Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the influence of forage production area, concentrate supply, and farm labor on characterization of milk production systems (MPS) and their productive results. Milk volume data provided in 2014 by 110 dairy farms located in the eastern region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, were obtained from a dairy industry. Forty-four farms with different production levels were selected, in which interviews were carried out aiming to characterize the management practices related to forage production area, concentrate supply, and farm labor. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Then, regressions were made between the principal components (PC) and indicator variables of productive response (annual milk production, milk production per area, milk production per cow, milk production per worker on farm, and number of cows per hectare). Finally, we performed a hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis based on the PCA, followed by comparison of the means between clusters. Three PC were generated: indicator of scale and intensification, indicator of age of the manager and his experience on dairy farming, and indicator of specialization and permanent family labor available. The three PC were influencing the production results, especially PC1. It was possible to form five clusters: cluster 1, characterized by the highest value in PC1, showed the highest production results, followed by the cluster 2, with intermediate values in PC1; clusters 3, 4, and 5, characterized by lower values in PC1 and distinguished by PC2 and PC3, had the lowest productive results. Aspects related to forage production area, concentrate supply, and workforce are important for MPS characterization and have significant influence on productive results.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We aimed to compare the typology of dairy production systems (DPS) that meet Brazilian quality standards with that of non-compliant DPS. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied in 128 DPS located in Santa Izabel do Oeste, Paraná, Brazil (25°49'16" S and 53°29'04" W). In addition, milk quality reports of each DPS were analyzed. Dairy production systems were segregated into two groups: G1 – DPS that were in accordance with Brazilian regulations on milk quality, and G2 – DPS that did not comply with Brazilian regulations. Exploratory factor analysis was performed on structural, production, and technical variables. Two factors were defined: F1 – production scale and bargaining power, and F2 – autonomy and production control. Groups 1 and 2 were evaluated according to their structural, production, and technical characteristics as well as their F1 and F2 values. A small fraction (6.25%) of DPS met the minimum quality standards for milk. Dairy production systems that comply with quality regulations have larger production scale, higher productivity, and greater autonomy and control of milk production. Consequently, they have better bargaining power with the industry for the marketing of milk.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present article investigated the plural forms of governance that have been adopted in buying and selling transactions by cattle ranches with differentiated markets. In addition, it proposes to describe and explain which determinants influence this plurality, based on the theoretical principles of transaction cost economics. The analysis was based on the observation of both upstream transactions and commitments and agreements established downstream by two ranches, both specialized in beef cattle, but with different competitive strategies. The adoption of plural forms demonstrates diverse competitive advantages, insofar as both can meet the requirements of different distribution channels or increase production capacity. The results indicated that the governance structures adopted by the ranchers studied responded to the demands of the strategies adopted for their production units. Thus, the adopted governance structures should be aligned with their strategies for the cattle ranches to be successful.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the influence of climate pattern and rearing conditions on broiler carcass condemnations observed during processing. We evaluated the registered data of 2015 from the federal inspection files in all broiler slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwestern Brazil. The percentages of condemnations by airsacculitis, cellulitis, dermatosis, ascites syndrome, total carcass condemnations, and average broiler weight at 42 days were analyzed. Data were associated with housing systems and season of the year in which each flock was reared. Two-way ANOVA was applied to the data in a completely randomized design 4×3 (four seasons and three houses) and compared by Tukey's test. The results indicated that the housing system did not affect the studied condemnations, and seasons of the year did not change condemnation by airsacculitis; however, the other pathologies leading to carcass condemnations were affected by season. Condemnations by cellulite were higher during summer than in winter. For dermatosis, the maximum index appears during summer and the lowest during winter and spring. The ascites syndrome presented the smallest index in summer and winter, and the minimum value was found in spring. The average bird weight was higher in autumn than in winter and spring. Type of broiler rearing did not affect the carcass condemnation index. Summer was the most detrimental period regarding the condemnation rates for the pathologies studied, mainly cellulitis and dermatosis, while the highest average weight of birds was found during autumn and spring.