Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to determine the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feedstuffs (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal and fish meal) in 900 sex-reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of the Thai strain during the growth phase, with an initial weight of 315±8.45 g. A total of 750 fish were distributed according to a randomized block design (repetitions in time) into five treatments with six replicates of 25 fish each. The remaining 150 fish were fed a protein-free diet to measure endogenous protein and amino acid losses in order to determine the true digestibility of these components. Each tested diet contained a single protein source, which consisted of one of the evaluated feedstuffs. Digestibility was indirectly estimated using chromic oxide at 0.50% as marker. Digesta was collected from the last 5 cm of the distal intestine (between the ileal-rectal valve and the anus) using the dissection technique. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 74.69 and 73.62% for corn, 73.74 and 72.81% for wheat bran, 86.01 and 84.66% for soybean meal, 85.19 and 84.29% for corn gluten meal, 76.74 and 75.56% for fish meal, respectively. True digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 85.21 and 83.97% for corn, 84.41 and 83.74% for wheat bran, 87.22 and 87.51% for soybean meal, 87.97 and 87.34% for corn gluten meal, and finally 79.58 and 78.44% for fish meal, respectively.
Resumo em Inglês:The study was conducted to estimate the dehydration curves, chemical composition, and occurrence of fungi in white oat hay (Avena sativa L. cv. Guapa BRS) and black oat hay (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common) at two cutting heights. Dehydration curves were studied under a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using split plots in time, considering two types of oats (white and black), two cutting heights (10 and 20 cm), and 17 sampling times (0, 4, 19, 24, 28, 43, 47, 52, 67, 71, 76, 91, 95, 100, 115, 129, and 124 hours after harvesting) with five replicates. For the chemical composition and occurrence of fungi, the experimental design comprised randomized blocks in a factorial 2 × 2 split-plot in time with two types of oats, two cutting heights, and three assessment periods: before cutting, during baling, and after 30 days of storage, with five replicates. The hay obtained by cutting of the black and white oats at heights of 10 and 20 cm showed similar dehydration curves. The crude protein values were higher in white oats only at the time of cutting (141.5 g/kg). The black oats showed lower nutritional quality, with higher levels of ADF and lignin. There was no effect of cutting height on the chemical composition, but the cutting height interfered with the production of dry matter and residue after cutting, with cutting at 10 cm leading to higher dry matter production and at 20 cm to increased waste production. The cutting heights of the oats interfere directly with the dry matter production and post-harvest residue without changing the chemical composition of the hay.
Resumo em Português:Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do revestimento de sementes decorrente do aumento da concentração salina, sementes de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), cultivar "comum", nuas e revestidas, foram expostas a seis concentrações de cloreto de sódio (NaCl): 48, 66, 97, 129 e 145 mM. O material-base empregado no revestimento foi farelo de madeira. Avaliaram-se a emergência de plântulas normais, anormais, sementes dormentes e mortas, o índice de velocidade de emergência, o comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz e o peso fresco da parte aérea das plântulas. A análise dos resultados permitiu concluir que a emergência de sementes nuas e revestidas de azevém-anual decresce com o aumento da salinidade do meio, afetando negativamente o desenvolvimento de plântulas normais. O aumento dos níveis de NaCl faz as sementes entrar em dormência. O revestimento usado nas sementes não é capaz de protegê-las da ação prejudicial da salinidade a partir da concentração de 64 mM de NaCl.
Resumo em Inglês:With the objective of evaluating the influence of seed coating on seed germination and seedling development under increased saline concentrations, naked and loose seeds of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), "common" cultivar, were exposed to six NaCl concentrations (0, 48, 66, 97, 129 and 145 mM). The basic material for coating was wood bran. Emergence, abnormal seedlings, dormant seeds and percentages of dead seeds, as well as speed emergence index, length of the aerial part and the root and fresh weight of the aerial part were evaluated. Results showed that emergence of both loose and coated annual ryegrass seeds decreases with increase in substrate salinity, negatively affecting seedling development. Increased NaCl concentration leads to seed dormancy. Seed coating is unable to protect seeds from the deleterious effects of salinity from the 64 mM NaCl concentration.
Resumo em Inglês:Phosphorous application effects were evaluated on ryegrass dry matter (DM) accumulation, root development and plant tissue concentration of phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon aiming to determinate the nutritional status of the pasture, as well as to verify the possibility to establish a phosphorus dilution curve for this pasture. Also, the development of phosphorus and ryegrass cultivated with the residual effect of phosphorus fertilization was determined. The experiment was carried out in Pinhais County - Paraná State on a Cambisol with very low phosphorus levels. The experiment was of random blocks design and treatments consisted of five phosphorus rates of triple superphosphate (0, 45, 90, 180 and 360 kg P2O5 ha-1) applied to soil surface with four replications. Phosphorus fertilization promoted linear increments in the soil phosphorus availability and resulted, in the first year, in early pasture production and higher phosphorus content in the plant. Nitrogen and carbon contents were not affected. Phosphorous application increased ryegrass DM accumulation in all periods, ranging from 16 to 2826 kg DM ha-1 at flowering stage, for zero and 360 kg P2O5 ha-1, respectively. Root density was positively influenced by phosphorus supply, and the rate of 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 was effective for maximum root development. The residual effect of phosphorus fertilizer provided enhancement of yield and phosphorus plant concentration for both sorghum and ryegrass in the second year.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this experiment was to characterize the dry matter production of vegetative components (stalk, leaf, husk, and cob) and reproductive components (grain) of the corn plant according to planting time and the grain maturity stage. Eight corn hybrids with different agronomic characteristics were used to carry out the experiments. Two experiments were performed with planting undertaken on 11/11/2007 and 12/12/2007 under a conventional tillage system. The eight corn cultivars were harvested at three grain maturity stages, half milk line, three quarters milk line and black layer. An 8 × 3 factorial (eight hybrids and the three cutting times) randomized blocks design was used, with three replications. Individual analysis of variance was performed for each experiment. Then joint analysis of variance was performed involving the two planting times. The means were grouped and the hybrids used as replications to characterize the components. Delay in planting significantly reduced the dry matter productivity of the whole plant; however, it did not reduce its degradability. The greatest dry matter productivity obtained was that of grain, followed by stalk, leaf, husk and cob. The vegetative components, leaves and husk, lose quality with delay in planting. The leaf is the vegetative component of highest quality, while the cob is the worst. Delay in planting increases the neutral detergent fiber content of the stalk, husk and cob.