbosa de; Stringhini, José Henrique; Xavier, Suzany Aparecida Gomes; Gonzales, Elisabeth; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Café, Marcos Barcellos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a digestibilidade dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de soja e gérmen integral de milho em galos e frangos de corte cecectomizados. Foram utilizados 16 galos Lohmann-LSL com 45 semanas de idade, 40 frangos de corte machos AgRoss 508, sendo 20 com 21 dias de idade e outros 20 com 42 dias de idade, todos cecectomizados. Adotou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três categorias animais (galos; frangos aos 21 dias; e frangos aos 42 dias de idade) para cada alimento avaliado e cada ave considerada uma unidade experimental. O ensaio durou 84 horas: nas 36 horas iniciais, as aves foram submetidas a jejum e nas 48 horas subsequentes, à ingestão forçada dos alimentos, feita com sonda esofágica introduzida diretamente no inglúvio das aves. As excretas produzidas foram colhidas duas vezes ao dia nas 48 horas subseqüentes. Os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros determinados para o milho e gérmen integral de milho determinados com frangos submetidos ao procedimento experimental aos 21 dias de idade foram inferiores aos do grupo controle (galos). Contudo, os mesmos resultados não foram observados para o farelo de soja. O aproveitamento de aminoácidos foi maior nos frangos submetidos ao procedimento experimental aos 42 dias de idade em comparação aos do grupo controle (galos adultos), independentemente do alimento avaliado. O teor de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros totais obtidos foi de 7,24; 6,25 e 7,33% para o milho, 9,66; 9,14 e 9,91% para o gérmen integral de milho e 41,82; 41,78 e 42,02% para o farelo de soja, valores determinados com galos, frangos aos 21 e aos 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. Observou-se que, com o amadurecimento do trato digestório, aumenta o aproveitamento proteico em aves que consomem milho e gérmen integral de milho.

    Abstract in English:

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the digestibility of the amino acids from corn, soybean meal and corn germ meal in cecectomized roosters and broilers. The experiment used sixteen Lohmann-LSL roosters with 45 weeks of age, 20 AgRoss 508 male broilers with 21 days of age and 20 other male broilers of same line, with 42 days of age, all of them cecectomized. A completely randomized arrangement with three animal categories (roosters; chickens at 21 and 42 days of age) was adopted for each feedstuff analyzed. Each bird represented an experimental unit. The trial had a duration of 84 hours; in the first 36 hours roosters and chickens were submitted to fasting for intestinal cleaning. After this, birds were forced to ingest 30 grams of each ingredient with an esophageal probe, introduced directly into the crop. During the subsequent 48 hours, the excreta produced was collected twice a day. The values for true digestible amino acids were reduced for corn and full-fat corn germ meal when determined with broilers submitted to the experimental procedures at 21 days of age compared to the control group (adult cockerels). But, the same results were not been observed for soybean meal. In general, the true digestible amino acid values were higher when determined with broilers at 42 days of age compared to adult cockerels. The total amount of true digestible amino acids determined were 7.24; 6.25 and 7.33% for corn, 9.66; 9.14 and 9.91% for corn germ meal and 41.82; 41.78 and 42.02% for soybean meal, values determined with roosters, and broilers at 21 and 42 days of age, respectively. It was observed that as the gastrointestinal tract is mature, the amino acid digestibility of birds that consumed corn and corn germ meal is enhanced.
  • Available phosphorus levels for Japanese quail diets from 45 to 57 weeks of age Não-Ruminantes

    Costa, Carlos Henrique Rocha; Barreto, Sergio Luiz de Toledo; Gomes, Paulo Cezar; Hosoda, Lúcia Heiko; Lipari, Carolina Abe; Lima, Heder José D'Avila

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de níveis de fósforo disponível (Pd) na dieta sobre o desempenho, a qualidade dos ovos, o tecido ósseo e as porcentagens de fósforo (P), cálcio (Ca) e magnésio (Mg) nas excretas produzidas por codornas durante o terço final de postura. Foram utilizadas 300 codornas japonesas com 313 dias de idade, distribuídas em 30 unidades experimentais de dez aves. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, composto de cinco níveis de Pd (0,15; 0,25; 0,35; 0,45 e 0,55%), com seis repetições por tratamento. As dietas experimentais foram isoproteicas (20,0% PB), isocalóricas (2.900 kcal EM/kg), isocálcicas (3,0% Ca) e isoaminoacídicas. O aumento dos níveis de Pd na dieta aumentou linearmente os teores de Ca e Mg na tíbia, entretanto reduziu linearmente a altura dos ovos analisados. Observou-se efeito quadrático sobre o peso específico, o peso e a porcentagem de casca, a porcentagem de cálcio na casca e de fósforo na tíbia, cujos pontos de máxima foram atingidos com a utilização de 0,43; 0,41; 0,42; 0,27 e 0,42% Pd, respectivamente. Efeitos quadráticos também foram observados para excreção de Ca, cinzas e P, cujos valores máximos foram obtidos com a utilização de 0,34; 0,30 e 0,43% Pd na dieta, respectivamente. Nos demais parâmetros avaliados, não houve efeito dos níveis de Pd. Dietas contendo 0,15% Pd atendem satisfatoriamente às exigências para desempenho e manutenção da integridade física do ovo, além de reduzir a excreção de fósforo sem provocar perda de ovos por problemas de casca nem ocorrência de fadiga de gaiola por enfraquecimento do sistema ósseo, embora seja observada redução na mineralização da casca e do tecido ósseo de codornas japonesas no terço final do ciclo de produção (45 a 57 semanas de idade).