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the economic result of feedlot operation for three genetic groups of cattle (Nellore, Nellore crossing with other Zebuine breeds, and Dairy crossbred) as a function of the overprice on the purchase price of cattle to be feedlot-finished. The study involved data of 57,589 animals divided into 709 lots originating from operation cycles from March to December 2016. Lots were considered replicates, and gross margin per animal was considered the economic result. Data pertaining to each lot, overprice, and gross margin were analyzed by regression, with mathematical models developed for each genetic group. After significance tests were applied, simple linear models were adopted for all studied groups. To check the equality or lack thereof of the three regression models generated, we used a model-identity test, which revealed that the model for Nellore animals was different from that used for Dairy crossbreds. The model generated for Nellore crossing with other Zebuine breeds did not differ from the models for Nellore or Dairy crossbreds, i.e., Nellore crossing with other Zebuine breeds may be grouped as a single model together with the Nellore group or with the Dairy-crossbred group. The estimates generated from the three individualized models suggest that the purchase of the feeder (unfinished) cattle for the Dairy crossbred, Nellore crossing with other Zebuine breeds, and Nellore groups, with an overprice starting at 1.19, 1.21, and 1.27, respectively, will result in negative gross margins. Thus, the overprice at purchase may compromise the economic result of feedlot operation, and more-efficient animals may allow for a greater overprice on the purchase in the operation, with a positive gross margin.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to measure the short- and long-term elasticities of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), productivity, prices paid to producers, milk powder imports, minimum wages, and exchange ratios in milk collection between 1999 and 2016. For the measurement, the cointegration technique for data in a balanced panel was used, contemplating five states with great representativeness in the Brazilian industrial milk collection: Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Goiás, and São Paulo. These states corresponded to 73.3% of all formal milk collection in 2016. Results indicated that GDP, productivity, and imports impacted long-term milk collection. Productivity and GDP were the variables with the greatest long-term impact, with elasticities of 1.395 and 1.297, respectively. Minimum wages impacted milk collection to a lesser scale, −0.802; and exchange ratio and imports showed lower coefficients, that is, 0.177 and −0.078, respectively. In the short term, minimum wages was the significant variable to explain the milk collection and presented a coefficient of −0.213. The variables with the greatest impact on formal milk collection during the period analyzed were productivity, which made the production process more efficient, and variation in the Brazilian consumer’s income, represented by the GDP variable, which increased the demand for dairy products.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to compare predictive performances of different data-mining algorithms for determining factors influencing the average daily milk yield at dairy cattle enterprises of Ardahan province, located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The algorithms employed in the present study were Classification and Regression Tree (CART), Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID), Exhaustive Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detector (Exhaustive CHAID), Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). The MARS algorithm outperformed the other algorithms in the study. Visual results of CART revealed that the culture-breed cows with a lactation length greater than 237.500 days had the highest milk yield (10.64 kg/day). Culture-breed cows calving earlier than the 4th month gave the highest yield of approximately 10 kg/day in the regression tree of CHAID. The Exhaustive CHAID results were almost the same as the structure of the CHAID. The use of MARS may provide an opportunity to detect factors affecting milk production (breed, feed supply, type of milking, mastitis control, cow year group, and lactation length) and their interactions. Moreover, the MARS algorithm may be useful in making an accurate decision about increasing milk yield per cow.