Abstract in English:The objectives of this work were to evaluate the environmental effects (age of dam, type of birth and sex of lamb) and genetic groups (Hampshire Down and Ile de France, ½ and ¾ Hampshire Down, Ile de France and Suffolk, and ½ Texel) on performance and morphometric characteristics (height, length and heart girth) of lambs; to test regressions to predict live weight of lambs from body measurements; and to describe the growth type of the measurements as function of the weight. Weights and measurements were collected from birth to weaning, every 14 days. For evaluations of performance in relation to environmental effects and genetic groups, only data from birth and from weaning were used; for type of growth all collected data were used. Lambs from younger ewes (2 teeth) presented smaller average for weight at birth, heart girth and height at weaning. Single-birth lambs presented greater averages than twins. Genetic group influenced all traits evaluated, except heart girth at birth and average heart girth gain. Means for birth weight were higher in ¾ Ile de France (3.93±0.16 kg) and lower in ½ Texel lambs (3.04±0.24 kg), and for weaning, they were higher in ½ Texel (14.86±0.87 kg) and lower in Ile de France lambs (11.66±0.83 kg). Year of birth influenced all traits. Heart girth and length showed a negative allometric growth in relation to weight, while between weight and height the relation was positive allometric. The factors that most influenced the performance of lambs from birth to weaning are the type of birth, genetic group and year of birth. Correlations between body weight and morphometric measurements are significant, so it is possible to predict one from the other.
Abstract in English:The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of low-stress handling (LSH) on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) for extensively raised Nellore cows. Multiparous cows (n = 126) were randomly allocated into two groups: G1 (n = 66) and G2, the control group (n = 60). Group G1 was subjected to LSH, in which the animals were handled in a calm and quiet manner, without loud noises or physical aggression, using the point of balance, respecting the flight zone and using flags to supplement handling. Group G2 was handled following the typical procedure, with yelling, kicking and the use of electric prods and sticks. On D0, D8 and D10, FTAI was performed in both groups. Reactivity was scored on D0, D8 and D10 at the squeeze chute, based on the tension score, breathing score, and bellowing score. Using the three criteria above, the reactivity scores were defined as follows: R1 (calm); R2 (slightly reactive); R3 (moderately reactive); R4 (reactive); and R5 (highly reactive). Thirty-five days after artificial insemination, pregnancy was determined using ultrasonography. There was no significant correlation between reactivity score and pregnancy rate in each group or between the pregnancy rates in both groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the G1 and G2 groups with regard to reactivity score (1.62±0.05 vs. 2.12±0.07). Low-stress handling influenced reactivity but did not affect pregnancy rate in extensively raised Nellore cows subjected to FTAI.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic group (GG) of the calf during gestation, mobilization of body reserves and period of postpartum anestrus in Nellore cows. Thirty-seven primiparous and multiparous cows were used: 24 gave birth to Nellore (NEL), and 13 gave birth to ½ Simmental × ½ Nellore (SIM) calves. According to the date of calving, cows were divided into three blocks, with intervals of 20 days between blocks. The body condition (BC) of the cows was estimated subjectively on a scale from 0 to 5 points, with intermediate grading of 0.5 points. We measured the thickness of subcutaneous fat (SF) between the 12th and 13th ribs and rump by ultrasound. Blood samples from each cow were collected weekly from the third week after birth until weaning, to analyze the level of progesterone; in the samples collected until 16 weeks postpartum, we analyzed the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). The gestation period of mothers of NEL calves was eight days longer, on average. The variables relating to the mobilization of body reserves (NEFA, BC and SF) were not influenced by calf GG, with the only significant effects being the number of days postpartum, with a peak in the concentration of NEFA between the sixth and eighth weeks and linear decrease in BC and NF. Mothers of NEL calves remained in anestrus for 4.6 weeks longer than the mothers of crossbred calves.
