Accessibility / Report Error
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Volume: 41, Issue: 11, Published: 2012
  • Nitrogen fertilization on the establishment of Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte Forage Crops

    Sales, Rita Manuele Porto; Fries, Daniela Deitos; Pires, Aureliano José Vieira; Bonomo, Paulo; Santana, Sérgio Adorno de; Santos, Iasminy Silva; Rocha, Aline Viana; Sobral, Daiane Maria Pinto Ladeia

    Abstract in English:

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the establishment of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte) propagated vegetatively. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with treatments arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial design - two ages (70 and 85 days after planting) and four nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha) - with four replications. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production were evaluated. The nitrogen accelerated the establishment of the forage peanut with an increase in dry weight of green leaves and stolons. The greatest length of stolons (48.0 cm) was obtained with a dose equivalent to 86 kg N/ha and higher density of stolons (20 stolons/vase) between 78 and 82 kg N/ha. Nitrogen fertilization also reduced the phyllochron from 6.7 to 4.6 days/leaf. These data were more intense at 85 days, suggesting greater photosynthetic contribution during this period related to the large number of leaves after 70 days. Therefore, nitrogen can be an important tool to accelerate the establishment of pure stands of forage peanut.
  • Environmental and genetic effects on the lactation curves of four genetic groups of crossbred Holstein-Zebu cows Breeding, Genetics And Reproduction

    Glória, Joana Ribeiro da; Bergmann, José Aurélio Garcia; Quirino, Célia Raquel; Ruas, José Reinaldo Mendes; Pereira, Jonas Carlos Campos; Reis, Ronaldo Braga; Coelho, Sandra Gesteira; Silva, Martinho de Almeida e

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of genetic group and environmental factors, including farm of origin, season of calving and lactation number, on the individual lactation curves of 1,010 Holstein-Gyr, Guzerat-Holstein, Holstein-Nellore, and Holstein-Zebu F1 cows on the experimental farms of the Agricultural Research Company in Minas Gerais (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, EPAMIG). Least squares analysis and the incomplete gamma function were used to investigate differences in early milk yield, peak milk yield, time from onset to the lactation peak, persistency, total milk yield and lactation duration. The highest early yields were observed for Holstein-Gyr and Holstein-Zebu, and the lowest were observed for Holstein-Nellore cows. Early yield increased with lactation number, and the lactations that began in the late rainy and early dry seasons had the highest early yield. The time between lactation onset and the lactation peak was longer for primiparous Holstein-Gyr and Holstein-Guzerat cows. The lowest yields at the lactation peak were observed for the first lactation number. The highest values of persistency were observed for the first lactation number in Holstein-Guzerat cows. Total production from Holstein-Gyr and Holstein-Zebu cows were higher by approximately 14% and 29% compared with Holstein-Guzerat and Holstein-Nellore cows, respectively. The highest total yields were observed in lactations beginning in the dry season. Total yield increased with lactation number. The shortest lactation periods were observed in lactations beginning late in the rainy season. The incomplete gamma function was used to fit the individual curves from the genetic groups evaluated. The total yield differences were linked to early yields and yields at the peak of lactation.
  • Genetic diversity of the Brazilian Creole cattle Pé-duro assessed by microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA Breeding, Genetics And Reproduction

    Oliveira, Ana Paula Ferreira de; Carvalho, José Herculano de; Miretti, Marcos Mateo; Lara, Maria Aparecida Cassiano; Contel, Eucleia Primo Betioli

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to describe the genetic diversity and structure of the largest Pé-duro population by assessing variation at ten autosomal microsatellite (STR) loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. The mean expected heterozygosity was 0.755, the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.600 and significant inbreeding coefficient (Fis) and deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in most of analyzed loci demonstrate the impact of inbreeding and homozygosis on this population. A more in-depth genetic analysis could be achieved by expanding the STR list. The analysis of mtDNA provided evidence of ancestral African taurine haplotypes in Pé-duro and excluded maternal Zebuine introgression. In this report, the main Pé-duro population is genetically portrayed by sampling approximately 40% of it. As this herd represents the core of the Pé-duro conservation program, these findings are of outstanding value for the management and preservation of this Brazilian 'native' cattle breed.
  • Dietary requirements of available phosphorus in growing broiler chickens at a constant calcium:available phosphorus ratio Non Ruminants

    Mello, Heloisa Helena de Carvalho; Gomes, Paulo Cezar; Rostagno, Horacio Santiago; Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira; Rocha, Tatiana Cristina da; Almeida, Rodrigo Lopes de; Calderano, Arele Arlindo

    Abstract in English:

    Four experiments were conducted to study the requirements of available phosphorus (aP) for commercial male broilers of 1-10 day of age (exp.1), 11-21 days of age (exp. 2), 22-33 day of age (exp. 3) and 34-46 days of age (exp. 4), at a constant calcium:aP ratio. A complete randomized design was used in each experiment. The experimental diets were fed ad libitum to 8 replicate groups of ten broilers in each. The increments in the levels of aP ranged from 2.0 to 5.5 g/kg (exp. 1), 1.9 to 5.4 g/kg (exp. 2), 1.8 to 5.3 g/kg (exp. 3) and 1.7 to 5.2 g/kg (exp. 4), in 0.7 g/kg. The parameters evaluated were body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and bone parameters. The level of aP in the diet influenced the performance of broilers of 1-10 and 11-21 days of age, but did not affect the performance of broilers at 22-33 and 34-46 days of age. Feed intake was not affected. The requirements of aP and Ca for male broilers from 1-10, 11-21, 22-33 and 34-46 days of age are 4.82 and 9.64 g/kg, 4.10 and 8.20 g/kg, 3.95 and 7.90 g/kg and 3.19 g.kg and 6.38 g/kg, respectively. The results indicate that low levels aP were required because the requirements of the mineral reduced as birds aged. Provided there is no excess of dietary levels of Ca, using a Ca:aP ratio of 2:1 may reduce the dietary levels of aP.
  • Requirement of available phosphorus by female broiler chickens keeping the calcium:available phosphorus ratio at 2:1 Non Ruminants

    Mello, Heloisa Helena de Carvalho; Gomes, Paulo Cezar; Rostagno, Horacio Santiago; Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira; Oliveira, Rita Flávia Miranda de; Rocha, Tatiana Cristina da; Ribeiro, Cleverson Luís Nascimento

    Abstract in English:

    Four trials were conducted to determine the requirements of available phosphorus (aP) of female broiler chicks from 1 to 10 (exp.1), 11 to 21 (exp.2), 22 to 33 (exp.3), and from 34 to 46 (exp.4) days of age, keeping the calcium:available phosphorus ratio equal to 2:1. In each trial, 480 Cobb broilers were randomly allotted in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 8 replicates and 10 birds per pen. The levels of aP ranged from 2.0 to 5.5 g/kg (Exp. 1), 1.9 to 5.4g/kg (exp. 2), 1.8 to 5.3 g/kg (exp. 3) and 1.7 to 5.2 g/kg of diet (exp. 4), in increments of 0.7 g/kg. The experimental diets were formulated using corn and soybean meal and the available phosphorus was considered 33% of total phosphorus. The characteristics evaluated were body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and bone parameters. For female broiler chicks from 1 to 10; 11 to 21; 22 to 33; and from 34 to 46 days of age, the levels of available phosphorus and calcium recommended are 4.59 and 9.18; 3.88 and 7.76; 3.58 and 7.16; and 2.56 and 5.12 g/kg of diet, respectively.
  • Aerobic fungi in the rumen fluid from dairy cattle fed different sources of forage Ruminants

    Almeida, Patrícia Natalicia Mendes de; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic microbiota of the rumen fluid from Holstein cows and heifers fed different tropical forage in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 30 samples of rumen fluid from cows fed with sorghum silage were collected: 32 from cows fed Brachiaria brizantha, 12 from heifers that received sorghum silage and 11 from calves fed sugar cane foliage. The culture was carried out using the agar Sabouraud medium and the solid C medium, containing microcrystalline cellulose. The isolated mycelial fungi were identified by microculture technique and yeasts by micromorphological and physical-chemical analysis. Specific identification for yeasts was confirmed by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The presence of fungal colonies was confirmed on the Sabouraud medium for 100% of the samples. No significant differences were observed comparing the concentrations of mycelia fungi in the rumen fluid from cows fed different forages and for the two categories evaluated, fed sorghum silage. Yeast populations in the rumen fluid from heifers fed sugarcane were higher compared with those receiving sorghum silage. The yeast Pichia kudriavzevii (Candida krusei) was the most frequent and among the mycelial fungi, the genus Aspergillus was the most frequently observed, corresponding to 56% of the samples. Future studies should elucidate the variations in the populations of these microorganisms considering the carbohydrate sources in the tropical forages and the animal categories. The ecological or pathogenic role of these microorganisms should also be considered, aiming at improved productivity and health of cattle.
  • Growth, carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle in goat kids fed diets with castor oil Ruminants

    Maia, Michelle de Oliveira; Susin, Ivanete; Pires, Alexandre Vaz; Gentil, Renato Shinkai; Ferreira, Evandro Maia; Mendes, Clayton Quirino; Alencar, Severino Matias de

    Abstract in English:

    The objective in this study was to determine growth, carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi of crossbred Boer × Saanen kids fed castor oil. Twenty-four kids (12 males and 12 females) were assigned in a randomized complete block design with two treatments and twelve replications. Blocks were defined according to weight, gender and initial age of animals for the evaluation of performance. The experimental treatments consisted of two diets containing 900 g concentrate/kg: a control diet (without addition of oil) and another containing castor oil at 30 g/kg (on a dry matter basis). After they reached an average body weight of 25 kg, males were slaughtered for the evaluation of carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi muscle. The addition of castor oil in the diet did not affect the intake of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber; the average daily gain; and feed conversion, but increased the ether extract intake. No difference was observed for the carcass characteristics, chemical composition of the meat, concentration of C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 (CLA) and total concentration of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relations; however, there was increase in the concentrations of C18:2 trans-10, cis-12 (CLA) and C20:4 ω-6. The addition of castor oil to the diet of crossbred Boer × Saanen kids containing a high content of concentrate did not promote benefit to the characteristics evaluated.
  • Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils Ruminants

    Maia, Michelle de Oliveira; Susin, Ivanete; Ferreira, Evandro Maia; Nolli, Cristine Paduan; Gentil, Renato Shinkai; Pires, Alexandre Vaz; Mourão, Gerson Barreto

    Abstract in English:

    The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis). There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM), digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM), TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.
  • Lipid and selenium sources on fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat and muscle selenium concentration of Nellore steers Ruminants

    Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo; Santos, Marcos Veiga dos; Aferri, Gabriela; Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira da Silva; Silva, Saulo da Luz e; Freitas Júnior, José Esler de; Leme, Paulo Roberto; Rennó, Francisco Palma

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipid and selenium sources in diets for finishing Nellore steers on the fatty acid composition and selenium concentration of the longissimus muscle. Fifty Nellore steers (body weight = 458±39 kg) were assigned to one of six dietary treatments: 1) diet containing sunflower seed and inorganic selenium; 2) sunflower seed and organic selenium; 3) whole cottonseed and inorganic selenium; 4) whole cottonseed and organic selenium; 5) soybeans and inorganic selenium; and 6) soybeans and organic selenium. Diets were formulated with the same amount of nitrogen and calories and supplied once daily to steers in collective pens, with three animals per pen, for 120 d. At the end of the trial, steers were slaughtered and samples of the longissimus muscle were collected for fatty acid and selenium analysis. Effect of selenium sources was detected for selenium concentration in the longissimus muscle. Organic selenium had higher concentrations in the meat compared with inorganic selenium. The total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids did not differ between the sources of lipids and selenium. For selenium sources, no differences were observed between the concentrations of polyunsaturated fat. Also, no differences in C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 concentrations were noted; however, steers fed sunflower seed presented greater proportions of this fatty acid in the meat. The results indicated that the use of sunflower seed, cottonseed or soybeans and organic or inorganic selenium in feedlot diets to Nellore cattle does not alter the great part of the fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle. However, the inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet increases the meat CLA cis-9, trans-11, which is desirable and beneficial for the health of consumers.
  • Nutrient intake and digestibility of the lipid residue of biodiesel from palm oil in sheep Ruminants

    Raiol, Laura Cristina Barra; Kuss, Fernando; Silva, André Guimarães Maciel e; Soares, Bruno Cabral; Souza, Karla Débora Santana de; Colodo, Juliana Cristina Nogueira; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; Ávila, Sandra Cristina de

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of lipid residue of biodiesel originated in the processing of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in the diet on the digestibility of feedlot lambs. Twenty-five crossbred male castrated lambs, weighing 20±1.61 kg, were distributed in randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The experimental period lasted 22 days; 15 for diet adaptation, 2 for the adaptation to the indicator LIPE (lignin from Eucalyptus grandis isolated, purified and enriched, UFMG, Minas Gerais) and 5 for fecal sampling. Diets were formulated with 64% concentrate based on corn and soybean meal, 31% Massai grass (Panicum maximum cv. Massai) hay and 5% lipid supplementation from increasing levels of substitution of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of palm oil for biodiesel oil from palm residue. The lambs were offered two meals a day, at 7h00 and 16h00. There was linear effect of inclusion of the residue from palm oil biodiesel on dry matter intake. There was no change in digestibility of nutrients except for ether extract. The use of biodiesel from palm oil residue up to 100% replacement for the lipid supplementation of sheep positively influences the consumption without altering the digestibility of nutrients.
  • Fermentation and aerobic stability of high-moisture corn silages inoculated with different levels of Lactobacillus buchneri Short Communication - Technical Note