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, oxidative stress, and fatty acid profiles of lambari (Astyanax altiparanae) fed diets containing different lipid sources: soybean oil, linseed oil, and freshwater fish residue oil combined or otherwise with sesame oil (SEO). The fish (mean weight 0.95±0.46 g; mean length 4.21±2.77 cm) were distributed into 24 cages (cage capacity: 0.70 m3; fish density: 276 individuals m−3) in six treatments and four replicates. After 80 days of feeding, they were weighed, and samples were collected for assay of catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activities in muscle and analysis of the fatty acid profiles of polar and neutral fractions of whole eviscerated fish. The addition of SEO reduced docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA) levels but increased the percentage of highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids and the DHA: eiocosapentaenoic acid ratio, while reduced GR and LDH enzyme activities in muscle. Thus, certain blends of oils added to fish diets can improve the lipid profile of lambari and protect consumers against reactive oxygen species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated morphometric and ultrasound information of tilapia (O. niloticus) breeders through multivariate analysis. We applied correlation, clustering, and principal component analysis to a dataset composed of information from 222 male and female breeders of the improved GIFT strain. The body weight, objective of the breeding program, showed a high positive correlation with most of the morphometric parameters. The formation of clusters indicated characteristics responsible for muscle composition and carcass weight. Some characteristics showed a high correlation, such as body weight and fillet weight (0.98 and 0.94 for females and males, respectively), and a high contribution to the explanation of data variability; of the total characteristics evaluated for females, two explained 75% data variability and four explained 72% for males. We concluded that it is possible to reduce the number of characteristics measured, as well as use information of average daily weight gain and body weight to select female and male breeders, respectively, to drive genetic gains favoring more productive generations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The effects of feeding rate and feeding frequency on the growth of laboratory-reared common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) were evaluated. Juveniles with mean±SD weight of 2.55±0.48 g and total length of 6.81±0.48 cm were divided into groups of 20 fish and reared in 30 polyethylene tanks of 50 L for 60 days. The experimental design was a 3 × 3 factorial with three feeding frequencies (F2, F4, and F6: two, four, and six daily meals, respectively), three feeding rates (R1, R2.5, and R4: 1.0, 2.5, and 4.0%/day of fish biomass, respectively), and three replicates, totaling nine treatments (F2R1, F2R2.5, F2R4; F4R1, F4R2.5, F4R4; F6R1, F6R2.5, and F6R4). The external control consisted of four meals a day offered to apparent satiety (F4S). Every 15 days, weight and length of all fish were measured to adjust the amount of feed offered. Water quality variables remained within adequate levels for this species. Feeding rate had a greater influence on performance than frequency. Survival, condition factor, and the initial and final coefficients of weight variation had no significant effect among treatments. Feeding frequency and rate directly influenced length and weight gains, feed efficiency, specific growth rate, and apparent feed conversion rate. For common snook juveniles weighing between 1 and 16 g, it is recommended to offer four to six daily meals at a feeding rate between 3.31 and 1.86% per day, which should decrease according to fish size.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated the biomass gain, specific growth rate, absolute weight gain, and survival rate of the gastropod Pomacea dolioides cultivated in different stocking densities. To perform the experiment, samples were collected in March and June 2015. A total of 40 adult specimens were collected in the Jauary neighborhood (03°08′19.9"S, 58°27′32.5"W), municipality of Itacoatiara, AM, Brazil. They were kept in the laboratory for breeding to obtain the young P. dolioides, which were distributed into tanks containing 4 L of water and an aeration system, in three densities: 2.5 animals/L, 5 animals/L, and 10 animals/L, and were fed fish ration (34% gross protein). The specimens were measured for shell length and weight every fifteen days. The survival rate did not differ between treatments 2.5 and 5 animals/L (100%) and 10 animals/L (95.83%). The density with the best cultivation results was 2.5 animals/L, being most effective for the parameters of growth, weight gain, specific growth rate, and percentage weight gain, when compared with the other treatments after 225 days of the experiment. For future cultivation of this species, a density of 2.5 animals/L should be used to improve handling performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the effects of Curcuma longa as growth