Abstract in English:The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of limestone particle size and the use of artificial light for laying hens in the second laying cycle. We used 240 Hisex White laying hens at 82 weeks of age in a completely randomized design in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement, resulting in 10 treatments with 4 replicates of 6 birds. The variables were the five particle sizes obtained by increasing the proportion of thick limestone (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) compared with thin limestone and two lighting programs: with and without artificial light. Limestone particle size and light did not affect performance or egg quality. However, there were changes in bird feeding schedule throughout the day as a response to the lighting program. Bone quality, density and mineral content of the tibia were not affected by the treatments, but limestone particle size had a quadratic effect of on bone deformity and strength, obtaining maximum inclusion points with 63% and 59% of thick limestone, respectively. The use of large particles of limestone in the diet and the use of a lighting program does not influence the performance and quality of the eggs of laying hens in the second production cycle, but the use of a proportion of 63.3 g of average particle size (0.60 mm) replacing the fine limestone (0.23 mm) per 100 g of total limestone added to the diet improves bone quality in these birds.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to estimate the digestible lysine requirement of Japanese quails in the egg-laying phase. A total of 336 female Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) of average initial age of 207 days were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, composed of 6 treatments (lysine levels) with 7 replicates and 8 birds per experimental unit, with duration of 84 days. Experimental diets were formulated from a basal diet, with corn and soybean meal, with 2.800 kcal ME/kg and 203.70 g/kg crude protein, showing levels of 9.50; 10.00; 10.50; 11.00; 11.50; and 12.00 g/kg digestible lysine; diets remained isoprotein and isocaloric. The following variables were studied: feed intake (FI); lysine intake (LI); egg production per bird per day (EPBD); egg production per bird housed (EPBH); production of marketable eggs (PME); egg weight (EW); egg mass (EM); utilization efficiency of lysine for egg mass production (UELEM); feed conversion per mass (FCEM); feed conversion per dozen eggs (FCDZ); bird availability (BA); percentages of yolk (Y), albumen (A) and shell (S); specific egg weight (SW); nitrogen ingested (NI); nitrogen excreted (NE); and nitrogen balance (NB). Significant effect was only observed for LI, EW, EM, UELEM, FCEM, Y, A and SW. The digestible lysine level estimated in diets for laying Japanese quails is 11.20 g digestible lysine/kg diet, corresponding to an average daily intake of 272.23 mg lysine.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets supplemented with plasma and/or yeast extract on performance (daily weight gain [DWG], daily feed intake [DFI] and feed conversion [FC]) and intestinal morphology of piglets from 7 to 63 days of age. A total of 288 piglets aged 7 days and weighing 2.57±0.05 kg were studied. A randomized block design consisting of four experimental diets, six repetitions and 12 piglets per experimental unit was adopted. The pre-starter I (7 to 21 days), pre-starter II (22 to 35 days) and starter I (36 to 49 days) diets were supplemented as follows: control diet (CD): no plasma or yeast extract; plasma (PL) diet: addition of 6%, 4% and 2% plasma; yeast extract (YE) diet: addition of 6%, 4% and 2% yeast extract; plasma + yeast extract (PL+YE) diet: addition of 3%, 2% and 1% plasma and yeast extract each. From 50 to 63 days of age all piglets received the same diet. No difference in performance was observed from 7 to 21 days and from 7 to 28 days of age, whereas DWG was higher from 7 to 35 days in piglets receiving the PL+YE diet (268, 278, 271 and 288 g/day for CD, PL, YE and PL+YE, respectively). From 7 to 49 days and from 7 to 63 days, DWG (330 and 519 g/day, respectively) and DFI (307 and 647 g/day) were higher in animals receiving the PL-YE diet when compared with those consuming CD (DWG: 295 and 486 g/day; DFI: 266 and 594 g/day). No significant differences in intestinal morphology were observed between piglets receiving the different diets. The combination of plasma and yeast extract elevates DWG, but does not affect the intestinal morphology of piglets from 7 to 63 days of age.