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen supply and plants densities in the productivity of mombasa guineagrass (Panicum maximum) in the period of establishment. The design was of completely randomized blocks, with 12 treatments and three repetitions, with four nitrogen supplies (absence of application, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha.year) and three plant densities (9, 25 and 49 plants/m²). The plot was cut at 30 cm from the ground when the sward high intercepted 95% of light. The following items were evaluated: sward height at 95% light interception, interval and number of cuts, dry mass production, total dry mass of leaves, stems and dead material and the morphologic composition. Nitrogen increased the dry mass production and the dry mass of stem in winter and summer, and decreased in the fall. The total dry mass of leaf presented decrease of 19% in the summer between the smallest and biggest densities in the 320 kg/ha. The dry mass of dead material had negative effect of the density in the fall. The leaf percentage increased 88% between the smallest and largest nitrogen level at the plant density of 49 plants/m². Only density influenced the sward height in the condition of 95% of light interception. The number of cuts increased with nitrogen levels in the fall, spring and summer, while the interval of cuts decreased with fertilization in the spring and summer. Nitrogen increases the production of mombasa guineagrass in each cycle.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to evaluate the divergence of bromatological and fermentative characteristics of silages of 25 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) hybrids. The experimental design was completely randomized with 25 treatments and four replications. The mean values of pH differed with variation from 3.45 to 3.87 for hybrids 866005 and 870051, respectively, and the mean pH value was 3.66. The average percentage of lactic acid ranged from 2.90 to 7.43 dag/kg of dry matter (DM) in hybrids 870035 and 866005, respectively, with an average of 4.65 dag/kg DM. Through cluster analysis by the Tocher method and average Euclidean distance based on the fermentative characteristics, five groups were formed: one with 18 hybrids, another with four and three groups with one hybrid in each. In group three, there were the hybrids that showed the highest values of lactic acid. Hybrids 870025, 870035, 870081, 870095, 866034, and 870031 showed higher DM content and the hybrid BRS 610 had the lowest average compared with the others. Hybrids 1F305, BRS 610, Volumax, and XBS60329 had the lowest levels of non-fiber carbohydrates and higher neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein. Despite the fermentative and bromatological divergences between hybrids, they are not a limiting factor to silage production.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to evaluate the mass of the forage and of the morphological components, and the sward structure in Piata palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piata) deferred in function of different initial heights and nitrogen levels. Two levels of nitrogen (75 and 150 kg/ha) and one control without fertilization associated to three initial deferring heights (20, 30, and 40 cm) were evaluated. The design was of completely randomized blocks with three replications in a subdivided plot scheme. A raise in the initial deferment height and in the fertilization elevated the sward and extended tiller heights, the leaf area index, and the light interception by the sward. The piata palisadegrass deferred with an initial height of 40 cm presented a higher forage mass with lower percentage of leaf blades, and higher stem and dead tissue quantity. Additionally, this management strategy resulted in lower bulk density of leaf blade and in higher bulk densities of stems and dead tissue. The utilization of 150 kg/ha of nitrogen raised the production and the bulk density of deferred piata palisadegrass forage and increased production and bulk density of leaves and stems. In the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, the piata palisadegrass deferred with an initial height of 30 cm and fertilized with 75 kg/ha of nitrogen in the beginning of the fall presents adequate mass and structure to animal production in the winter.
Resumo em Português:Os objetivos neste trabalho foram investigar, em uma população de bovinos de corte mestiços a obtenção dos efeitos genéticos não-aditivos para as características peso aos 205 e 390 dias e perímetro escrotal e avaliar a consideração desses efeitos na predição dos valores genéticos dos reprodutores utilizando diferentes metodologias de estimação. No método 1, os dados foram pré-ajustados para os efeitos não-aditivos obtidos pelo método de mínimos quadrados em modelo que considerou os efeitos fixos genéticos aditivos diretos e maternos e os não-aditivos, das heterozigoses direta e materna total, e epistasia. No método 2, os efeitos não-aditivos foram considerados covariáveis no modelo genético. Valores genéticos para os dados ajustados e não-ajustados foram preditos considerando efeitos aleatórios no modelo os efeitos aditivos direto e materno e, para peso aos 205 dias, também o efeito permanente de ambiente. Os valores genéticos dos reprodutores nas categorias analisadas, para a característica peso aos 205 dias, foram organizados em arquivos com a finalidade de verificar alterações na magnitude das predições e no ordenamento dos animais, quanto aos dois métodos de correção dos dados para os efeitos não-aditivos. Os efeitos não-aditivos não se assemelham em magnitude e sentido nos dois métodos de estimação utilizados nem para as características avaliadas. Correlações de Pearson e Spearman entre os valores genéticos foram maiores que 0,94. A utilização dos métodos de estimação avaliados não implicaria em mudanças na seleção dos animais.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to investigate, in a population of crossbred cattle, the obtainment of the non-additive genetic effects for the characteristics weight at 205 and 390 days and scrotal circumference, and to evaluate the consideration of these effects in the prediction of breeding values of sires using different estimation methodologies. In method 1, the data were pre-adjusted for the non-additive effects obtained by least squares means method in a model that considered the direct additive, maternal and non-additive fixed genetic effects, the direct and total maternal heterozygosities, and epistasis. In method 2, the non-additive effects were considered covariates in genetic model. Genetic values for adjusted and non-adjusted data were predicted considering additive direct and maternal effects, and for weight at 205 days, also the permanent environmental effect, as random effects in the model. The breeding values of the categories of sires considered for the weight characteristic at 205 days were organized in files, in order to verify alterations in the magnitude of the predictions and ranking of animals in the two methods of correction data for the non-additives effects. The non-additive effects were not similar in magnitude and direction in the two estimation methods used, nor for the characteristics evaluated. Pearson and Spearman correlations between breeding values were higher than 0.94, and the use of different methods does not imply changes in the selection of animals.