    Abstract in English:

    An experiment was conducted aiming to verify the effect of different levels of available phosphorus (AP) in the diet on performance, egg quality, bone tissue and percentages of P, Ca and Mg in excreta produced by quails during the final third of the production cycle. A total of 300 Japanese quails, with 313 days of age, was assigned to 30 experimental units of ten birds. A completely randomized design was used, with five levels of AP (0.15, 0.25, 0.35, 0.45 and 0.55%), with six replicates per treatments. The experimental diets were isoproteic (20.0% CP), isocaloric (2.900 kcal ME/kg), isocalcium (3.0% Ca) and isoaminoacidic. The increasing levels of AP in the diet linearly increased the concentration of Ca and Mg in the tibia; however, it linearly reduced the height of eggs analyzed. There was quadratic effect for specific gravity, weight and shell percentage, shell percentage of Ca and P in the tibia, achieving maximum points with the use of 0.43, 0.41, 0.42, 0.27 and 0.42% AP, respectively. Quadratic effects were also observed for excretion of Ca, P and ash, yielding maximum values with the use of 0.34, 0.30 and 0.43% AP in the diet. For other parameters, there was no effect of dietary phosphorus. Diet containing 0.15% AP satisfactorily meets the performance and maintenance of the physical integrity of the egg, in addition to reducing P excretion, without any loss caused by problems with egg shell nor occurrence of cage fatigue by weakening of the bone system, although there is reduction in the mineralization of the shell and bone tissue of Japanese quail in the final third of the production cycle (45 to 57 weeks of age).
  • Performance of broilers fed diets with different calcium levels and supplemented with phytase Não-Ruminantes

    Donato, Daniella Carolina Zanardo; Albuquerque, Ricardo de; Garcia, Paula Duarte Silva Rangel; Balieiro, Júlio César de Carvalho

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito de rações contendo diferentes níveis de cálcio e suplementadas com fitase sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte nas fases inicial (1 a 21 dias), de crescimento (22 a 35 dias) e final (36 a 42 dias). Foram utilizados 2.160 pintos de corte machos da linhagem AG Ross 308, de 1 a 42 dias de idade, distribuídos em 6 tratamentos, cada um com 6 repetições. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 × 2, com 3 níveis de fitase (0, 600 e 1.200 ftu/kg) e 2 de cálcio (0,94 e 0,66%; 0,84 e 0,59%; e 0,78 e 0,54% para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final, respectivamente). As rações experimentais ainda tinham níveis reduzidos de fósforo disponível e níveis mínimos de proteína bruta. Ao final de cada fase, avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e a mortalidade. Houve interação entre os níveis de fitase e de cálcio estudados para ganho de peso, consumo de ração e mortalidade nas três fases avaliadas. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a suplementação de fitase no nível de 1.200 ftu/kg de ração em associação aos menores níveis de cálcio. Nenhum resultado significativo foi observado para conversão alimentar. Os níveis nutricionais de cálcio podem ser reduzidos em 30% em dietas com baixos níveis de fósforo disponível e níveis mínimos de proteína bruta, desde que as dietas sejam suplementadas com 1.200 ftu/kg de fitase.

    Abstract in English:

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of diets with different calcium levels and supplemented with phytase on the performance of broiler chickens in initial (1 to 21 days of age), growing (22 to 35 days of age) and final (36 to 42 days of age) phases. Two thousand one hundred and sixty male broilers from AG Ross 308 line, from 1 to 42 days old were distributed in 6 treatments, with 6 replicates each. A completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial scheme was used, with 3 phytase levels (0, 600 or 1,200 ftu/kg) and 2 calcium levels (0.94% and 0.66%; 0.84% and 0.59%; and 0.78% and 0.54% to initial, growing and final phases, respectively). The experimental diets had lower available phosphorus levels and minimum crude protein levels. At the end of each phase the weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and death rate were evaluated. There was significant interaction between phytase and calcium levels for weight gain, feed intake and death rate in all studied phases, with best results observed for treatments constituted by 1,200 ftu/kg of phytase and lower calcium levels on the diets. No significant results were observed to FC. Nutritional calcium levels can be reduced in 30%, in diets with lower available phosphorus and minimum crude protein levels, since the diet is supplemented 1,200 ftu/kg of phytase.
  • Digestible lysine for 63 to 103 day-old barrows of genetic lines selected for lean deposition Non Ruminants

    Fortes, Eduardo Ianino; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Oliveira, Rita Flávia Miranda de; Saraiva, Alysson; Silva, Francisco Carlos de Oliveira; Souza, Matheus Faria de; Rocha, Gabriel Cipriano; Alebrante, Leandro

    Abstract in English:

    Ninety-six barrows from 63 to 103 days of age were used to evaluate the effects of dietary digestible lysine levels on performance and carcass traits of two genetic lines selected for lean deposition. Pigs with initial body weight of 23.800 ± 1.075 kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design, within a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (four digestible lysine levels: 0.80, 0.90, 1.00, 1.10%, and two genetic lines), with six replicates and two pigs per experimental unit. There was no interaction between genetic and digestible lysine levels. The digestible lysine levels also did not influence performance or carcass traits of pigs; however, average daily lysine intake increased with increasing digestible lysine level in the experimental diets. Pigs from genetic line B had better carcass traits when compared with those from genetic line A. The level of 0.80% digestible lysine corresponding to a daily intake of 16.60 g digestible lysine meets the nutritional requirement of pigs from both genetic lines evaluated, from 63 to 103 days of age.
  • Prediction equations to estimate the AMEn values of protein feedstuffs for poultry utilizing meta-analysis Não-Ruminantes

    Nascimento, Germano Augusto Jerônimo do; Rodrigues, Paulo Borges; Freitas, Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de; Allaman, Ivan Bezerra; Lima, Renato Ribeiro de; Reis Neto, Rafael Vilhena

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Este trabalho foi realizado para se obter uma equação de predição para estimar os valores de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn) dos alimentos proteicos usualmente utilizados em rações para frangos de corte utilizando-se o princípio da meta-análise. Realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica de estudos no Brasil para catalogar informações sobre valores de EMAn e composição química dos alimentos: proteína bruta (PB), extrato etéreo (EE), matéria mineral (MM), fibra bruta (FB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA). Foram considerados os efeitos de: sexo, em três níveis (macho, fêmea e mistos); idade, em quatro níveis (1ª e 2ª semana de vida, 3ª e 4ª semana, 5ª e 6ª semana e acima ou indefinido) e metodologia empregada no metabolismo em dois níveis: coleta total (CT) e alimentação forçada + (CT). Os dados foram analisados em um esquema fatorial 3 × 4 × 2, podendo totalizar até 24 grupos, adotando-se o procedimento Stepwise para a seleção de variáveis e o Proc Reg do (SAS) para ajustar o modelo de regressão linear múltipla. A equação obtida que melhor se ajustou foi EMAn = 2707,71 + 58,63EE - 16,06FDN (R² = 0,81), sendo o EE a variável mais importante, em se tratando de possíveis variações nos teores energéticos dos alimentos proteicos.

    Abstract in English:

    This study was accomplished aiming to obtain prediction equations to estimate the values of corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) of the protein feedstuffs usually used in broiler rations, through the meta-analysis principle. Literature review of the studies realized in Brazil was performed to catalog information about values of AMEn and chemical composition of the feedstuffs reported (CP = crude protein; EE = ether extract; CF = crude fiber; NDF = neutral detergent fiber; ADF = acid detergent fiber). Effects of sex at three levels (male; female and mixed); age at four levels (1st and 2nd weeks of life; 3rd and 4th weeks; 5th and 6th weeks; above or indefinite) and the methodology employed in the metabolism assay at two levels (total collection of excreta - CT and forced fed plus + CT) were considered. The data were analyzed in a 3 × 4 × 2 factorial arrangement, capable of amounting up to 24 groups. The Stepwise procedure was adopted for selection of variables, and the Proc Reg of the (SAS), to fit the multiple linear regression model. The equation obtained which best fitted was AMEn = 2707.71 + 58.63EE - 16.06NDF (R² = 0.81), with the EE as the most important variable, concerning the possible variations in the energy contents of protein feedstuffs.
  • Lysine levels in diets of broilers determined based on economic approach Não-Ruminantes

    Siqueira, Jefferson Costa de; Sakomura, Nilva Kazue; Dorigam, Juliano César de Paula; Mendonça, Gabriela Geraldi; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo; Fernandes, João Batista Kochenborger; Dourado, Leilane Rocha Barros; Nascimento, Dáphinne Cardoso Nagib do

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O objetivo neste estudo foi estimar os níveis ótimos de lisina digestível em rações para frangos de corte em crescimento (22 a 35 dias) e terminação (35 a 42 dias) com base na análise econômica da alimentação. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, cada um com 600 frangos de corte machos da linhagem Cobb 500 distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições de 20 aves. Em cada fase, os tratamentos consistiram de níveis crescentes de lisina digestível nas rações. Os dados de conversão alimentar foram submetidos à análise de variância e posteriormente a análises de regressão utilizando-se um modelo não-linear exponencial. Com base nas equações exponenciais ajustadas para cada fase de criação, foram calculadas a variação do custo com alimentação e a margem por kg de ganho de peso. Em cada fase, foi considerado nível ótimo de lisina digestível aquele capaz de proporcionar o menor custo com alimentação e a maior margem por kg de ganho de peso. Considerando o preço da L-lisina HCl (78,5%) de R$ 11,78, os níveis ótimos de lisina digestível nas rações de crescimento e terminação são de 1,150 e 0,980%, respectivamente. Entretanto, se o preço desta fonte cristalina aumentar para R$ 14,13, os níveis ótimos nas rações reduzirão para 1,11 e 0,950%, respectivamente.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to estimate the optimum digestible lysine levels in diets for broilers on growing (22 to 35 days) and finishing (35 to 42 days) phases, based on economic analysis of food. Two experiments were conducted, each one using 600 Cobb 500 male broilers, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds. Treatments consisted of increasing digestible lysine levels in the diet. The feed:gain relation data were submitted to ANOVA and to regression analyses using an exponential model. Based on adjusted equations for each phase, the change in food cost and margin per kg of weight gain was calculated. At each phase the optimum lysine level was considered as one to provide the lowest food cost and higher margin per kg of weight gain. Considering the price of L-lysine HCl (78.5%) of R$ 11.78, the optimum lysine levels in diets of growing and finishing poultry were estimated at 1.150 and 0.980% respectively. However, if the price of this source rises to R$ 14.13, the optimum lysine levels in diets will be reduced to 1.11 and 0.950% respectively.
  • Digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with ractopamine Non Ruminants