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to estimate the nutrient requirements of digestible threonine for meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix sp) in the growth phase. A total of 1350 not sexed meat-type quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with six threonine levels (10.80, 11.50, 12.20, 12.90, 13.60 and 14.30 g/kg as fed), five replications and 45 quails per experimental unit, from 1 to 14 days of age. The threonine levels in the diet had a quadratic effect on body weight, feed intake and weight gain. Estimates for highest body weight (79.41 g), feed intake (128.96 g/bird) and weight gain (70.73 g) were observed with diets containing 12.60 g/kg of digestible threonine. According to the LRP model, the threonine intake was estimated at 13.40 g/kg of digestible threonine. Protein deposition rate and energy retained in the carcass showed quadratic effect, with estimated digestible threonine levels of 11.80 and 12.00 g/kg in the diet for maximum protein deposition rate (2.00 g/bird) and retained energy in the carcass (15.88 kcal/g), respectively. There was a linear effect on feed cost per kg of live weight gain as threonine levels were increased. Nutritional requirement of digestible threonine for meat-type quails for maximum growth is 12.60 g/kg, corresponding to a digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of 67.02.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy and recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) injection to identify genes that might control mammogenesis. Total RNA was extracted from the parenchymal tissue of 32 heifers randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two diets (a standard diet and a high energy, high protein diet), each with or without bST. To perform microarray experiments, RNA samples were pooled (2 animals/pool) before reverse transcription and labeling with Cy3 or Cy5. A 4-node loop design was used to examine the differential gene expression among treatments using a bovine-specific cDNA microarray (National Bovine Functional Genomics Consortium Library, NBFGC) containing 18,263 unique expressed sequence tags (EST). Significance levels of differential gene expression among treatments were assessed using a mixed model approach. Injection of bST altered the expression of 12 % of the genes on NBFGC slide related to tissue development, whereas 6% were altered by diet. Administration of bST increases the expression of genes positively related to cell proliferation and mammary parenchyma to a greater extent than a high energy diet.
Abstract in English:The objective of this work is to characterize two contrasting systems of fattening pigs in Uruguay. A total of 96 pigs (average 41.7 kg) were divided into eight groups of 12 animals, representing two production systems: (IN) pigs confined in pens of 12 m² or (OUT) kept in plots with field shelters and access to pasture. Behavioral observations were performed by scan sampling at 5-minute intervals, three times a day during weeks 6, 8, 10 and 12 of the experiment. Aggressions were also observed at the end of the experimental period. Blood samples were taken for cortisol analysis and other physiological parameters, during growth period and slaughter and meat quality characteristics were assessed after slaughter. Differences were found in carcass characteristics, wherein IN presented a higher dorsal fat. These animals presented an overall lower activity and spent less time resting, with a stable pattern throughout the day. In OUT, pigs usually rested at midday hours, more active in the morning and afternoon. The number of total reciprocal aggressions in the observation period was 4.2±3.7 for IN and 2.3±2.2 for OUT. Cortisol levels and biochemical profile did not show evidence of important problems in the animals. Welfare is not compromised in any of the systems, although higher levels of cortisol and aggressions could be indicating some stress problems in the confinement system. Meat characteristics in OUT were considered better than in IN from a nutritional point of view.
Abstract in English:This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on internal organs with respect to their weight and size, and the development of the intestinal mucosa of growing rabbits. Sixty 33-day-old New Zealand White rabbits were used in a randomized block with four treatments and five blocks. The treatments consisted of ad libitum feeding; feed restriction from 33 to 40 days of age; feed restriction from 54 to 61 days of age; and feed restriction from 33 to 40 and from 54 to 61 days of age. There was no effect of feed restriction on weight, length and width of internal organs, except for heart weight, which decreased when feeding was restricted from 54-61 days and from 33-40 and 54-61 days of age. There was no effect of feed restriction at the different ages on duodenal morphometry. In jejunum, the villi of rabbits fed ad libitum or restricted from 33 to 40 days were higher, and rabbits restricted from 33-40 days had wider villi and higher absorption surface. In the ileum, only rabbits fed ad libitum had higher villi. Feeding restriction reduced heart weight, but not its size, and negatively affected jejunum morphometry when performed in later stages.