    Basso, Fernanda Carvalho; Bernardes, Thiago Fernandes; Roth, Anna Paula de Toledo Piza; Rabelo, Carlos Henrique Silveira; Ruggieri, Ana Cláudia; Reis, Ricardo Andrade

    Abstract in English:

    Fermentation and aerobic stability were evaluated in high-moisture corn (HMC) silage inoculated with different levels of Lactobacillus buchneri. The HMC composed of 654 g/kg dry matter (DM) was ensiled in quadruplicate laboratory silos (7 L) per treatment. L. buchneri 40788 was applied at 5 × 10(4); 1 × 10(5); 5 × 10(5); and 1 × 10(6) cfu/g to the ground corn. Silages with no additive were used as controls. After 140 d of ensiling, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability evaluation for 12 days in which the chemical parameters, microbiological parameters and silage temperature were measured to determine the aerobic deterioration. The lactic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations did not differ between silages. The fermentation parameters of HMC were not affected by L. buchneri. The HMC containing L. buchneri had a low number of yeast and mould colonies and a more stable pH until in the eighth measurement, which improved the aerobic stability without affecting gas loss. Doses of L. buchneri greater than or equal to 5 × 10(5) cfu/g applied to the HMC were the most efficient in control of aerobic deterioration.
  • Evaluation of the use of probiotic (Bacillus subtilis C-3102) as additive to improve performance in broiler chicken diets Short Communication - Technical Note

    Nunes, Jaqueline Oliveira; Bertechini, Antonio Gilberto; Brito, Jerônimo Ávito Gonçalves de; Fassani, Édison José; Mesquita, Fabrício Rivelli; Makiyama, Letícia; Meneghetti, Camila

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of probiotic based upon Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (BS) in broiler diets containing or not conventional additive growth-promoter (AGP). A total of 1,824 one-day-old chicks of the Cobb-500 strain were used and distributed into 48 plots (1.50 × 2.00 m). A completely randomized design with four treatments and 12 repetitions was adopted. The treatments evaluated were: 1- Negative Control - AGP-free diet (NC); 2 - Positive Control, with AGP halquinol 30 mg/kg diet (PC); 3 - NC + BS (3x10(5) cfu/g diet); and 4 - PC + BS (3x10(5) cfu/g diet). The diets were on corn, soybean meal and meat and bone meal basis, formulated according to the nutrient allowances of the Strain Cobb Guide, following a feed program with three diets (starter, grower and finisher). At 21 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and carcass yield characteristics were determined at 42 days of age. Throughout the trial period (starter and total phases), better feed conversion was found for broilers fed diet with both additives (AGP and BS) combined. At the end of the experiment (1 to 42 days), the highest weight gain also occurred in broilers fed diets with a combination of the two additives. In present study, the use of BS or AGP alone in diets did not affect the performance of broilers. The carcass yield was not influenced by the use of the additives and beneficial effects of supplementation of BS and AGP combined in the diet on broiler performance were observed.
  • Potential of biogas and methane production from anaerobic digestion of poultry slaughterhouse effluent Short Communication - Technical Note

    Sunada, Natália da Silva; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim; Orrico Júnior, Marco Antônio Previdelli; Vargas Junior, Fernando Miranda de; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; Fernandes, Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of anaerobic digestion on the treatment of effluent from poultry slaughterhouse. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Waste Recycling from Animal Production/FCA/UFGD. During four weeks, eight experimental digesters, semi-continuous models, were loaded and set according to the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and according to the solid fraction treatment, separated with 1 mm sieve or without separation. The average weekly production of biogas and methane as well as the methane concentrations, the potential production per amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD) added and reduced, the concentrations of N, P and K at the beginning and end of process, and the most likely numbers of total and thermotolerant coliforms were evaluated. For data analysis, a completely randomized design was performed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 HRT: 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and separation with 1 mm sieve or without separation), with repetition over time. The highest production of biogas and methane was statistically significant for the HRT of 7 and 14 days (5.29 and 2.38 L of biogas and 4.28 and 1.73 L of methane, respectively). There was an interaction between HRT and the separation of the solid with sieve and the highest production was obtained in the treatment without separation. Similar behavior was observed for the potential production with a maximum of 0.41 m³ methane.kg-1 COD added with an HRT of 7 days without separation of the solid fraction. The separation of the solid fraction is not recommended in the pretreatment of liquid effluent from poultry slaughterhouse, once the potential for production and production of methane and biogas were reduced with this treatment.
Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Universidade Federal de Viçosa / Departamento de Zootecnia, 36570-900 Viçosa MG Brazil, Tel.: +55 31 3612-4602, +55 31 3612-4612 - Viçosa - MG - Brazil
E-mail: rbz@sbz.org.br