    Souza, Evelar de Oliveira; Haese, Douglas; Kill, João Luís; Haddade, Ismail Ramalho; Lacerda, Elcio das Graça; Saraiva, Alysson; Silva, Francisco Carlos de Oliveira; Sobreiro, Rodrigo Pereira

    Abstract in English:

    In order evaluate digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with 20 ppm of ractopamine on the performance and carcass traits, 64 barrows with high genetic potential at finishing phase were allotted in a completely randomized block design with four digestible lysine levels (0.80, 0.90, 1.00, and 1.10%), eight replicates and two pigs per experimental unit. Initial body weight and pigs' kinship were used as criteria in the blocks formation. Diets were mainly composed of corn and soybean meal supplemented with minerals, vitamins and amino acids to meet pigs' nutritional requirements at the finishing phase, except for digestible lysine. No effect of digestible lysine levels was observed in animal performance. The digestible lysine intake increased linearly by increasing the levels of digestible lysine in the diets. Carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary levels of digestible lysine. The level of 0.80% of digestible lysine in diets supplemented with 20 ppm ractopamine meets the nutritional requirements of castrated male pigs during the finishing phase.
  • Use of vitamins C and E on ration for broilers kept in high temperature environment Não-Ruminantes

    Souza, Marcos Gonçalves de; Oliveira, Rita Flávia Miranda de; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Maia, Ana Paula de Assis; Balbino, Eric Márcio; Oliveira, Will Pereira de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O experimento foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da suplementação das vitaminas C ou E na ração sobre o desempenho, as características de carcaça e os parâmetros hematológicos de frangos de corte mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura. Foram utilizados 450 frangos de corte distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, cada um com nove repetições de 10 aves (período 1 a 21 dias) ou de 7 aves (período de 22 a 42 dias) por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos foram: ração basal (RB) sem suplementação de vitaminas C e E; RB + 300 ppm de vitamina E; RB + 230 ppm de vitamina C; RB + 300 ppm de vitamina E + 230 ppm de vitamina C; e RB + 150 ppm de vitamina E + 115 ppm de vitamina C. Não houve efeito da suplementação das vitaminas C e E no desempenho zootécnico das aves na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Na fase de 1 a 42 dias, a suplementação das vitaminas C e E influenciou somente a conversão alimentar. Os melhores resultados para os pesos absoluto e relativo de peito foram observados nas aves que receberam a ração basal suplementada com as combinações das vitaminas C e E. A concentração plasmática de triiodotironina, a porcentagem de células sanguíneas, a relação heterófilo/linfócito e os pesos absoluto e relativo do baço aos 21 e 42 dias de idade não foram influenciados pela suplementação vitamínica. A suplementação das vitaminas C e ou E não influi no desempenho zootécnico, no peso do baço e nos parâmetros sanguíneos de frangos de corte mantidos até 42 dias de idade em ambiente de alta temperatura. As combinações das vitaminas C e E promovem melhora nos pesos absoluto e relativo de peito de frangos de corte sob alta temperatura.

    Abstract in English:

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of vitamins C or E in the diet on performance, carcass characteristics and hematological parameters of broilers kept under high environmental temperature. Four hundred and fifty broilers were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and nine replications, with 10 and 7 birds per experimental unit, respectively, according to the periods from 1 to 21 and 22 to 42 days old. Treatments consisted of a basal diet (RB) without supplementation of vitamins C and E; RB + 300 ppm of vitamin E; RB + 230 ppm of vitamin C; RB + 300 ppm of vitamin E + 230 of vitamin C, and RB + 150 ppm of vitamin E + 115 of vitamin C. Treatments did not influence performance of birds in the phase of 1 to 21 days of age. At 1 to 42 days of age, supplementation of vitamins C and E only influenced feed conversion. The best results for the absolute and relative weights of breast were observed in birds fed the basal diet supplemented with different combinations of vitamins C and E. Plasma concentration of triiodothyronine, percentage of blood cells, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and absolute and relative weights of the spleen at 21 and 42 days of age were not influenced by vitamin supplementation. Supplementation of vitamins C and/or E did not influence performance, weight of the spleen or blood parameters of chickens maintained until 42 days of age in a high temperature environment. The combination of vitamins C and E promotes improvement in absolute and relative weights of breast of broilers reared under high temperature
  • Crude protein level of pre-starter diets and nutritive solution for broilers Non Ruminants