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to evaluate selective mating using distribution of extremes, among other mating strategies, on its ability to decrease the endogamy and the loss of genetic variability. The genetic simulation system (Genesys) was used to simulate two genomes (each one with a single characteristic whose distinction was the value of heritability) and the base and original populations. Each initial population was submitted to assisted selection by markers for ten consecutive generations. For evaluation of strategies, the estimated parameters were phenotypic value, endogamy and additive genetic variance, in different family sizes, for both characteristics. In all scenarios combining heritability and family sizes, the selective mating was superior to the others, in the ability to decrease endogamy and maintain higher magnitudes of genetic variability. Consequently, superior phenotypic increments were obtained, pointing to a major detection of quantitative trait loci in the assisted selection by markers due to gradual decrease of the additive genetic variance over the generations.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to characterize the population genetic structure of the Gir breed in the Northeast of Brazil. The data used in this study were taken from pedigree information of 8,897 Gir animals between 1957 and 2007, obtained from the Brazilian Zebu Breeders Association (ABCZ). The program ENDOG was used to estimate the parameters based on the probability gene origin. From the amount of the studied animals, 67.22%, 18.41% and 3.15% had complete pedigree only on the first, second and third parentage, respectively. The number of ancestors that contributed for the reference population was 2,755, of which only 171 explain the 50% genetic variability of the population. The actual number of founder herds was 168 and the effective number of founder herds was 22.3. The number of sire supplier herds was 22.16, 8.66 and 5.36 for fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfathers, respectively. The average coefficient of relatedness was estimated at 0.22%; the highest individual coefficient was 1.49%. The little variability of the current population is a result of the small number of effective founders and ancestors indicating the population evolved from a narrow genetic base.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to obtain estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for egg mass of meat quails and also to propose an optimal age for selection of birds through the egg mass. The data used in this study came from 3,503 female meat quails (UFV1: 1.811 quails; UFV2: 1.692 quails) of the Poultry Breeding Program from Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The traits examined were egg mass in partial periods until 77, 112, 147 and 182 days, and egg mass in the total period of 407 days by the use of single and bi-trait animal models. For the genetic group UFV1, the heritability values for the periods were high: 0.58, 0.59, 0.57, 0.59 and 0.24 (until 77, 112, 147,182 and 407 days, respectively). The values of genetic correlations were medium, ranging from 0.51 (77 and 407 days) to 0.61 (112 and 407, 147 and 407 days). For the genetic group UFV2, the estimates of heritability were of low magnitude: 0.05, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, and 0.11 (until 77, 112, 147, 182, and 407 days, respectively). The values for genetic correlation ranged from 0.61 (112 and 407 days) to 0.93 (77 and 407 days). For the genetic group UFV1, the second partial period (112 days) for selection of meat quails using the egg mass trait is recommended, due to a higher value of heritability and a higher value of genetic correlation with the total and relative efficiency close to the unity in this period. In the genetic group UFV2, the first partial period (77 days) is indicated, since it had a higher estimation of genetic correlation and a higher relative efficiency. The choice of these partial periods reduces the generation interval, increasing the intensity of selection and an increase in genetic gain per unit of time.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of the present study was to analyze models with genetic and/or residual heteroskedasticity for genetic evaluation of the weaning weight of Charolais-Zebu crossbred calves. Weaning weight data from 56,965 crossbred calves were analyzed using animal models with different combinations of genetic and residual heteroskedasticity and/or homoskedasticity. The inference on a posteriori distributions of genetic parameters were by the Monte Carlo method via Markov chains. The model with genetic and residual heteroskedasticity was the best fit on the data. Groups of animals with different genetic compositions, expressed as percentages of Charolais-Zebu breed alleles and individual and maternal heterozygosis, had different genetic variances. These genetic variances could be modeled by linear functions of the Charolais and Zebu genetic variances and the variance attributed to segregation. The breed compositions, the individual and maternal heterozygosis, the sex and age of dam at calving were significant sources of residual heteroskedasticity. The a posteriori means for heritabilities and sire and dam classifications were altered due to genetic and residual heteroskedasticity.
Resumo em Inglês:Performance and carcass and cut yield of finishing pigs of three sexual categories fed diets with different levels of ractopamine were studied. Forty-eight hybrid animals (initial weight of 92.1±2.4 kg) were distributed in a completely randomised design in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (three sexual categories: surgically castrated males, two females and immunologically castrated males - with or without 10 ppm of ractopamine), totalling six treatments and eight repetitions with one animal per experimental plot during 28 days. Ractopamine improved weight gain and feed conversion of all sexual categories. The best results were obtained with immunologically castrated males, which, in turn, had lower carcass yield and backfat thickness in the belly. In the absence of ractopamine, depth and loin eye area were higher in females but no differences in these variables were observed between categories when this additive was used. Ractopamine increased the sirloin yield in all sexual categories. There was no difference in bonus index. Ractopamine improves the performance of pigs of 92 to 125 kg. Immunologically castrated males have the best performance responses to ractopamine, but with losses in carcass yield, loin characteristics and backfat thickness of the belly.
Resumo em Inglês:Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the evaporative cooling of the air at farrowing on the performance of lactating sows under high environmental temperature conditions in the Central West region of Brazil. One hundred and forty-four lactating sows - 46 of first and second farrowing (experiment I) and 98 from the third to eighth farrowing (experiment II) - were used. Sows were distributed in experimental design of randomized blocks consisting of two rooms (with air cooling and control), with the sow as the experimental unit. The average duration of lactation was 21 days. Sows were fed ad libitum with the same lactation diet. In experiment I, the air cooling increased the daily feed intake, reduced the total and percent weight loss, increased the weight of the piglets and litters at weaning and improved the daily milk production of sows. However, the air cooling did not affect the weight of the sows or the number of piglets at weaning. In experiment II the air cooling increased the daily feed intake of the sows, reduced the total and percent weight loss, increased the weight and the weight gain of the piglets and litters and improved the daily milk production of the sows. Air cooling enables the increase of the daily feed intake and, therefore, of nutrients by the sows, with consequent reduction of mobilization of body reserves and the increase in the milk production and in the weight of piglets and litters at weaning, regardless the farrowing order of the sow.
