Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological profile and aerobic stability of silage with Tifton 85 bermudagrass and different additives and wilting. The studied treatments were: pre-drying in the sun for two hours before ensiling; use of bacterial-enzymatic inoculant; addition of soybean peel; addition of corn grits and use of salt in the surface layer of the silo. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and four replications. Plants of Tifton 85 bermudagrass with 38 days were ensiled in experimental silos with Bunsen valves, with compacting density of 236 kg silage per m³ for Tifton 85 bermudagrass, which was pre-dried in the sun; the average silage was 294 kg m-3 for the other treatments. The ratios between soybean hulls and corn grits, added to the silage, were calculated based on the initial DM content from Tifton 85 bermudagrass in order to obtain 320 g/kg DM of the material to be ensiled. There was an increase of lactic bacteria and Clostridium as well as an absence of enterobacteria after the silo opening. Fungi developed only in Tifton 85 bermudagrass and its treatments before the ensilage and yeasts developed in silages of Tifton 85 bermudagrass when they received soybean hulls or corn grits after silo opening. There was no breach regarding aerobic stability of silages during the studied period. The pH reached the highest values within 48 hours after opening the silos, but there were variations during this period.
Abstract in English:In this experiment the chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents of Arachis pintoi were evaluated to verify if the presence of nitrogen in the soil could contribute to the effectiveness of the establishment of this legume. The design was completely randomized, in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, with four N rates (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1) and four irrigation levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of field capacity), with four replications. The biochemical evaluations of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll and total soluble sugars, sucrose and starch were performed. The highest contents of chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll in leaves were found at the dose of 120 kg ha-1. The water regime of 25% of field capacity was responsible for the lowest content of reducing sugars and total soluble sugars in leaves, stolons and roots. In the roots, the sucrose contents were higher in these conditions, which can be associated with a slight tolerance of the plant to water stress. The water deficiency was responsible for the decrease of reducing sugars and total N in the whole plant and positively influenced the levels of chlorophyll and sugars in the stolon, promoting growth, especially of shoots, at the beginning of establishment.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to estimate the dehydration curve and occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in Tifton 85 hay. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with four replications and five levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg ha-1) in the form of urea, two regrowth ages (28 and 35 days) and drying hay in the sun and in shed. After harvesting, the grass was sampled four times (0, 8, 23 and 32 hours) to dry in the sun and twelve times (0, 3, 18, 27, 42, 51, 66, 75, 90, 99, 114 and 123 hours) for drying in shed, turned over daily. The fungi were identified after seeding and growth in three steps of haymaking (cutting, baling and after 30 days of storage). To verify the presence of mycotoxins, 20 samples, composed of hay stored for 30 days, were collected, of which 10 samples were from sun-dried hay and 10 from hay dried in shed. It took 32 hours to produce hay at field conditions, with water loss rates up to 6.10 g g-1 DM-h during the first 8 hours after cutting. The average loss of water in this period was 2.0 g g-1 DM-h. Hays dried in the shed took 123 hours and the dehydration rates were less than 0.5 g g-1 DM-h due to environmental conditions. There was a predominance of three genera of fungi: Fusarium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. The largest population was the Fusarium, followed by Penicillium, at the steps of baling and storage. The fumonisin mycotoxin was found at a higher concentration and there was no difference in fumonisin concentration in the hay dried in the sun and in shed. Although it brings no hazard to animal health, the production of aflatoxin and zearalenone was significantly higher in the samples of sun-dried hay.
Abstract in English:A genealogical analysis of registered Pantaneiro horses was carried out with 3647 males and 6794 females. Of these animals, 50.66% had identified sires and 48.86% identified dams. The number of pedigrees increased over the generations, with higher registration of parents of sires than dams. Two municipalities are responsible for almost 70% of all registers: i) Poconé (Mato Grosso State), where the headquarters of the breeders association is located and ii) Corumbá (Mato Grosso do Sul State), where EMBRAPA Pantanal conducts its research. The mean inbreeding was 0.04% and average relatedness was 0.13%. Mean generation interval was 8.20 years. There is moderate to high genetic differentiation between farms (15% of total genetic variation) while between municipalities there is little differentiation. Wright's fixation statistics were calculated and F IS (inbreeding coefficient of individuals relative to the subpopulation) values indicate some heterozygosity between farms but not municipalities, with overall F IT (inbreeding coefficient of individuals relative to the total population) close to zero. The municipalities with the highest number of animals (Poconé and Corumbá) import relatively fewer sires (45 and 67% respectively). Genetic indices from genealogical data on the Pantaneiro horse population show that inbreeding is under control.Future breeding plans should include germplasm exchange between municipalities. The conservation program for the Pantaneiro horse has been shown to be successful but careful planning is needed in the future to avoid inbreeding and changes in important breed traits given the increasing interest in the use of the breed in sporting competitions.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive parameters of Sindhi cows aiming to improve the efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination protocols in this breed. For this purpose, sixteen Sindhi cows were divided into two groups: in group I (EB, n = 8) animals received an intravaginal P4 implant and an application of 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on day 0. On day 8 the implant was removed and 10 mg of Dinoprost were applied; on day 9, 1 mg of estradiol benzoate was applied, and animals were fixed-time artificially inseminated 36 hours later; in group II (EB + eCG, n = 8) animals were subjected to same treatment, and on day eight 400 IU of eCG were applied. From day 0 animals were examined daily by a trans-rectal ultrasound device, where in each assessment the largest follicles of each day were measured. The reproductive parameters observed for groups I and II were: emergence of follicular wave, 4.5±1.4 and 3.8±0.3 days; interval between wave emergence and ovulation, 5.8±1.4 and 7.1±0.3 days; interval between wave emergence and implant removal, 3.5±1.4 and 4.1±0.3 days; interval between implant removal and ovulation, 74.0±11.8 and 82.5±4.2 hours; diameter of the dominant follicle (DF) at the time of implant removal, 7.5±2.5 and 6.6±1.5 mm; maximum diameter of DF, 10.47±8.85 and 3.7±1.2 mm; growth rate of DF, 0.90±0.83 and 0.7±0.6 mm/day; ovulation rate, 75% and 100%; and pregnancy rate, 0% and 50%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups. We observed that eCG was not efficient in improving the reproductive parameters analyzed in this breed.