    Toledo, Rodrigo Santana; Rostagno, Horacio Santiago; Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira; Vargas Junior, José Geraldo de; Carvalho, Débora Cristine de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and the use of a nutritive solution via drinking water on the performance of pre-starter broilers. A total of 1,224 male Avian Farm chicks, from one to 40 days of age were used. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of three initial body weights (low: 41 g, standard: 45 g and high: 49 g; two crude protein levels at the pre-starter phase (22 and 25% CP),with or without the addition of a nutritive solution, whose nutritional level was similar to the 25% CP pre-starter diet, at a concentration of 5% of the drinking water. Each treatment included six replicates and 17 chicks per experimental unit. At the end of the pre-starter phase, all hens received a diet with 22% CP until day 21 and a diet with 20% CP from the 21st to the 40th day. The use of the pre-starter diet with higher nutritional levels and the nutritive solution enhanced broiler performance. The early nutrient supply via drinking water resulted in better broiler performance and uniformity. However, birds with low initial body weight continued to present lower body weight at market age.
  • Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases Non Ruminants

    Toledo, Rodrigo Santana; Rostagno, Horacio Santiago; Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira; Dionizio, Marli Arena; Carvalho, Débora Cristine de Oliveira; Nogueira, Eduardo Terra

    Abstract in English:

    A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days) phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days) phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment), with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively) were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.
  • Performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed on diets supplemented with glycerin from biodiesel production Ruminants

    Gomes, Marco Antonio Bensimon; Moraes, Gentil Vanini de; Mataveli, Marcela; Macedo, Francisco de Assis Fonseca de; Carneiro, Thais Cristina; Rossi, Robson Marcelo

    Abstract in English:

    This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of diets supplemented with glycerin as an alternative ingredient to corn on the performance and carcass characteristics of Santa Inês confined lambs. The study involved 27 lambs aged 90 days, having an average initial weight of 26.33 ± 0.15 kg. Lambs were randomly distributed into a control group and groups with diets containing 15 and 30% glycerin in the total feed. Diet was formulated with 40% roughage and 60% concentrate. The experimental design was completely randomized, and the production performance and carcass characteristics were analyzed by analysis of variance, and the subjective carcass characteristics, by general linear models. The daily average gain was 0.21, 0.24 and 0.23 kg/day; feeding conversion was 6.39, 5.73 and 5.92 kg of diet/kg BW for control animals, and those fed with 15 or 30% glycerin, respectively, without treatment differences. Lambs were slaughtered, weighing 34 to 36 kg, and average weight of the cold carcass and commercial carcass yield were evaluated. The results were, respectively, 15.97 kg and 49.18%, for control, 15.96 kg and 48.31% for animals fed with 15% glycerin, and 15.79 kg and 47.87% for those treated with 30% glycerin, with no treatment effects. Meat tenderness and cooking loss averages were not affected by diets, with 5.07 kg and 40.45%, 5.10 kg and 40.81%, and 5.27 kg and 39.04%, respectively, for control, and those fed with 15 or 30% glycerin. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that up to 30% of medium purity glycerin in the dry matter of the diet can be used to replace corn, without any negative effect on lamb performance or carcass characteristics.
  • Quantitative traits of carcass from lambs of different genotypes submitted to two diets Ruminantes

    Cartaxo, Felipe Queiroga; Sousa, Wandrick Hauss de; Costa, Roberto Germano; Cezar, Marcílio Fontes; Pereira Filho, José Morais; Cunha, Maria das Graças Gomes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Objetivou-se avaliar as características quantitativas de carcaça de cordeiros de diferentes genótipos recebendo diversos níveis de energia na dieta. Foram utilizados 54 cordeiros não-castrados, sendo 18 Santa Inês (SI), 18 F1Dorper × Santa Inês (Dp × SI) e 18 F1 Santa Inês × Sem Raça Definida (SI × SRD), com idade média de 150 dias e peso médio de 22,60 kg no início do experimento. As dietas continham 17% de proteína bruta e 2,40 Mcal/kg MS ou 2,90 Mcal/kg MS. Os cordeiros alimentados com a dieta contendo 2,90 Mcal/kg MS apresentaram maior peso corporal e de carcaça, área de olho-de-lombo, percentual de gordura interna, índice de musculosidade, índice de compacidade da carcaça, percentual de gordura e menor relação músculo:gordura. As carcaças desses cordeiros obtiveram também menores perdas por resfriamento e maior peso e percentual de paleta e perna. As carcaças dos cordeiros Dorper × Santa Inês foram superiores em espessura de gordura subcutânea, medida GR (gordura sobre a 12ª costela a 11 cm de distância da linha média lombo), percentual de gordura, relação músculo:osso, índice de musculosidade, peso e percentual de lombo. Os cordeiros Santa Inês apresentaram maior relação músculo:gordura. A dieta e o genótipo influenciam as características quantitativas de carcaça de cordeiros.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative carcass traits of lambs from different genotypes receiving different levels of energy in the diet. Fifty-four non-castrated lambs - 18 Santa Inês (SI), 18 F1Dorper × Santa Inês (Dp × SI) and 18 F1Santa Inês × No defined breed (SI × NDB) - of average 150 days old and 22.6-kg BW were used in the beginning of the experiment. Diets contained 17% crude protein and 2.40 Mcal/kg DM or 2.90 Mcal/kg DM. Lambs fed the diet containing 2.90 Mcal/kg DM showed higher final live and carcass weight, loin eye area, percentage of internal fat, muscularity index, compactness of the carcass index, percentage of fat and lower muscle:fat relation. These lambs' carcasses also presented lower percentage of cold loss and higher weight and percentage of shoulder and leg. Carcasses of Dp × SI lambs were superior in fat thickness, GR site, percentage of fat, muscle:bone relation, muscularity index, weight and percentage of loin. Santa Inês sheep showed higher muscle:fat relation. Both diet and genotype influence quantitative carcass traits of lambs.
  • Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats Ruminantes