Resumo em Português:Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho, a resposta imune e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas suplementadas com cromo complexado a levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisae), criados em diferentes condições de temperatura. O experimento foi conduzido em câmaras climáticas com sistema de aquecimento e refrigeração, utilizando-se as seguintes condições de temperatura, de acordo com as idades: 1 a 3 dias (35, 35 e 35 ºC ± 2), 4 a 7 dias (35, 30, 25 ºC ± 2), 8 a 14 dias (34, 27 e 20 ºC ± 2), 15 a 21 dias (33, 26 e 18 ºC ± 2) e de 22 a 47 dias (32, 26 e 18 ºC ± 2), respectivamente, para temperatura quente, termoneutra e fria. As dietas foram suplementadas com 0, 400, 800, 1.200 μg Cr/kg. A suplementação de 400 μg Cr/kg melhora a viabilidade e, em aves mantidas em temperatura quente, a conversão alimentar, enquanto a temperatura de criação mostrou ter grande influência sobre as características produtivas em todas as fases de criação. As aves criadas em temperatura quente apresentam melhor resposta imune, maior rendimento de carcaça e pernas e resultados inferiores de desempenho e rendimento de peito.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this experiment was to evaluate performance, immune response and traits concerning carcass and poultry cuts of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with chromium-yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae), reared under different environmental temperature conditions. Birds were reared in climate chambers with heating and cooling system, using the following environmental temperatures according to ages: from 1 to 3 days of age (35, 35 and 35 ºC ± 2), from 4 to 7 days of age (35, 30 and 25 ºC ± 2), from 8 to 14 days old (34, 27 and 20 ºC ± 2), from 15 to 21 days of age (33, 26 and 18 ºC ± 2) and from 22 to 47 days of age (32, 26 and 18 ºC ± 2), respectively, for high, thermoneutral and low temperatures. Diets were supplemented with 0; 400; 800; and 1,200 μg Cr/kg. Supplementation with 400 μg Cr/kg enhances the viability and, in birds reared in high temperature, feed conversion as well, while temperature showed to have great influence upon productive traits in every rearing phase. Chickens reared at high temperature presented better immune response, higher carcass dressing percentage and leg quarter yield, but inferior results for breast yield and performance.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this experiment was to estimate the digestible tryptophan (DTrp) requirements for growing meat quails. In the first experiment (1-14 days of age), 1,950 quails were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six levels of DTrp (0.27; 0.30; 0.33; 0.36; 0.39 and 0.42% of diet), five replications and 65 quails per experimental unit. There was a linear increase of feed intake, tryptophan intake, weight gain and body weight with the DTrp levels increase. In the second experiment (15-35 days of age), 1,350 quails were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six levels of DTrp (0.22; 0.25; 0.28; 0.31; 0.34 and 0.37% of diet), five replications and 45 quails per experimental unit. There was a linear increase for tryptophan intake, carcass yield, ash levels and protein deposition rate with the DTrp levels increase. In the third experiment (28-35 days of age), conducted to determine the nitrogen balance, 150 males were housed in galvanized wire cages featuring drinker, feeder and individual metal tray lined with plastic to collect the excreta. The design was completely randomized, with six levels of DTrp (0.22; 0.25; 0.28; 0.31; 0.34 and 0.37% of diet), five replicates and five quails per experimental unit. Linear decrease was observed on the nitrogen balance and metabolization coefficient with the DTrp levels increase. The nutritional requirement of digestible tryptophan for maximum growing of meat quail, in the period from 1 to 14 days of age, is higher or equal to 0.42%; in the period from 15 to 35 days, it is 0.22%.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of the experiment was to classify 20 protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry with potential to use in ruminant feeding. The meals evaluated were: cottonseed, canudo-de-pito, crambe, sunflower, castor-oil seeds detoxified with calcium, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds and soybean; and the cakes were: cottonseed, peanut, babassu, crambe, palm oil, sunflower, licuri, macauba seeds, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds, turnip and jatropha. The samples were quantified to determine dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC), acid detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (ADFap), lignin, cutin and starch levels. The CP profile was characterized in fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD), rumen degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible neutral detergent fiber and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein were evaluated. The OM, CP, EE, NDFap, NFC, ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch contents varied from 81.95 to 95.41%, 18.92 to 57.75%, 0.56 to 18.40%, 10.13 to 62.30%, 3.89 to 27.88%, 6.15 to 36.86%, 1.19 to 5.04%, 0 to 17.87% and 0.68 to 14.50%, respectively. The values of fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C ranged from 5.40 to 43.31%, 0.08 to 37.63%, 16.75 to 79.39%, 1.86 to 59.15% and 0.60 to 11.47%, respectively. Concentrations of IVDMD, IVNDFD, rumen-degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible NDF and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein ranged from 31.00 to 95.92%, 55.04 to 97.74%, 41.06 to 97.61%, 2.39 to 58.94, 9.27 to 94.26%, 1.05 to 40.80% and 0.29 to 2.92%, respectively. Some of these products can replace soybean meal, specially the Macauba seeds cake, cottonseed meal and peanut and turnip cakes based on digestive characteristics.
Resumo em Português:Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar as exigências de proteína, energia e macrominerais de bezerros nelores do nascimento aos 180 dias. Foram utilizados 20 bezerros (10 machos e 10 fêmeas) com peso corporal médio de 30±3 kg. Imediatamente após o nascimento, quatro bezerros, dois machos e duas fêmeas, foram abatidos para estimar a composição corporal inicial dos animais restantes no experimento. Aos 90 dias, foram abatidos oito bezerros (quatro machos e quatro fêmeas), o restante dos animais abatidos aos 180 dias. Além do leite, os bezerros foram alimentados com silagem de milho à vontade e concentrado comercial fixado em no máximo 0,5 kg/animal/dia. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios de digestibilidade, aos 30 e 90 dias para estimar os consumos de energia dos bezerros. Após o abate, todos os bezerros tiveram suas meias-carcaças direitas dissecadas. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína, energia e minerais foram estimados pela equação Y = a . PCVZb, sendo PCVZ o peso de corpo vazio. A relação PCVZ/PC dos bezerros foi de 0,9622 e a de ganho (G) de PCVZ/GPC foi de 0,958. As exigências líquidas de proteína e energia aumentaram com o aumento do peso corporal, enquanto as de cálcio diminuíram. As exigências de proteína metabolizável para ganho de 1 kg de PC foram de 216,96 e 261,98 g para bezerros de 100 e 200 kg, respectivamente. Recomenda-se utilizar as seguintes equações para estimar os conteúdos corporais de bezerros Nelore lactentes: proteína (g/dia) = 0,135 × PCVZ1,0351; energia (Mcal/dia) = 1,1798 × PCVZ1,1805; cálcio (g/dia) = 0,091 × PCVZ0,6019; fósforo (g/dia) = 0,00894 × PCVZ0,9629; sódio (g/dia) = 0,00126 × PCVZ0,9791; magnésio (g/dia) = 0,000405 × PCVZ0,9827; potássio (g/dia) = 0,00165 × PCVZ0,9364.
Resumo em Inglês:This experiment was carried out to evaluate the nutritional requirements of protein, energy and macro minerals for Nellore calves from birth to 180 days. A total of 20 calves, 10 males (M) and 10 females (F) with average body weight (BW) of 30±3 kg were used. Soon after birth, four (2 males and 2 females) calves were slaughtered to estimate initial body composition of animals that remained in the trial. At 90 days, another eight calves were slaughtered (4 males and 4 females), and the remaining animals were slaughtered at 180 days. Besides milk, the calves were fed with corn silage ad libitum and commercial concentrate set at a maximum of 0.5 kg/animal/day. Two digestibility assay were conducted at 30 and 90 days to estimate the energy intake of the calves. After slaughtered all calves had their right half-carcasses dissected. The content of protein, energy and minerals were estimated by the equation Y = a. EBWb, where EBW is the empty body weight. The relationship EBW/BW of calves was 0.9622 and EBWG/BWG was 0.958, where G is the gain. The net requirements of protein and energy increased with increasing body weight, while calcium decreased. The metabolizable protein requirements for gain of 1 kg BW were 216.96 and 261.98 g for calves with 100 and 200 kg respectively. The following equations are recommended to estimate the body content of preweaning Nellore calves: protein (g/day) = 0.135 × EBW1.0351; energy (Mcal/day) = 1.1798 × EBW1.1805; calcium (g/day) = 0.091 × EBW0.6019; phosphorus (g/day) = 0.00894 × EBW0.9629; sodium (g/day) = 0.00126 × EBW0.9791; magnesium (g/day) = 0.000405 × EBW0.9827; potassium (g/day) = 0.00165 × EBW0.9364.