promoter, skin pigmentation enhancer, and stress reducer in diets of Trichogaster labiosa after transport. We used five diets containing 0.0, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 25.0 g kg−1 of turmeric rhizome powder. We observed quadratic effects of turmeric supplementation for feed intake, weight gain, final length, and specific growth rate. The estimated amount of turmeric that decreased these variables ranged from 15.53 to 16.39 g kg−1. Quadratic effects of supplementation of turmeric for cyan and black dorsal skin coloring indices were observed, with estimated values that increased these variables equal to 15.03 and 17.44 g kg−1, respectively. After fish transport, quadratic effects of turmeric were observed for the cyan and black dorsal skin depigmentation indices, with estimated values that increased these variables equal to 13.29 and 17.04 g kg−1, respectively. These results demonstrate that supplementation with turmeric at levels up to 17 g kg−1 causes further reduction in skin color due to the stress of transport. Thus, Curcuma longa acts neither as a growth promoter nor as a stress reducer for Trichogaster labiosa. Curcuma longa does not improve the orange pattern of skin pigmentation in the strain of T. labiosa orange thick-lipped gourami.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of using different concentrations (5, 7.5, 10, and 12.5%) of two permeating cryoprotectants, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and methanol, on Prochilodus lineatus embryos while being subjected to cooling for 2, 4, 6, and 8 h at 4 °C. We analyzed the hatching rate, viable larvae, and counts of hatched and spoiled eggs and those that did not complete their development after cooling. We observed a significant interaction among variables, permeable cryoprotectant concentration, and cooling time, having the increase of these factors caused a reduction in hatching rate. The curimba embryos showed a higher sensitivity to cold at a temperature of 4 °C for 6 and 8 h, directly influencing the production of viable larvae. We did not observe a significant difference in the variables analyzed when comparing the cryoprotectant solutions containing DMSO, methanol, and solutions containing only water and sucrose (0.5M). An increase in the concentration of cryoprotectant and cooling time promotes a reduction in the hatching rate and in the percentage of viable curimba larvae.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The influence of feeding frequency on growth performance, batch uniformity, and survival rate of severum (Heros severus) larvae and juveniles was investigated in two experiments. In the first, 200 five-day-old severum larvae with 3.20±0.31 mg and 6.20±0.39 mm were randomly distributed into 20 aquaria (1 L) and fed 500 Artemia nauplii larvae−1 day−1 for 15 days. In the second, 120 severum juveniles, 178.19±33.59 mg and 1.82±0.09 cm, were randomly distributed into 15 aquaria (300 L) and hand-fed a commercial diet (400.0 g kg−1 crude protein and 21.2 kJ g−1 gross energy) until apparent satiety for 30 days. For both experiments, feeding frequencies of one, two, three, four, and five meals day−1 were evaluated. We used four replicates for the first experiment and three for the second. At the end of both experiments, survival rate and batch uniformity were unaffected by the feeding frequency. Severum larvae fed three, four, and five meals day−1 showed higher final weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate, but only the larvae fed five meals day−1 showed higher final length and length gain than those fed once and twice day−1. Severum juveniles fed two, four, and five meals day−1 showed higher final weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate. Growth performance parameters of final length and length gain were not affected by feeding frequencies. Thus, we recommend that the optimal feeding frequency for severum larvae fed Artemia nauplii is three meals day−1 and for juvenile severum fed a commercial diet, the optimal frequency is two meals day−1.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A 10-week study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed allowance and graded levels of dietary methionine (Met) on growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Juvenile shrimp of 1.83±0.14 g were stocked in 42 outdoor green-water tanks of 1 m3 under 120 shrimp m−2. Animals were fed under two feed allowances, regular and 30% in excess. Five diets with 30 g kg−1 fishmeal were designed to contain 318±2 g kg−1 crude protein and a minimum amount of protein-bound Met. To achieve graded levels of dietary Met, a control diet with 4.6 g kg−1 Met or 8.9 g kg−1 methionine + cysteine (M+C) was supplemented with 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, and 4.2 g kg−1 of DL-methionyl-DL-methionine to result in total dietary Met of 5.6, 6.9, 7.9, and 9.2 g kg−1 (10.0, 11.2, 12.1, and 13.5 g kg−1 M+C, respectively). A final survival of 86.5±3.6% was reached with no significant influence from feed allowance or dietary Met. Feed inputs significantly affected apparent feed intake, weekly shrimp growth, final body weight (BW), and gained yield. Larger meals and a higher dietary Met had no impact on feed conversion ratio. There was a significant interaction between feed allowance and Met over shrimp BW. By feeding animals in excess, BW was enhanced at 6.9 g kg−1 Met. A dietary Met of 7.9 g kg−1 was required to achieve a maximum BW under a regular feed allowance. Thus, shrimp required less amounts of dietary Met to maximize BW when higher feed inputs were delivered. Our findings demonstrate a sparing effect of dietary Met for L. vannamei when a higher feed allowance is adopted. Shrimp farmers should consider adjusting feed allowance to dietary Met to maximize shrimp growth performance and yield.