Abstract in English:This study evaluated the effect of feed supplementation (at doses of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg) with SALUTO®, a microencapsulated blend of essential oils including carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineol, and pepper oleoresin, in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock on reproductive and growth parameters during the initial phase of rearing. The growth parameters, somatic indexes and gonadal and hepatic parameters were analyzed. Quantitative parameters of growth, ovary fat and crude protein were not affected by supplementation of the additive. However, an increase in crude protein in the female liver was observed in correlation with increased essential oil levels. The female hepatosomatic index was also correlated with supplementation of essential oils. Feeding Nile tilapia broodstock diets containing an essential oil compound (SALUTO®) affects only the females, promoting an increase in liver protein inclusion and hepatosomatic index without impairing performance.
Abstract in English:Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and the fibrolytic enzymes β-glucanase and xylanase were applied to chopped sugarcane to study their effects on the nutritive value of silage. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested after 14 mo of growth and treated without (control) or with L. buchneri at a theoretical application rate of 5 × 10(4) cfu/g, 1 × 10(5) cfu/g, or 1 × 10(5) cfu/g plus enzymes. Forage was packed into farm-scale bag silos (40 t/silo) and stored for 92 d. Fifty-six bulls (32 Nellore and 24 Charolais × Nellore) were housed in 20 collective pens and fed diets comprising (dry matter [DM] basis) 458 g/kg sugarcane silage and 542 g/kg concentrates for an 84-d period. Treated silages had higher concentrations of acetic acid and lower concentrations of ethanol. Total mixed rations (TMR) containing inoculated silages exhibited significantly lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and, consequently, higher in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD). Thus, animals fed TMR containing treated silages spent less time chewing per day and per kilogram of DM intake (DMI), even at higher DMI levels. Nonetheless, the intake of NDF was similar across treatments (0.77 to 0.79 kg/100 kg BW) but markedly lower than the value reported for traditional forages. Average daily gain was significantly greater for animals fed TMR based on inoculated silages due to the higher DMI (14% on average) and the higher energy content of the diets, as indicated by the higher feed efficiency (12% on average). The dose of inoculants used and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes had no significant effects on silage parameters or animal performance. Therefore, inoculation of L. buchneri during sugarcane ensilage can alter the fermentation pattern by increasing acetic acid yield, reducing silage nutrient losses, and improving feed efficiency by bulls.
Abstract in English:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench) hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R), with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R), without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R), without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and crude protein (CP) were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3) were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids) and six repetitions (sheep) was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE) intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R) presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R) and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R).
Abstract in English:Forty-five non-lactating, pregnant Holstein animals (18 heifers and 27 multiparous cows; BW = 561±114 kg; BCS = 2.9±0.3; days pregnant = 110±56 d) were stratified by initial BW and BCS, and randomly assigned to receive daily (as-fed basis) 0.50 kg of ground corn plus 0.22 kg of kaolin (CON), calcium salts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PF) for 14 d. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14, immediately prior to (0 h) and 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after feeding, to determine the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of P4 (5.52, 6.13 and 5.63±0.41 ng/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively). No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of insulin (11.5, 10.5 and 10.1±1.43 µIU/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively). Heifers had greater serum concentrations of P4 than multiparous cows (6.35 vs. 5.16±0.42 ng/mL), but lower serum concentrations of insulin (7.0 vs. 14.4±1.49 µIU/mL). Feeding 0.22 kg of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids is not sufficient to increase the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin of non-lactating, pregnant dairy cows.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, the carcass and meat characteristics of ewes supplemented with magnesium oxide. Eighteen 6-year-old Santa Ines ewes were used in a completely randomized experimental design, where three levels of supplementation (0.0, 0.1 and 0.2% magnesium oxide in the concentrate) were tested, with six replicates. Final weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were not affected by levels of magnesium supplementation. Hot and cold carcass weights showed linear increasing and quadratic responses, respectively, according to supplementation with magnesium. Carcass measurements such as length, depth, and measures of arm and leg were not affected by supplementation. Depth and width of the longissimus muscle and rib-eye area were not affected; however, marbling and ether extract increased linearly with supplementation. Water loss and color were not affected. Lipid oxidation and shear force were not affected by supplementation, while the myofibrillar fragmentation index showed a quadratic regression. There was a linear decrease in pH with magnesium supplementation. Supplementation with magnesium can improve carcass and meat pH, but can act negatively by increasing the amount of marbling and ether extract of meat.