Resumo em Português:Objetivou-se avaliar as exigências nutricionais de proteína e energia de vacas nelores em lactação no período de 0 a 180 dias. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas primíparas com peso corporal médio ao parto de 362±25 kg. Quatro vacas foram abatidas logo após o parto e foram consideradas grupo referência. Do parto aos 90 dias, quatro vacas receberam alimentação restrita na proporção de 1,5% do peso corporal (PC), em porcentagem da matéria seca (MS), e 12 foram alimentadas à vontade. Aos 90 dias do pós-parto, foram abatidas oito vacas (quatro de cada oferta alimentar). Dos 90 aos 180 dias, quatro vacas foram realocadas para mantença (1,8% PC em MS) e quatro continuaram em consumo voluntário, sendo todas abatidas ao final do período. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína e energia foram estimados pelo equação Y = a . Xb, em que X é o peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ) e a e b os parâmetros da equação. Foram obtidas relações médias de 0,894 para PCVZ/PC e de 0,936 para ganho de PCVZ (GPCVZ)/ganho de PC (GPC). As exigências líquidas de energia para mantença (ELm) foram de 97,84 kcal/PCVZ0,75 e as de energia metabolizável para mantença (EMm), 140,17 kcal/PCVZ0,75. As eficiências de utilização da energia para mantença e ganho de peso foram 0,70 e 0,44, respectivamente. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína diminuíram com o aumento do PC, enquanto os de energia aumentaram. No leite das vacas, foram determinados teores médios de 3,71; 3,88; e 4,74%, respectivamente, de proteína bruta, gordura e lactose. A exigência de ELm para lactação de vacas nelores é de 97,84 kcal/PCVZ0,75, enquanto a de EMm é de 140,17 kcal/PCVZ0,75 e a de proteína metabolizável, de 52,8 g. Para produzir 1 kg de leite com 4% de gordura, vacas nelores necessitam de 0,300 kg de NDT.
Resumo em Inglês:This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional requirements of protein and energy of primiparous lactating Nellore cows from 0 to 180 days after calving. A total of 20 lactating primiparous cows with average body weight at calving of 362±25 kg were used. Four cows were slaughtered soon after calving and were considered as reference group. From calving to 90 days post partum four cows were fed restricted at 1.5% of body weight (BW) in dry matter (DM) basis and 12 were fed ad libitum. At 90 days post partum eight cows were slaughtered (four from each feeding system). From 90 to 180 days, four cows were realocated for maintenance (1.8% BW in DM) and four remained in voluntary intake, and all were slaughtered at the end of the period. The contents of protein and energy were estimated by the equation Y = a. Xb, in which X is the empty body weight (EBW), and a and b are the parameters of the allometric equation. Ratios obtained for empty body weight (EBW)/BW and empty body gain (EBWG)/BWG were 0.894 and 0.936, respectively. The net energy for maintenance (NEm) were 97.84 kcal/EBW0.75 and the metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) were 140.17 kcal/EBW0.75. The efficiencies of energy use for maintenance and gain were 0.70 and 0.44, respectively. The content of protein and minerals, except calcium, decreased with the increase in BW while the energy increased. The milk of cows had average contents of 3.71, 3.88 and 4.74%, respectively, for crude protein, fat and lactose. The NEm requirement for lactating Nellore cows is 97.84 kcal/EBW0,75, while MEm is 140.17 kcal/EBW0,75 and metabolizable protein requirement is 52.8 g. To produce 1 kg of milk with 4% fat Nellore cows need 0.300 kg TDN.
Resumo em Inglês:This experiment evaluated the effect of adding macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) cake replacing corn on body measurements and carcass characteristics of Santa Inês lambs. Twenty four 5-month-old uncastrated male lambs were tested using a randomized blocks design. Lambs were distributed into four experimental groups, receiving diets with 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg of macaúba cake. After 60 days in feedlot, measurements of body length, thoracic perimeter, height at the anterior and rump height were taken. The lambs were slaughtered, skinned and eviscerated. Carcass were weighed hot and chilled at 2 ºC during 24 h. Cooling losses, hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, cold carcass yield, half carcass weight, fat thickness, final weight, slaughter weight, empty body weight, thorax depth, croup width, perimeter of the croup, carcass length, internal carcass length, hindlimb length, hindlimb width and hindlimb conformation score were evaluated. Only hindlimb width was inversely correlated to adding macaúba cake in the diet. Macaúba cake can be included in diets for lamb in feedlot up to 300 g/kg without affecting body measurements in vivo or carcass characteristics.