    Felisberto, Nivea Regina de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Marcelo Teixeira; Bomfim, Marco Aurélio Delmondes; Matos, Rogério da Silva; Cordeiro, Ana Gabriela Pombo Celles; Silva, Márcia Maria Cândido da

    Abstract in English:

    Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.
  • Protein requirements of Nellore cattle and Nellore crossbred with Angus and Simmental Ruminantes

    Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Oliveira, Ivanna Moraes de; Valadares, Rilene Ferreira Diniz; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Prados, Laura Franco

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Objetivou-se estimar as exigências de proteína de animais Nelore, Nelore-Angus e Nelore-Simental, assim como a eficiência de uso da proteína metabolizável para ganho. Foram utilizados 69 animais (23 Nelore, 23 Nelore-Angus e 23 Nelore-Simental): 12 (quatro de cada grupo genético) foram abatidos antes do início do experimento, como grupo-referência, e nove animais foram separados para um ensaio de digestibilidade. Os animais restantes foram divididos em três dietas (ofertas de concentrado na base de 1 ou 2% do peso corporal à vontade e 1% do nível de mantença). Ao final do experimento, todos os animais foram abatidos e a composição corporal e o peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ) determinados. O consumo de proteína metabolizável (CPmet) foi estimado pela proteína microbiana verdadeira digestível média somada à proteína digestível não-degradada no rúmen. As exigências líquidas de proteína para ganho foram estimadas pela proteína retida (PR) em função do ganho de PCVZ (GPCVZ) e da energia retida. As exigências de proteína metabolizável para mantença foram estimadas pelo CPmet em função do GMD e as exigências líquidas para mantença pela PR em função do CPmet. O grupo genético influenciou apenas a relação entre os diferentes ganhos, mas não teve efeito sobre as exigências líquidas de proteína para ganho, que podem ser estimadas por meio do modelo PR = GPCVZ × (238,5 - 16,73 × (ER/GPCVZ)). Não há influência de grupo genético sobre as exigências líquidas e metabolizáveis de proteína para mantença, cujos valores são de 1,72 g/PCVZ0,75 e 3,09 g/PC0,75, respectivamente. Também não há efeito de grupo genético na energia retida em forma de proteína, assim como na eficiência de uso da proteína metabolizável para ganho, que é de 37,5%.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective was to estimate the protein requirements of Nellore, Nellore × Angus and Nellore × Simmental cattle, as well as efficiency of metabolizable protein for gain. Sixty-nine animals (23 Nellore, 23 Nellore × Angus and 23 Nellore × Simmental) were used, with 12 animals (four of each genetic group) slaughtered before the beginning of the experiment as the baseline group, and nine split for the performance of digestibility trial. The remaining animals were divided in three diets (concentrate offer of 1 or 2% of body weight and maintenance). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered and their corporal composition and empty body weight (EBW) were determined. The metabolizable protein intake (MPI) was estimated by the mean digestible microbial protein summed to digestibile rumen undegradable protein. The net protein requirements were estimated as retained protein by the retained energy (RE) and empty body gain (EBG). The requirements of metabolizable protein for maintenance were estimated as the MPI as function of average daily gain, and the net requirements for maintenance as retained protein (RP) as a function of MPI. The genetic group influenced only the ratio among gains. There were no effects of genetic group on net protein requirements for gain, and the model RP = EBW × (238.5 - 16.73 × (RE/EBG)) is recommended to estimate them. Genetic group did not affect net or metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance, and the values obtained were 1.72 g/EBW0.75 and 3.09 g/BW0.75, respectively. Also, there were no genetic group effects on retained energy as protein, nor in metabolizable protein efficiency for gain, which is 37.5%.
  • Effects of supply frequency of roughage and concentrate on ingestive behavior of feedlot cows and heifers Ruminantes

    Pazdiora, Raul Dirceu; Brondani, Ivan Luiz; Silveira, Magali Floriano da; Arboitte, Miguelangelo Ziegler; Cattelam, Jonatas; Paula, Perla Cordeiro de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da frequência no fornecimento de volumoso e concentrado e/ou da categoria animal sobre o comportamento ingestivo de bovinos. Foram utilizadas 16 novilhas e 16 vacas com idade média inicial de 20 e 66 meses e peso médio inicial de 338 e 432 kg, respectivamente. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas frequências de fornecimento do volumoso e do concentrado: 2 V/C - volumoso e concentrado duas vezes ao dia; 1 V/C - volumoso e concentrado uma vez ao dia; 1 V/2 C - volumoso uma vez ao dia e concentrado duas vezes ao dia; 1 V/3 C - volumoso uma vez ao dia e concentrado três vezes ao dia, ofertadas às categorias vacas e novilhas. A dieta foi composta de 60% de silagem de milho e 40% de concentrado com base na matéria seca (MS). O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 4 × 2 (frequências × categorias). Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste t. A interação frequência de fornecimento e categoria animal foi significativa para as características tempo de ruminação e ócio, eficiência de ruminação da matéria seca e da fibra detergente neutro, número de bolos diário e tempo diário de mastigação. Em relação às vacas, as novilhas apresentaram maiores tempos de ócio e mastigação quando receberam a alimentação uma vez ao dia. A frequência de fornecimento da dieta não influenciou o tempo de consumo. As vacas apresentaram maior tempo consumindo alimento e taxa de ingestão em comparação às novilhas (4,38 vs 4,09 horas e 2,91 vs 2,35 kg de MS/hora de consumo, respectivamente). O aumento na frequência da alimentação estimula os animais a maior ingestão de alimento no momento do fornecimento.

