Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Volume: 45, Issue: 5, Published: 2016
  • Use of probiotic-supplemented diet on a Pacific white shrimp farm Aquaculture

    Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento; Jatobá, Adolfo; Mouriño, José Luiz Pedreira; Buglione Neto, Celso Carlos; Silva, Jairo Sousa da; Seiffert, Walter Quadros; Soares, Mariana; Vinatea, Luis Alejandro

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum on performance, immunological parameters, and bacterial microbiota of the digestive tract of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). We used six earthen ponds (1.2 ha) stocked with 14 shrimp m−2 (3 g mean weight). Three ponds received a diet supplemented with L. plantarum and three were maintained as control. The survival and feed efficiency of shrimp fed the supplemented diet were greater than that observed in shrimp fed the control diet, with survival values of 83.02±6.12% and 74.65±9.07% and feed efficiencies of 117.97±4.45% and 104.46±7.30%, respectively. However, we observed no differences in weight gain. The intestines of shrimp fed probiotics had lower counts of Vibrio spp. and higher counts of lactic acid bacteria, compared with those of control shrimp. Diets supplemented with L. plantarum alter the intestinal bacterial microbiota of shrimp, resulting in increased survival and feed efficiency.
  • Cottonseed oil in diets for growing broilers Non-Ruminants

    Aguiar, Vânia de Sousa Lima; Dourado, Leilane Rocha Barros; Lopes, João Batista; Machado, Luciana Pereira; Nascimento, Daphinne Cardoso Nagib do; Silva, Danilo Rodrigo Silva e; Santos, Edna Teles dos; Farias, Leonardo Atta

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three levels of crude cottonseed oil on performance, organ weights, and blood parameters of growing broilers. Carcass and cut yields after 33 and 42 days of age and the economic viability of the diets were also evaluated. Male broilers of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (0, 2, 4, and 6% inclusion of cottonseed oil, with and without ferrous sulfate) with five replicates. In the period from 22 to 33 days, quadratic and increasing linear effects were observed on feed intake and weight gain, respectively. Feed conversion during the same period was better with the addition of ferrous sulfate. The addition of ferrous sulfate caused a reduction in heart weight. From 22 to 42 days, carcass and cuts yield, organ weight, and intestine length were not influenced by the levels of oil or by the addition of ferrous sulfate. Supplementation with iron salts provided a lower red blood cell count and increased mean cell volume. Balanced diets formulated with up to 6% of crude cottonseed oil for broilers from 22-33 and 22-42 days of age do not affect their performance or the weight of their organs. Supplementation with ferrous sulfate improved feed conversion up to 33 days. Diets formulated with 4% cottonseed oil supplemented with ferrous sulfate are economically viable in the period from 22 to 42 days.
  • The impact of eggshell colour and spot area in Japanese quails: I. eggshell temperature during incubation and hatching results Non-Ruminants

    Alasahan, Sema; Akpinar, Gulsen Copur; Canogullari, Sibel; Baylan, Mikail

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was carried out to investigate the effects of eggshell colour and spot properties (colour and size of the spot area) on eggshell incubation temperature and hatching outcomes of Japanese quail eggs (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Study material was allocated to five groups according to their eggshell and spot colours: black spots on greyish white coloured eggshell (I), blue spots on greyish white coloured eggshell (II), diffuse brown spots on greyish brown coloured eggshell (III), brown spots on light green coloured eggshell (IV), and small brown spots on greyish brown coloured eggshell (V). The size of the spotted area was determined in each egg group using digital image analysis. Mean relative weight losses of hatched and unhatched eggs between days 0-10 and 0-14 of embryonic development were 4.76% and 10.48% and 9.17% and 15.46%, respectively. The mean eggshell temperatures of hatched and unhatched eggs measured at the equatorial region on days 10 and 14 during embryonic development were 36.92 and 37.79 ºC and 36.84 and 37.18 ºC, respectively. Eggshell temperatures at the equatorial region on days 10 (36.89 ºC) and 14 (37.57 ºC) of embryonic development were lower than the fixed temperature of the incubator (37.6 ºC). Fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, and hatchability and embryonic mortality rates do not vary in relation to eggshell colour or the size of the spotted area.
  • Using juniper berry ( Juniperus communis ) as a supplement in Japanese quail diets Non-Ruminants

    Inci, Hakan; Ozdemir, Gokce; Sengul, Ahmet Yusuf; Sogut, Bunyamin; Nursoy, Hüseyin; Sengul, Turgay