Resumo em Português:Avaliou-se neste estudo o efeito do estresse, via administração de ACTH (hormônio adrenocorticotrófico), sobre a quantidade e qualidade do leite produzido e a indicação de estresse pela alteração no nível de cortisol. Assim, 12 cabras lactantes foram distribuídas em dois grupos: seis animais receberam aplicação de 0,06 UI de ACTH/kg de PV (desafiadas) e seis receberam solução placebo (controle), todas via intravenosa. O desafio ocorreu ao longo da lactação, com aplicação do protocolo aos 30, 60, 120 e 180 dias do início da lactação, avaliando-se em cada data os níveis de cortisol 30 minutos antes, no ato da aplicação, 60, 120 e 300 minutos depois. A produção leiteira foi mensurada diariamente durante 270 dias e, a cada 20 dias, o leite foi colhido para contagem de células somáticas (CCS) pelo método direto. Os teores de cortisol mensurados em -30 e 0 minuto antes da aplicação de ACTH foram baixos e semelhantes entre os grupos. Entretanto, a partir de 60 minutos, constatou-se efeito da aplicação de ACTH, com teor de cortisol de 61,37±6,65 versus 5,47±1,21 ng/mL e de 51,17±10,21 versus 4,67±1,21 ng/mL aos 120 minutos. Aos 300 minutos, o cortisol retornou ao nível basal. Não houve diferença na produção de leite, no teor de proteína e de gordura do leite, cujos valores nos grupos ACTH e Placebo foram 1,37±0,59 e 1,38±0,63 kg de leite, respectivamente. A contagem de células somáticas não foi influenciada pelo estresse e apresentou valores situados na faixa indicada para animais sadios. Constatou-se estresse pontual em decorrência da aplicação de ACTH, porém sem alterações de natureza quantitativa e qualitativa do leite produzido, e isso indica que atividades de manejo que estressam os animais pontualmente não trazem prejuízos ao sistema produtivo.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to analyze the stress effect, via administration of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), on quantity and quality of milk produced and also the indication of stress by alteration of cortisol level. Twelve milking goats were divided in two groups: six animals were subjected to intravenous application of 0.06 UI of ACTH/kg of LW (challenged) and six received placebo solution (control). The challenge occurred during milking with protocol application at 30, 60, 120 and 180 days from the beginning of milking; each date the levels of cortisol were evaluated 30 minutes before, at the application of ACTH, 60, 120 and 300 minutes after ACTH. The milk production was measured daily during 270 days and every twenty days the milk was collected for somatic cell count (SCC) by the direct method. The cortisol levels measured at -30 and zero minutes before ACTH applications were low and similar between the goat groups. However, after 60 minutes it was verified the effect of ACTH application, and cortisol contents of 61.37±6.65 versus 5.47±1.21 ng/mL and of 51.17±10.21 versus 4.67±1.21 ng/mL at 120 minutes. At 300 minutes, the cortisol returned to basal level. There was no significant difference of milk production, protein contents and milk fat; groups ACTH and placebo produced 1.37±0.59 and 1.38±0.63 kg of milk, respectively. The somatic cell count was not influenced by ACTH stress and presented values located within the range indicated for healthy animals. Punctual stress originated from ACTH application was verified, but without alterations of quantitative and qualitative nature of milk produced, indicating that management activities that punctually stress animals do not bring production impairment.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrients and dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency and digestibility of diets, microbial efficiency, cold carcass yield and basic cuts yields of young Nellore heifers receiving two concentrate levels. Nineteen heifers with initial average weight of 165.6±29.8 kg were used. Three animals were used in a trial to determine the digestibility and microbial efficiency of the two levels of concentrate (225 and 450 g/kgDM) and a treatment with a restricted intake maintenance level. The remaining 16 heifers were confined for 168 days for evaluation of performance and intake, divided into two levels of concentrate. Every 42 days, four animals, two from each concentrate level, were slaughtered to determine carcass characteristics, making a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. Digestibility and microbial efficiency were not affected by concentrate level or intake level, both for ad libitum and restricted feeding. Heifers fed 450 g/kgDM concentrate diet had greater average daily gain than those fed 225 g/kgDM concentrate. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency did not differ between levels of concentrate. Average daily gain (kg/day), dry matter intake (% body weight/day) and feed efficiency were higher in the first period of feedlot (0-42 days) compared with the other (42 to 168 days). Heifers fed 450 g/kgDM concentrate had greater average daily gain than those fed 225 g/kgDM concentrate.
Resumo em Português:Com o objetivo de avaliar as características físico-químicas e sensoriais da carne de cordeiros terminados em confinamento com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho em duas relações volumoso:concentrado, 60:40 ou 40:60, utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros Ile de France, não-castrados, com 15 kg de peso corporal. Os animais foram confinados em baias individuais e abatidos aos 32 kg. As dietas e os músculos estudados não influenciaram o pH aos 45 minutos (6,56) e 24 horas (5,62) após o abate nem a capacidade de retenção de água (58,38%) e a perda de peso por cocção (34,04%). A cor da carne e da gordura subcutânea não diferiu entre as dietas, entretanto a cor da carne variou entre os músculos longissimus lumborum e triceps brachii. A força de cisalhamento (1,85 kgf/cm²) não foi afetada pelas dietas, porém diferiu entre os músculos, com valores de 1,41 e 2,28 kgf/cm² para o longissimus lumborum e triceps brachii, respectivamente. Nas análises sensoriais do lombo e da paleta, foram obtidas para os cordeiros alimentados com cana-de-açúcar e maior quantidade de concentrado as maiores notas para sabor (8,07 e 8,26), textura (8,53 e 8,53), preferência (8,20 e 8,46) e aceitação (8,33 e 8,26), respectivamente. A cana-de-açúcar na alimentação de cordeiros em confinamento manteve a qualidade físicoquímica da carne, podendo ser utilizada nesta fase de produção e, quando associada a maior quantidade de concentrado na dieta, melhora a qualidade sensorial da carne de cordeiros.
Resumo em Inglês:With the objective of evaluating physic-chemical and sensorial characteristics of meat from lambs finished in feedlot with diets containing sugar cane or corn silage at two roughage:concentrate ratios, 60:40 or 40:60, 32 non-castrated Ile de France lambs, with 15 kg body weight were used. Animals were confined in individual stalls and were slaughtered at 32 kg body weight. Studied diets and muscles did not affect pH at 45 minutes (6.56) and 24 hours (5.62) after slaughter, water holding capacity (58.38%) or cooking losses (34.04%). Meat color and subcutaneous fat color did not differ between diets, but meat color varied for the muscles longissimus lumborum and triceps brachii. Shear force (1.85 kgf/cm²) was not affected by diets, but it was different between muscles, with values 1.41 and 2.28 kgf/cm² for the longissimus lumborum and triceps brachii, respectively. At sensorial analysis of ovine loin and shoulder, the lambs fed sugar cane and higher quantity of concentrate had higher scores for flavor (8.07 and 8.26), texture (8.53 and 8.53), preference (8.20 and 8.46) and acceptance (8.33 and 8.26), respectively. In the diet for feedlot lambs, sugar cane maintained the physic-chemical quality of the meat, so it can be used in this production phase. When associated to higher quantity of concentrate in the diet, sugar cane improves the sensorial quality of lamb meat.