    Abstract in English:

    The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the influence of frequency of roughage and supplement supply and/or animal category on the ingestive behavior of cattle. Sixteen heifers and sixteen cows, with average initial age of 20 and 66 months and average initial weight of 338 and 432 kg, respectively, were used. Treatments were represented by the frequencies of roughage and concentrate supply: 2 R/C - roughage and concentrate two times per day; 1 R/C - roughage and concentrate one time per day; 1 R/2C - roughage one time per day and concentrate two times per day; 1 R/3 C - roughage one time per day and concentrate three times per day, offered to cows and heifers. Diet was composed of 60% maize silage and 40% concentrate, on a dry matter basis (DM). The complete randomized experimental design was used, with a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (frequencies × category). The data were submitted to variance analysis and averages were compared by "t" test. The interaction between supply frequencies and animal category was significant for rumination and idle times, efficiencies of dry matter rumination and of neutral detergent fiber rumination, number of ruminated bolus and daily time of chew. Heifers showed longer idle periods and daily time of chew when compared with cows that received food once in a day. Duration of feed intake did not vary with frequencies. Cows showed longer period of feed intake and ingestive rate in relation to heifers (4.38 vs. 4.09 hours and 2.91 vs. 2.35 kg of DM/hour of intake, respectively). The increase in food frequency stimulated animals to intensify feed intake at the moment of supply.
  • Performance, carcass characteristics, apparent digestibility of nutrients, nitrogen metabolism and ruminal measures of lambs fed diets containing wet low pectin citrus pulp and/or dried citrus pulp Ruminantes

    Rodrigues, Gustavo Henrique; Susin, Ivanete; Pires, Alexandre Vaz; Nussio, Luiz Gustavo; Gentil, Renato Shinkai; Ferreira, Evandro Maia; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Ribeiro, Michele Ferreira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da substituição parcial da polpa cítrica desidratada (PCD) pela polpa cítrica úmida semidespectinada in natura (PCUD), silagem de polpa cítrica úmida semidespectinada (PCUDS) ou silagem de polpa cítrica úmida semidespectinada adicionada de benzoato de sódio (PCUDS+B) sobre o desempenho, as características da carcaça, a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, os parâmetros ruminais e o metabolismo de nitrogênio. Na avaliação de desempenho, 64 cordeiros Santa Inês foram alimentados com rações contendo 95% de concentrado e 5% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura durante 56 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados (BCC). A dieta controle continha 69,5% de PCD e foi substituída em 30% na matéria seca (MS) pela PCUD, PCUDS ou PCUDS+B. Não houve diferença no consumo de MS, no ganho médio diário de peso e nas características das carcaças. No entanto, a eficiência alimentar dos cordeiros alimentados com PCUD foi maior que a daqueles alimentados com PCD. No ensaio de metabolismo, 16 borregos Santa Inês, canulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em BCC e alimentados com rações contendo 85% de concentrado e 15% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura. A dieta controle continha 75,3% de PCD e foi substituída em 30% na MS pela PCUD, PCUDS ou PCUDS+B. Não houve diferença nos coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, matéria orgânica e proteína bruta. O coeficiente de digestibilidade da fibra em detergente neutro, porém foi maior para a PCUD comparado à PCD. A concentração de amônia no fluido ruminal foi maior para as rações contendo PCD em comparação àquelas com PCUDS e PCUDS+B. No entanto, para os demais parâmetros ruminais não foi verificado efeito dos tratamentos. A PCUD in natura ou ensilada pode substituir parcialmente a PCD em rações com alta proporção de concentrado para cordeiros em confinamento.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of partial replacement of dried citrus pulp (DCP) by wet low pectin citrus pulp (WLPCP), wet low pectin citrus pulp silage (WLPCPS) or wet low pectin citrus pulp silage with sodium benzoate (WLPCPS+B) on performance and carcass characteristics, apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal measures, and nitrogen metabolism of lambs. In the performance trial, 64 Santa Inês ram lambs were fed 95% concentrate and 5% sugarcane bagasse diets during 56 days. The experimental design was a randomized complete block (RCB). The control diet contained 69.5% DCP, while in the other treatments fresh or ensiled WLPCP replaced DCP by 30% on a DM basis. There were no differences in DMI, ADG or carcass characteristics. However, feed efficiency was greater for lambs fed WLPCP compared with lambs fed DCP. In the digestibility trial, 16 Santa Inês ram lambs, canulated in the rumen, were assigned to a RCB design. Animals were fed diets containing 85% of concentrate and 15% of sugarcane bagasse. The control diet contained 75.3% DCP. A portion (30%) of the DCP DM was replaced by WLPCP, WLPCPS or WLPCPS+B. There was no difference in DM, organic matter or crude protein apparent digestibilities, except for neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Additionally, ruminal ammonia concentration was higher in diets containing DCP compared with WLPCPS and WLPCPS+B. Nevertheless, no effects of treatments were seen on the other ruminal measures. Fresh or ensiled WLPCP can partially replace DCP in rations with high level of concentrate for feedlot lambs.
  • Monoammonium phosphate in diets with high level of citrus pulp fed to feedlot lambs Ruminantes