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemented juniper berry (Juniperus communis) on fattening performance and some carcass traits of quails. A total of 150 one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into five groups (one control and four treated groups) with three replicates. Four different juniper berry levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) and a control treatment (0%) were added to the diet. Juniper berry supplementation to the diets initiated at the end of the 1st week and sustained for seven weeks. Live weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio during the trial and some carcass traits after slaughter were determined. Juniper berry supplementation in the diet during seven weeks of growing period significantly increased body weight, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of the treated groups. Carcass weight, carcass yield, and breast yield were also significantly increased by supplemented juniper berry. No significant difference was observed between viability of different groups. Supplementation of 0.5-1% juniper berry in quail diets has positive impacts on fattening performance and carcass traits.
  • Finishing swine fed cashew bagasse bran Non-Ruminants

    Mota, Lorena Cunha; Moreira, José Aparecido; Oliveira, Rafael Leandro Ramos de; Silva, Apauliana Daniela Lima da; Souza, Janete Gouveia de; Teixeira, Elisanie Neiva Magalhães; Aguiar, Emerson Moreira de; Campos, Melissa Selaysim Di

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the digestibility of cashew bagasse bran as well as the performance of swine fed diets with different levels of inclusion of this by-product and their economic viability. In the digestibility trial, ten crossbred barrows weighing 60±6.86 kg were housed in metabolic cages. Five received standard feed and five received test feed with 300 g kg−1 cashew bagasse bran included. For the performance and economic viability study, forty crossbred pigs weighing 60±5.24 kg were allotted in a randomized block design with five treatments (0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 g kg−1 inclusion of cashew bagasse bran) and four replications. Daily feed intake, daily gain, feed conversion, partial gross income with and without allowance index, and partial net income with and without allowance index were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and regression analysis. The treatment with 75 g kg−1 cashew bagasse bran provided the best results. Cashew bagasse bran can be included in the diet of finishing pigs up to the level of 300 g kg−1 without adversely affecting animal performance.
  • Digestible phosphorus levels for barrows from 50 to 80 kg Non-Ruminants

    Santos Nieto, Viviane Maria Oliveira dos; Kiefer, Charles; Souza, Karina Márcia Ribeiro de; Gonçalves, Liliane Maria Piano; Bonin, Marina de Nadai; Santos, Tânia Mara Baptista dos; Carvalho, Kelly Cristina Nunes; Santos, Alexandre Pereira dos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of digestible phosphorus in diets for barrows with a high potential for lean meat deposition from 50 to 80 kg. Eighty barrows, with an initial weight of 47.93±3.43 kg, were distributed in completely randomized blocks, with each group given five levels of digestible phosphorus (1.86, 2.23, 2.61, 2.99, and 3.36 g kg−1). There were eight replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. Phosphorus levels did not significantly influence feed intake, weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. Daily digestible phosphorus intake increased linearly as levels of phosphorus in the diet were increased. Phosphorus levels did not significantly influence muscle depth, loin eye area, backfat thickness, or the percentage and quantity of lean meat in the carcass. A linear increase was observed for feeding cost as the levels of digestible phosphorus in the diet were increased, and the level of 1.86 g kg−1 cost 29.4% less when compared with the level of 2.61 g kg−1. The dry matter, natural matter, the coefficient of the residue, and volatile solids of the waste were not significantly influenced by phosphorus levels. Conversely, it was possible to observe an increasing linear effect for total solids, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen in the waste of animals receiving diets with increased levels of digestible phosphorus. The level of 1.86 g kg−1, which corresponded to a daily intake of 4.77 g−1 of digestible phosphorus, meets the requirements of barrows weighing 50 to 80 kg.
  • Effects of mycotoxin adsorbents in aflatoxin B 1 - and fumonisin B 1 -contaminated broiler diet on performance and blood metabolite Non-Ruminants

    Sobrane Filho, Sérgio Turra; Junqueira, Otto Mack; Laurentiz, Antonio Carlos de; Filardi, Rosemeire da Silva; Rubio, Marcela da Silva; Duarte, Karina Ferreira; Laurentiz, Rosangela da Silva de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study examined the effect of aflatoxin (AFB1) and fumonisin (FB1) at the levels of 2 mg kg−1 AFB1 and 100 mg kg−1 FB1 and the efficiency of use of different levels of adsorbent based on sodium and calcium aluminosilicate on growth performance, hematological parameters, and biochemical parameters of broilers. A total of 1,440 Cobb broilers were distributed into the following treatments: positive control (PC) - no mycotoxin and adsorbent (AD); PC+3AD - no mycotoxin, with 3 g kg−1 adsorbent in feed; negative control (NC) - only mycotoxin; NC+1AD - with mycotoxin and 1 g kg−1 adsorbent in feed; NC+2AD - with mycotoxin and 2 g kg−1 adsorbent in feed; and NC+3AD - with mycotoxin and 3 g kg−1 adsorbent in feed. The amounts of AFB1 and FB1 added to NC reduced weight gain (35%) and feed intake (50%) compared with PC; however, inclusion of 2 or 3 g kg−1 adsorbent to NC alleviated such losses. Birds fed NC showed anemia, immunosuppression, and impaired liver function, observed by reduced cholesterol and increased gamma glutamyl-transferase activity compared with PC; values returned to normal levels when 2 or 3 g kg−1 of the adsorbent (as fed) were used. Mycotoxins cause adverse effects on most of the parameters studied, and the use of adsorbent at the levels of 2 and 3 g kg−1 of the adsorbent as fed partially negates the adverse effect of mycotoxicosis.
  • Effect of litter treatment on growth performance, intestinal development, and selected cecum microbiota in broiler chickens Non-Ruminants