Resumo em Português:Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de uma dieta de alto nível de energia e proteína combinada com a aplicação de bST no perfil de expressão dos genes da leptina e de seu receptor Ob-Rb no parênquima mamário de novilhas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas amostras de parênquima mamário de 32 novilhas holandesas distribuídas aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos (n=8): dieta com alto ou baixo teor de energia e proteína combinada ou não com a aplicação de bST. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com arranjo de tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 × 2. A extração do RNA total das amostras de tecido foi feita e o nível de expressão gênica foi analisado por qRT-PCR utilizando-se o gene da glicuronidase β como controle, pelo método 2-ΔΔCt. Animais que receberam a dieta com alto conteúdo de energia e proteína apresentaram maior expressão de mRNA de leptina, com aumento de 56%, e menor expressão de mRNA do receptor Ob-Rb, com redução de 18%. Por outro lado, a aplicação de bST resultou em diminuição da expressão do mRNA de leptina e do receptor Ob-Rb em 74% e 23%, respectivamente. Não houve interação entre dieta e aplicação de bST. O aumento na expressão de leptina pode explicar, ao menos em parte, os efeitos negativos da dieta de alta energia e proteína, oferecida no período pré-púbere, sobre a produção de leite de novilhas leiteiras.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a diet with high level of energy and protein, combined with bST injections, on leptin and leptin-receptor (Ob-Rb) gene expression profile in the mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers. Mammary parenchyma samples from 32 Holstein heifers, randomly assigned to one of four treatments (n=8), were utilized: high or low energy and protein diet, with or without bST injection. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks and arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Total RNA was extracted from tissue samples and gene expression profile was tested in qRT-PCR, against glucuronidase β as a control, using the 2-ΔΔCt method. Animals receiving the diet with high level of energy and protein had higher leptin mRNA expression, with an increase of 56%, and lower leptin receptor Ob-Rb mRNA expression, with a decrease of 18%. On the other hand, bST injection decreased leptin mRNA and receptor Ob-Rb mRNA expression in 74% and 23%, respectively. There was no interaction between diet and bST injection. The increase in leptin expression can explain, at least in part, the detrimental effects caused by diets rich in energy and protein, offered during the prepubertal period, in future milk production of dairy heifers.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to validate three different models for predicting milk urea nitrogen using field conditions, attempting to evaluate the nutritional adequacy diets for dairy cows and prediction of nitrogen excreted to the environment. Observations (4,749) from 855 cows were used. Milk yield, body weight (BW), days in milk and parity were recorded on the milk sampling days. Milk was sampled monthly, for analysis of milk urea nitrogen (MUN), fat, protein, lactose and total solids concentration and somatic cells count. Individual dry matter intake was estimated using the NRC (2001). The three models studied were derived from a first one to predict urinary nitrogen (UN). Model 1 was MUN = UN/12.54, model 2 was MUN = UN/17.6 and model 3 was MUN = UN/(0.0259 × BW), adjusted by body weight effect. To evaluate models, they were tested for accuracy, precision and robustness. Despite being more accurate (mean bias = 0.94 mg/dL), model 2 was less precise (residual error = 4.50 mg/dL) than model 3 (mean bias = 1.41 and residual error = 4.11 mg/dL), while model 1 was the least accurate (mean bias = 6.94 mg/dL) and the least precise (residual error = 5.40 mg/dL). They were not robust, because they were influenced by almost all the variables studied. The three models for predicting milk urea nitrogen were different with respect to accuracy, precision and robustness.
Resumo em Português:Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho produtivo, a eficiência econômica e a taxa de ingestão do suplemento em novilhos mestiços em pastejo no período da seca. Foram utilizados 20 novilhos Holandês × Zebu, não-castrados, com 19 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 315,0 kg distribuídos em quatro piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens com 3,0 ha cada. Cada animal recebeu 4,0 kg/dia de suplemento, constituído de milho moído, farelo de algodão, mistura mineral e ureia/sulfato de amônia em quatro níveis: 0; 1,2; 2,4 ou 3,6% na matéria natural. O peso final e o ganho médio diário apresentaram comportamento quadrático, com respostas máximas estimadas obtidas para os níveis de ureia de 1,67% (399,9 kg) e 1,60% (0,956 kg/dia), respectivamente. O peso de carcaça quente, o rendimento de carcaça, as proporções de tecidos muscular, adiposo, ósseo e a relação músculo:osso na carcaça não foram influenciados pelos níveis de ureia. À medida que se elevou o nível de ureia, houve maior tempo para o suplemento ser totalmente consumido. A avaliação econômica dos suplementos, de forma diferencial ao tratamento sem ureia, comprovou maior eficiência econômica no nível de 2,4% de ureia.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective was to evaluate productive efficiency, economic performance and supplement intake rate in crossbred steers on pasture during the dry season. Twenty 19-month-old Holstein × Zebu steers with 315±25 kg of live weight were alocated into four paddocks of Brachiaria decumbens with 3.0 ha each. Each animal received 4.0 kg/day of supplement based on ground corn grain, cottonseed meal, mineral mixture and urea/ammonium sulfate in four levels (0, 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6%) as fed basis. Final live weight and average daily gain presents quadratic behavior. Maximum responses estimated were observed at levels 1.67% (399.9 kg) and 1,60% (0.956 kg/day) urea, respectively. Hot carcass weight, carcass yield, the proportions of muscular, fat and bone tissues and the muscle:bone in the carcass ratio were not influenced by the levels of urea in the supplements. The economical evaluation of the supplements, unlike the treament without urea, showed greater economic efficiency for supplement containing 2,4% of urea. As urea levels were increased, more time was observed for total consumption of the supplements.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to evaluate performance, carcass dressing and gross profit margin of lambs of different genotypes finished in feedlot with diets containing two levels of energy (2.40 Mcal/kg dry matter - DM or 2.90 Mcal/kg DM). Fifty-four non-castrated lambs of the following genotypes were used: Santa Inês, F1 Dorper × Santa Inês and F1 Santa Inês × undefined breed at approximately 150 d of age averaging 22.6 kg of live body weight. Lambs subjected to the diet containing 2.90 Mcal/kg DM stayed in feedlot for a shorter period of time. Moreover, they showed lower intake of dry matter and water in addition to greater daily weight gain and corporal score. There was interaction of feed conversion, carcass dressing yield and gross profit margin. The Dorper × Santa Inês lambs showed similar feed conversion in the two diets. However, Santa Inês lambs and Santa Inês × undefined breed lambs showed better feed conversion with the diet containing 2.90 Mcal/kg DM. The carcass dressings of the Santa Inês × undefined breed lambs were similar for both diets. Furthermore, the carcass dressing values were higher for the Santa Inês and Dorper × Santa Inês which received the diet with higher energy density. The gross profit margin is higher for Dorper × Santa Inês lambs in relation to genotype Santa Inês × undefined breed lambs when subjected to the diet with 2.40 Mcal/kg DM.
