Abstract in English:This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of different levels of digestible energy and digestible protein in diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock on offspring growth during sex reversal stage. A total of 2,700 post-larvae (8.2±0.001 mg) derived from breeders fed nine diets with distinct levels of digestible protein (28, 34 and 40% DP) and digestible energy (2,800; 3,400; and 4,000 kcal DE.kg-1) were stored in twenty-seven 70 L tanks. After 30 days of growth, their average final weight (AFW, g), average weight gain (AWG, g), final standard length (SL, cm), condition factor (CF), specific growth rate (SGR, %/day), stock uniformity (UNI, %), survival (SUR, %) and sex reversal rate (SRR, %) were measured. Although female nutrition is thought to influence the performance or quality of progeny during early life stages, no influence of diets supplied to broodstock was detected on any parameter. Nonetheless, the offspring presented commercially satisfactory growth rates. Thus, diets containing 28% of digestible protein and 2,800 kcal of digestible energy.kg of diet-1 can be used to feed Nile tilapia broodstock without jeopardizing offspring performance during the sex reversal phase.
Abstract in English:The effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1) on forage yield and morphogenesis of Axonopus aureus was evaluated in the savannas of Roraima State, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with three replicates. The grass showed high responsiveness to N fertilization. Dry weight (DW) yield, morphogenetic and structural traits and forage quality were positively affected by N fertilization. The effects of N fertilization on DW yield, N content, leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves/tiller, final leaf length and leaf area index were quadratic and maximum values were estimated with application of 168.8 (2,181 kg ha-1); 124.8 (21.1 g/kg); 158.5 (0.163 leaf/day per tiller); 172.3 (2.75 cm/tiller per day); 155.5 (17.23 cm); 185.5 (7.55 leaves/tiller) and 185.3 (2.22) kg N ha-1, respectively. Tiller population density and leaf senescence rate are directly proportional to increase in N rates, and the opposite occurs for N utilization efficiency and apparent N recovery.
Abstract in English:The experiment was carried out to evaluate forage intake, performance and ingestive behavior of beef heifers. Productive, structural and chemical characteristics of the pasture were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three pasture systems (Alexandergrass [Urochloa plantaginea Link.] with and without supplement to heifers and Coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]) and two phenological stages: vegetative and flowering. The grazing method was put-and-take stocking. Grazing, ruminating and idle activities, feeding stations, displacement patterns, bite mass and bite rate were evaluated. The forage intake was estimated using chromic oxide as an indicator of fecal output. The heifers modified the use of feeding stations and displacement patterns between phenological stages and pasture systems. Heifers consumed more forage in the vegetative stage (2.81% of body weight in dry matter) than in the flowering stage (1.92% of body weight in dry matter). Average daily gain, body condition and stocking rate were similar for heifers in the evaluated systems. Beef heifers receiving protein supplement on Alexandergrass pasture consumed more forage than heifers fed Coastcross exclusively. Regardless of the species, no difference was observed when the heifers were exclusively on pasture. Pasture systems on Alexandergrass or Coastcross provide suitable nutrient intake for heifers to be mated at 18 months of age.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to estimate (co)variance components for weight at 550 days, average daily gain and an index with both traits, and to compare alternatives for evaluation and ranking of Nellore young bulls in pasture performance tests. The heritability estimates were 0.73, 0.31 and 0.44 for weight at 550 days, average daily gain and index, respectively. Animals were ranked according to their predicted breeding values or the phenotypic deviations in relation to the mean of the test. Although the correlations between breeding values and phenotypic deviations were high, there were differences in the number of animals selected in common when the selection criteria were the predicted breeding values or the phenotypic deviations. Mixed models are more appropriate than the least squares method and should be utilized in the evaluation of young bulls in performance tests.
Abstract in English:The major objective of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between milk yield (MY) and calving interval (CI) and lactation length (LL) in Murrah buffaloes using Bayesian inference. The database used belongs to the genetic improvement program of four buffalo herds from Brazil. To obtain the estimates of variance and covariance, bivariate analyses were performed with the Gibbs sampler, using the program MTGSAM. The heritability coefficient estimates were 0.28, 0.03 and 0.15 for MY, CI and LL, respectively. The genetic correlations between MY and LL was moderate (0.48). However, the genetic correlation between MY and CI showed large HPD regions (highest posterior density interval). Milk yield was the only trait with clear potential for genetic improvement by direct mass selection. The genetic correlation between MY and LL indicates that indirect selection using milk yield is a potentially beneficial strategy. The interpretation of the estimated genetic correlation between MY and CI is difficult and could be spurious.