    Taherparvar, Gilaneh; Seidavi, Alireza; Asadpour, Leila; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of bedding materials (sand, wood shavings, and paper) and of two chemical amendments (lime and bentonite) could interfere with litter quality (moisture, pH, and total bacterial counts), thereby influencing also the growth performance and the development of intestinal traits and cecum microbiota of chickens. Two hundred and seventy male Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned into nine treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Broiler productive parameters, relative weight of different intestinal segments, content of cecal total bacterial counts (total aerobic bacteria, Lactobacilli, and coliforms), as well as litter moisture, pH, and total aerobic bacteria and coliforms counts, were assessed. Litter material, per se, did not significantly affect the productivity parameters at the end of the experimental period (42 days) with the exception of protein efficiency. A significant trend was found among treatments with regard to weight gain and feed intake, with lower performance in birds on sand beddings. Litter pH was relatively homogenous between bedding types and amendments, but the moisture was significantly lower when sand was used. Litter type did not influence the relative weight of the different intestinal segments; however, the type of amendment affected the relative jejunum weight, which was increased in bentonite-treated litter. The use of lime and bentonite treatments may be helpful to decrease the differences in litter moisture associated with particular bedding materials. The tested amendments do not interfere with the productive performance of birds.
  • Carcass and meat traits of feedlot Nellore bulls fed different dietary energy sources Ruminants

    Maia Filho, Geraldo Helber Batista; Barbosa, Fabiano Alvim; Emerick, Lucas Luz; Souza, Rafahel Carvalho; Figueiredo, Tadeu Chaves; Azevedo, Henrique de Oliveira; Cavalcanti, Luigi Francis Lima; Mandarino, Raphael Amazonas

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary energy sources on the carcass and meat traits of feedlot Nellore bulls. A total of 48 Nellore bulls at 32 months of age with 354.35±19.56 kg body weight were studied for 85 days. The bulls were allotted to four groups of 12 individuals: Whole corn grain - diet based on whole corn grain; Ground corn - diet based on ground corn grain; Citrus pulp - diet based on citrus pulp; and Steam-flaked corn - diet based on steam-flaked corn. Diets did not influence carcass quality or meat quality. Average values for fat depth, rib eye area, shear force, total cooking losses, and carcass yield were 4.97 mm, 74.71 cm2, 5.85 kgf, 26.82%, and 52.0%, respectively. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of this study, there is no restriction for the adoption of any of the tested diets in feedlots with Nellore bulls and the evaluated energy sources may be used to replace ground corn grain.
  • The economic impact of infection with Eimeria spp. in broiler farms from Romania Animal Production Systems And Agribusiness

    Györke, Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Pop, Loredana Maria; Şuteu, Ovidiu Loan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A survey was conducted on chicken broiler farms from Romania in August-November 2010 to evaluate economic losses due to coccidiosis. Data were collected from six broiler farms of different capacity regarding chemoprophylaxis program, weight gain, feed conversion, and mortality, for two previous flocks in two houses of each farm, and finally we evaluated the economic losses. Also, faeces samples were collected and oocysts were classified according to their size, and virulence of each Eimeria spp. field isolate was determined by lesion scoring. Correlations between economic performance, oocysts category, and virulence of Eimeria were assessed by multiple linear regression. Total economic losses per 24 flocks of 18,000 chicks each were about €37,948.2, with an average of €3,162.4 per flock, and they were caused by mortality (34.8%) and poor feed conversion (65.2%). Poor body weight gain was associated with AM oocyst category (presumptively E. acervulina and/or E. mitis), high lesion score in the duodenum, and coccidiostat used for chemoprophylaxis. Feed conversion ratio was linked to the same parameters as body weight gain, minus chemoprophylaxis programme, plus total lesion score. The percentage of mortality was influenced by the lesion score in the caecum and total lesion score. Statistical analysis showed that epidemiological survey of broiler flocks during the grower period can help the farmer to avoid important economic losses due to coccidiosis. As in other countries, the economic losses caused by coccidiosis in Romania are important, and a good prophylaxis programme can reduce the economic impact of coccidiosis.
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