Resumo em Inglês:This study was designed to investigate the effect of early weaning and concentrate supplementation on performance and metabolic profile of lambs in four production systems on pasture: suckling lambs not supplemented until slaughter; suckling lambs supplemented with concentrate in creep feeding until slaughter; early weaned lambs not supplemented until slaughter; early weaned lambs supplemented with concentrate until slaughter. Performance was assessed by average daily gain (ADG) and body condition score (BCS) measurements. Metabolic profile was delineated by measuring serum albumin, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, glucose and aspartate aminotransferase. Weaning reduced ADG by 92 g/d and the ADG for weaned and suckling lambs were 113 g/d and 205 g/d, respectively. Supplementation increased ADG by 117 g/d and the ADG was 99 g/d for non-supplemented and 216 g/d for supplemented lambs. Body weight and BCS at the end of trial were lower in weaned and non-supplemented animals (20.7 kg and 1.5 points), and higher in those on creep feeding (35.3 kg and 3.3 points). Weaning decreased serum levels of albumin, cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase. Supplementation increased serum albumin and decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase. Serum urea was not affected by weaning or supplementation and remained high during the trial. Serum creatinine and glucose were lower in weaned and non-supplemented lambs. Early weaning generates unsuitable metabolic profile and low performance and may not be recommended as single strategy to produce lambs on pasture. Concentrate supplementation has similar response to suckling on the performance and metabolic profile of animals, and may be considered an efficient strategy to improve the nutritional status of early weaned lambs.
Resumo em Português:O objetivo neste estudo foi identificar possíveis alterações na composição e no processo de compostagem dos dejetos produzidos por bovinos Canchim e Nelore em diferentes períodos do confinamento alimentados com diferentes proporções de volumoso e concentrado. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial com parcelas subdivididas no tempo. As parcelas foram compostas por quatro tratamentos: dejetos provenientes de duas dietas (40% de volumoso e 60% de concentrado e 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado) e dois genótipos (Canchim e Nelore) e as subparcelas pelos três períodos de coleta dos resíduos (início, meio e final). A eficiência do processo de compostagem foi avaliada pelas reduções de volume, sólidos totais, sólidos voláteis, frações fibrosas, carbono orgânico e temperatura, além do número mais provável de coliformes totais e termotolerantes e teores de nitrogênio e macro e microminerais. Não houve efeito do genótipo nem do período de coleta dos resíduos sobre a composição dos dejetos, no entanto o aumento da proporção de volumoso na dieta levou a menor eficiência do processo de compostagem dos dejetos. Também foram observadas reduções de 100% no número mais provável de coliformes totais e termotolerantes e aumento no teor dos nutrientes no composto final.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this study was to identify possible alterations in composition and in the composting process of manure produced by Canchim and Nellore cattle in different periods of feedlot and fed different forage to concentrate ratios. The experiment was carried out in complete randomized design in factorial scheme with time as subdivided plot. Plots were established by four treatments: manure from two diets (40% forage and 60% concentrate and 60% forage and 40% concentrate) and two genotypes (Canchim and Nellore) and sub-plots by three periods of manure gathering (initial, intermediate and final). The efficiency of composting process was evaluated by reductions of volume, total solids, volatile solids, fibrous fraction, organic carbon and temperature, besides the most probable number of total and thermotolerant coliforms and contents of nitrogen and macro and micro minerals. There was no effect of genotype and period on manure composting; however, the increase in the roughage level in the diet promoted the lower efficiency of the process. Decrease of 100% in the most probable number of total and thermotolerant coliforms and increase in the nutrients content of the final compost were observed.
Resumo em Inglês:The experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of nutritional correction on the partial diet replacement or pure-food methodology to determine the energy values (apparent metabolizable energy - AME and nitrogen-correct apparent metabolizable energy - AMEn) and coefficient of metabolizability of nutrients of maize. The method of total excreta collection was used, with 120 female Cobb 500® broilers weighing 1,339±3 g and at 28 days of age distributed in a completely randomized design with five replicates and four birds per experimental unit. The treatments were pure maize with three levels of nutritional correction (0, 50 and 100%) and a maize-replaced basal diet (400 g/kg) with two levels of correction (0 and 100%). The corrections were made in order to meet the nutritional requirements of calcium, available phosphorus and sodium yonder trace minerals, vitamins, choline, lysine, methionine + cystine, threonine and tryptophan. The AME and AMEn of maize and coefficient of metabolizability of dry matter were higher when correction at 100% was made, regardless of the methodology used (pure feed or replaced basal diet). The correction at 50% of nutrients increased the coefficient of metabolizability of crude protein in pure maize when compared with 0 or 100% of correction. The values determined with pure maize were lower than those determined with the method of partial replacement. The absence of nutritional correction underestimates the energy values and metabolizability of nutrients from maize.
Resumo em Inglês:Two hundred and fifty-two Hy-Line W36 laying hens were allotted in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 7 replicates and 6 hens per experimental unit in order to determine the ideal ratio of isoleucine (Ile) in relation to lysine (Lys) to laying hens aged 42-58 weeks. Experimental diets contained digestible Ile at different levels, resulting in different Ile:Lys ratios (0.73:1; 0.78:1; 0.83:1; 0.88:1; 0.93:1 and 0.98:1). A basal diet was formulated to provide Isoleucine in levels below recommendations. This diet was supplemented with L-isoleucine to make up the 6 diets. Each diet was made isonitrogenous by varying the dietary contents of glutamic acid and isocaloric by adjusting the contents of cornstarch. All essential amino acids were provided proportionally to lysine. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, albumen, yolk and eggshell contents were recorded and compiled at every 28-day period. No differences were observed in the performance over a wide range of dietary isoleucine concentrations from 5.76 to 7.73 g/kg corresponding to 0.73:1 to 0.98:1 Ile:Lys ratios. The lowest Ile:Lys ratio (0.73:1) was sufficient to ensure satisfactory performance of birds, corresponding to the consumption of 534 mg of isoleucine and 731 mg of lysine/day.
Resumo em Inglês:The objective of this investigation was to estimate ideal bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature for broiler chicken strains during the rearing period and to evaluate the influence of time of exposure on bird physiological variables under different thermal stress conditions. The research was conducted in a climatic chamber during the six weeks of the rearing period, with Avian and Cobb strains exposed to two climatic conditions (comfort and stress), in three distinct times of exposure, in three conditions (before going to the chamber; at the end of exposure time; 30 minutes after the end of exposure), in four treatments: comfort with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 30 minutes of exposure; stress with 60 minutes of exposure; stress with 90 minutes of exposure. Bands of respiratory rate and cloacal temperature were elaborated for both strains, for each one of the weeks of the rearing period. Strains differed, regardless of treatments and conditions adopted in the research on the third, fifth and sixth weeks of life in relation to the cloacal temperature. The Cobb strain is more tolerant to thermal stress in comparison with the Avian. There was difference for both variables between comfort and stress, but time of exposure to stress did not influence the physiological response of birds, except for cloacal temperature on the second week of life.