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic and non-genetic effects that influence vigor at birth and preweaning mortality in Nellore calves. A total of 11,727 records of births that occurred between 1978 and 2006, offspring of 363 sires, were analyzed. Poor calf vigor at birth (VB) and preweaning mortality divided into stillbirth (SB), early mortality (EM) and total mortality (TM) were analyzed as binary variables. Generalized linear models were used for the evaluation of non-genetic effects and generalized linear mixed models for genetic effects (sire and animal models). The incidences were 4.75% for VB, 2.66% for SB, 5.28% for EM, and 7.99% for TM. Birth weight was the effect that most influenced the traits studied. Calves weighing less than 22 kg (females) and less than 24 kg (males) were at a higher risk of low vigor and preweaning mortality. Preweaning mortality was higher among calves born from cows aged <3 and >11 years at calving compared with cows aged 7 to 10 years. Male calves presented less vigor and higher preweaning mortality than female calves. Selection for postweaning weight did not influence preweaning mortality. The heritability estimates ranged between 0.01 and 0.09 for VB, 0.00 and 0.27 for SB, 0.03 and 0.17 for EM and 0.02 and 0.10 for TM. Stillbirth should be included as a selection criterion in breeding programs of Nellore cattle, alone or as part of a selection index, aiming to reduce preweaning mortality.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and biometrics of lambs fed different sources of forage. Twenty-four six-month-old Santa Inês female lambs were randomly allocated to four experimental diets and housed in individual stalls. They weighed on average 26.35±0.20 kg. The diets were coast cross hay (HAY), cassava hay (CAS), dehydrated by-product of pea crop (PEA) and saccharin (SAC). The diets were formulated with the same amount of protein and energy with fixed levels of forage (60%) and concentrate (40%). Adaptation to the diet took 7 days, with 45 days on experiment. Weights and biometric measurements were obtained every fortnight and feed intake three times a week. Rights half-carcasses were weighed and sectioned into retail cuts, rib, loin, shoulder, belly, neck and leg, which were weighed individually. Weight gain in lambs was significantly different between diets, with those fed saccharin gaining more. Overall, treatments did not significantly affect biometric measurements. There was a significant difference for feed intake and live weight at the end of the experiment. Animals fed PEA and SAC showed the best results. Average positive correlations were found between biometric measurements and live weight. Treatment PEA had heavier hot (14.36 kg) and cold (14.01 kg) carcass weights than the other groups. Hot carcass kill-out was higher for animals fed PEA as well as ham weight, belly, neck and heart girth. The weight of the abdominal viscera (%) for lambs fed CAS was greater than those fed SAC and PEA. The weights of the thoracic viscera as well as the liver, for lambs fed PEA were higher. The by-product of pea yielded best results, followed by saccharin, and can replace traditional forage sources in the region, providing similar results in terms of cuts and body components. These could be an alternative for feeding sheep in the dry season. The substitution of forages using by-product of pea and saccharin led to improved productivity over the coast-cross hay available in the Federal District - Brazil.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to verify the effect of low-intake supplementation on performance of Nellore young bulls kept on Marandu grass pasture. The experiment was divided in two periods: the dry and rainy seasons. Treatments during the dry period were composed of mineral salt with urea and mineral supplement enriched with true protein and additive. In the rainy period treatments were mineral salt and enriched mineral supplement only. Pastures were evaluated and animals were weighed in both evaluation phases. The variables studied were evaluated in a completely randomized design in a split-plot arrangement, where plots were treatments and subplots were the periods within each phase, considering the types of supplementation as treatments. During the dry season there was no effect of supplement type in the first and second periods of assessment on weight gain of animals, which was of 0.307 and 0.113 kg/day, respectively. In the third period of this phase there was effect of the type of supplementation on animal performance; animals which received enriched mineral supplement gained 0.600 kg/day vs. 0.517 kg/day for those which received mineral salt with urea. In the rainy season, animals receiving enriched mineral supplement gained more weight than animals receiving mineral supplement: 0.800 and 0.696 kg/day, respectively. Mineral supplementation with addition of protein and additives provides increases in the weight gains of animals kept at a grazing regime of 15%.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and daytime ingestive behavior of 84 Nellore young bulls in the post-weaning phase kept on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season. Treatments were protein mineral supplementation (1 g/kg body weight) and protein+energy mineral supplementation (3 g/kg body weight). The experimental area comprised 12 paddocks in a total area of 27.36 ha, divided in two blocks of six paddocks each, having three replications per treatment in each block, with 42 animals/treatment. The data were subjected to variance analysis with repeated measures over time via procedure PROCMIXED of SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.0) and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The initial average weight of animals was 204.8 kg; final weights were 260.9 and 276.9 kg for animals that received protein and protein+energy supplement, respectively. The forage availability, sward height and stocking rate values did not differ with supplementation, but they showed difference between the experimental periods. The average time spent grazing during daylight of animals fed protein+energy supplement was shorter as compared with those which consumed protein supplement. Animals kept under the same pasture conditions during the dry season show better performance when they receive protein+energy supplement than protein supplement.
Abstract in English:We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed) of a mixture (9:1) of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs) to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk) were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter). Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL) was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.