Abstract in English:Twenty-four Saanen goats, 15 multiparous and nine primiparous, were distributed in a completely randomised design in a factorial arrangement (3 diets × 2 parities). The treatments were soybean meal (SB), soybean + dry yeast (SBDY), or dry yeast (DY) as a protein source in the diet, and ground corn, mineral supplement, and corn silage (400 g/kg). The study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value of diets containing inactive dry yeast as a protein source postpartum, postpeak, and during late lactation in dairy goats. To estimate the faecal excretion of indigestible material, neutral detergent fibre was used as an internal marker. The diets did not affect dry matter intake (DMI). However, DMI and nutrient intake were higher for multiparous goats compared with primiparous goats. The digestibility of dry matter and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were higher for primiparous goats in the postpartum period. In the postpeak and late lactation periods, there were no differences in digestibility of DM and nutrient between parities. The TDN was similar in the diets in the postpeak period and at lactation end. The goats fed the DY diet had lower urea nitrogen in blood. The use of inactive dry yeast to substitute soybean meal in diets for primiparous and multiparous lactating Saanen goats is a good alternative for maintaining the nutritional value of diets.
Abstract in English:The hormonal responses of 20 female buffaloes raised under the sun (SS group) or in the shade (CS group) in Belém, Pará, Brazil, were assessed. The CS group (n = 10) was kept in a silvopasture system featuring Racosperma mangium, whereas the SS group (n = 10) was kept in paddocks without shade featuring Brachiaria humidicola, drinking water, and mineral salt. The following parameters were measured for each treatment: dry-bulb temperature (AT), relative humidity (RH), and black-globe temperature in order to calculate the globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI). Blood sample collections to quantitatively determine levels of cortisol, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were performed every 14 days, at 13.00 h. Different seasons of the year were also assessed: rainy (January-April), transition (May-July), and less rainy (August-December). Analysis of variance revealed that AT and the index of global temperature and humidity (GTHI) differed between groups; specifically, higher values were found in the SS group, which shows how important silvopastoral systems are in buffalo farming in tropical climates. Relative humidity was significantly different across seasons and particularly high in the rainy season. The treatments influenced cortisol such that higher values were observed in the SS group. The highest mean cortisol levels were recorded during the rainy and less rainy seasons, whereas the highest T3 and T4 levels were recorded only during the rainy season. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine were negatively correlated with AT and GTHI and positively correlated with RH. Silvopastoral systems provide thermal comfort to buffaloes, and the less rainy season is more likely to cause heat stress.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of in situ degradability parameters of the dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and the passage of materials originating from the ensilage of the waste from pineapple cultivation (aerial parts). The four treatments utilized were silage of pineapple waste compacted at 600, 700, 900 and 1000 kg/m³. After ensiling the material from the pineapple cultivation, the particle-transit and rumen-degradation kinetics were analyzed. For the analysis of particle transit, chromium was utilized as a marker to mark the fiber. Passage rates were determined by retrieving the markers in the feces of the animals. In the degradation assay, samples were incubated in nylon bags for 0, 6, 18, 48 and 96 hours. The behavior observed in the regression curves of the variables analyzed describes high correlation between them, i.e., the time during which the silage is retained in the rumen influences its digestibility and its degradation rate. Although the silage compacted at 900 kg/m³ shows a larger potentially digestible fraction, it is recommended that it be ensiled at a compaction density of approximately 750 kg/m³ due to the lower cost and shorter mean retention time in the rumen-reticulum and rumen fill, thereby increasing the ruminal degradation and passage dynamics.