    Rodrigues, Gustavo Henrique; Susin, Ivanete; Pires, Alexandre Vaz; Queiroz, Mário Adriano Ávila; Amaral, Rafael Camargo do; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Gentil, Renato Shinkai; Ferreira, Evandro Maia

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de monoamônio fosfato (MAP) em rações com alta proporção de concentrado contendo polpa cítrica sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de cordeiros em confinamento. Vinte e quatro cordeiros Santa Inês (26,4 kg de peso corporal e 125 dias de idade, em média) foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados, definidos de acordo com o peso e a idade no início do experimento. As rações foram isonitrogenadas, continham 70% de polpa cítrica na MS e tiveram a adição de 0; 0,3; 0,6 e 0,9% de MAP, correspondendo aos tratamentos CON, 0,3MAP, 0,6MAP e 0,9MAP, respectivamente. Houve diminuição linear no consumo de matéria seca e ganho diário médio de peso com a inclusão de MAP na ração, sem alteração nos parâmetros de carcaça avaliados. A utilização de MAP como fonte de fósforo em rações contendo polpa cítrica afeta negativamente o desempenho de cordeiros em confinamento.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of adding monoammonium phosphate (MAP) in high concentrate diets containing citrus pulp on feedlot lamb performance and carcass characteristics. Twenty four Santa Ines lambs (26.4 kg of initial body weight and 125 d old) were penned individually and used in a randomized complete block design according to body weight and age at beginning of the trial. Diets were formulated to provide a similar amount of crude protein and contained 70% of citrus pulp on a DM basis. MAP was added at 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% of the diet DM corresponding to the experimental treatments CON, 0.3MAP, 0.6MAP, and 0.9MAP, respectively. There was a linear decrease in dry matter intake and average daily gain, although no changes on carcass measures were observed. The use of MAP in citrus pulp diets affects lamb growth negatively.
  • Muscularity and adiposity of carcass of Santa Inês lambs: effects of different levels of replacement of ground corn by forage cactus meal in finishing ration Ruminants

    Santos, José Rômulo Soares dos; Cezar, Marcílio Fontes; Sousa, Wandrick Hauss de; Cunha, Maria das Graças Gomes; Pereira Filho, José Morais; Sousa, Dannylo Oliveira de

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the levels of replacement of ground corn by forage cactus meal in the diet on the muscularity and adiposity of carcass of Santa Inês lambs finished at feedlot. This study was carried out at Estação Experimental de Pendência, belonging to Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA-PB). Forty male Santa Inês lambs in feedlot were used in the experiment. Treatments were randomly assigned to the animals according to a completely randomized design, with four treatments, that consisted of growing substitution levels of ground corn for forage cactus meal: 0, 33, 66 and 100% of substitution and ten replications (lambs). Animals were slaughtered and carcasses cooled for 24 hours for later assessment of conformation, morphometry, loin eye-muscle area, fatness, perirenal fat, marbling and subcutaneous fat thickness. Legs were separated for dissection of muscle, bone, subcutaneous fat, intermuscle fat and total fat, which were weighed for the determination of the muscle:bone and muscle:fat relation and the relative weight of tissue components. Averages were submitted to variance and regression analyses at a 5% level of probability. Diets had no effect on carcass conformation. However, a negative linear effect on weights and yields of fats was observed with the increased levels of forage cactus meal in the diet, and the opposite was observed in the muscle yield behavior. Forage cactus meal is biologically as efficient as ground corn, because it increases the muscularity and reduces the adiposity of the carcass of Santa Inês lambs in feedlot.
  • Carcass characteristics and body components of Santa Inês lambs in feedlot fed on different levels of forage cactus meal Ruminants

    Santos, José Rômulo Soares dos; Cezar, Marcílio Fontes; Sousa, Wandrick Hauss de; Cunha, Maria das Graças Gomes; Pereira Filho, José Morais; Sousa, Dannylo Oliveira de

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the replacement of a ground corn diet by a forage cactus meal diet on the carcass characteristics and body components of Santa Inês lambs finished in feedlot. This study was carried out at Estação Experimental de Pendência, belonging to Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA-PB). Forty Santa Inês male lambs in feedlot were used in the experiment. Treatments were randomly assigned to the animals according to a completely randomized design, with four treatments, which consisted of growing replacement levels of ground corn by forage cactus meal: 0, 33, 66 and 100% of substitution and ten replications (lambs). Animals were slaughtered, and the following characteristics were evaluated: body weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, non-carcass components (NCC), hot carcass yield, cold carcass yield, biological yield, revenue of non components of carcass, revenues of non-carcass components, relative weight and relative value of the commercial cuts, viscera and organs' yield. Averages were submitted to analysis of variance and regression analyses at a 5% level of probability. The replacement levels of ground corn by forage cactus meal had no influence on biological yield, revenue of the non components of carcass, relative weight and relative value of the prime and choice cuts or on the relative weight of viscera and organs. The replacement of ground corn by forage cactus meal, on the ration given to Santa Ines lambs in feedlot does not impact the biological yield, relative weight and relative value of prime and choice cuts or the relative weight of viscera and other organs.
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