Abstract in English:To provide information that can contribute to the genetic evaluation and selection in Tabapuã cattle, genetic parameters were estimated for growth traits using a multi-trait animal model. (Co)variance components were estimated by a Bayesian approach using the Gibbs Sampler. Moderate and similar responses to selection are expected when selecting for weights at the four ages evaluated, since the direct heritability estimates were similar and of average magnitude (0.18 to 0.19). The direct and maternal additive genetic correlations between all pairs of weights were higher than 0.70, indicating a high degree of association between the four traits. This suggests that using any of them as selection criteria will result in correlated response in the others and that multi-trait analysis are recommended for the genetic evaluation of growth traits in beef cattle for exploiting this association.
Abstract in English:The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1) with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present study consisted of describing dam and calf suckling behaviour of Curraleiro Pé Duro cattle. In this study, 38 mother-offspring pairs and one mother-offspring-orphan trio were observed for 10 hours daily during three consecutive days spaced every four months over a period of one year. After identification, the animals were observed under field conditions where calf posture and the number of suckling episodes (NS), mean suckling duration (MSD), total suckling duration per day (TSD) as well as natural weaning of these animals were recorded. The model assessed the effects of calf sex and age as well as feeding time. Suckling episodes (70.6%) had a duration of one to five minutes and the calf that suckled in the inverted parallel position had greater chances of success during suckling (99.5%); the younger animals had a shorter mean suckling duration (4.0±0.6 minutes) than the older ones (7.5±1.2 minutes) but they showed a higher number of suckling episodes (6.29±1.00 vs. 1.33±0.04 feeds in 10 hours for young and older calves). Only the factor age in the first three months was significant for NS, MSD, and TSD; males and females had similar suckling episode length and distribution. While these animals show some traits similar to other cattle breeds such as feeding their calves early in the morning and late in the afternoon, the dams spend large periods of the day away from their calves and suckling is more frequent but for shorter periods of time compared with other breeds. Other unique features such as allo-suckling and formation of day-long crèches are observed in this breed.
Abstract in English:Using sorghum silage, the effect of roughage/concentrate ratios was evaluated on nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters and methane production by beef cattle. Three treatments (0, 30 and 60% of concentrate in DM of the diet) were distributed in three Latin squares, with nine animals and three periods. Dry matter intake increased as the grain concentration in diet increased; pH showed opposite behavior. Methane emissions were lower for animals fed the diet exclusively with sorghum silage as compared with those fed 30% of concentrate, but was similar to that of animals receiving 60% of concentrate. Losses of ingested gross energy as methane were reduced by 33% when grain concentration was increased in the diet. Concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were greater in diets with grain concentrate; acetic acid concentration was not affected. Concentrate in diet increases available energy for the metabolism, measured by lower losses of ingested gross energy as ruminal methane.
Abstract in English:This study was conducted to verify the effects of dietary crude protein reduction on growth and carcass performance of 22-42-day-old broilers reared under different temperatures. Treatments were set up in a five by two factorial arrangement, with five crude protein levels (220, 210, 200, 190 and 184 g/kg) and two temperatures (21.6 and 32.2 ºC). Diets were isocaloric and essential amino acid-to-lysine ratio was maintained constant in all treatments. There was no interaction between crude protein reduction and environmental temperature for any of the parameters evaluated. Crude protein had no influence on feed intake. Nevertheless, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were linearly influenced by crude protein reduction. Worse performance was also observed in birds exposed to heat stress as compared with birds kept under thermoneutral temperature. There was no effect of crude protein reduction on breast and legs. Birds kept under heat stress had lower breast yield and higher leg yield as compared with broilers reared at 21.6 ºC. Any crude protein reduction in the range of 220 to 184 g/kg for 22 to 42-day-old broilers has a negative effect on their performance. Heat stress worsens broiler performance and breast yield.