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the length-weight relationship and mathematical models to predict dressed and fillet weight and yield and fillet composition of wild traíra, Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794). A total of 80 marketable-sized fish from 292.28 to 2879.57 g and 32.06 to 61.19 cm were used. The length:weight ratio was estimated using the equation: W=a×Lb, in which W is body weight (g) and L is length (cm). The models of dressed and fillet weight and yield and body were elaborated using first-order (y^i=β0+β1xi) or second-order (y^i=β0+β1xi+β1xi2) linear regression analyses. The value of slope b in the length:weight ratio was 3.3732 and intercept was 0.0029. The prediction equations obtained for dressed weight, fillet weight, dressed yield, fillet yield, fillet gross energy, moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, and ash were, respectively: y^=0.3244+0.9373W, y^=0.7651+0.4181W, y^=939.8015+0.0019W, y^=420.55170+0.0064W, y^=997.9600+0.0630W, y^=810.6500−0.0085W, y^=184.080−0.0111W, y^=3.1131+0.0049W, and y^=10.6110+0.0009W, in which W is the body weight of fish (g). We demonstrated the possibility of elaborating realistic expressions to describe degutted weight, fillet weight, and fillet composition. However, lower mathematical adjustment was observed to estimate realistic prediction of dressed and fillet yield.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate performance, hematological parameters, leukocyte counts, and respiratory microbiota of broilers under heat stress receiving eucalyptus oil supplementation. Cobb broilers (n = 1200) were randomly distributed on the first day of life in a factorial arrangement with additional treatment (2 × 2 + 1) with two periods of oil administration via drinking water (daily, from 18 to 35 days of life) and two periods of oil administration via spray (daily, from 18 to 35 days of age) plus a control treatment, consisting of twelve replications, with 20 animals each. The birds were kept in a controlled environment with constant temperature at 32 °C to induce heat stress by infrared heaters. Eucalyptus oil was supplied by drinking water (1 L of oil to 4000 L of water) or by spray applications with a pump (1 L of oil to 200 L of water). Bird weight was recorded at 42 days of age, along with remaining feed, to determine weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion. In addition, one blood sample from each bird repetition was collected for hematological and leucocytic evaluation. To assess respiratory microbiota, a tracheal flushing was performed for bacteria counts. There was no difference in performance, hematological parameters, and leukocyte counts, except hematocrit, which was lower in birds that received eucalyptus oil after 18 days of age. No significant differences were observed in the respiratory microbiota comparing oil-treated and -untreated groups. Although it was not possible to verify statistical difference, the birds that received eucalyptus oil via spray plus spray from 18 days old showed lower bacterial counts and absence of isolation of Gram negatives, while the control group was the one with the highest number of Gram negatives. Therefore, eucalyptus oil can be used for heat-stressed broilers without impairing their development.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of stereotypic behavior on productivity measures in sows. Frequent expression of stereotypies by pigs has been reported, even when pigs are not maintained in crates. This behavior is only observed in animals kept in captivity and is a wide-range welfare indicator, since it is considered to develop in situations of chronic stress or frustration. When comparing groups of sows showing low or high frequency of stereotypy expression, we found that stereotypic behavior did not affect productivity. Moreover, it did not affect physiological welfare indicators, such as salivary cortisol concentration or glucocorticoids in the placenta. There were no differences in productivity parameters, including weight of sows, weight of piglets, number of piglets weaned, or piglet mortality. Our study was conducted in group-housing pens, where the sows were not confined. Even in this condition, which is considered for increasing welfare, the barren environment did not meet the behavioral and sensory needs of sows, which were naturally selected to perform complex behavioral repertoire and to spend part of their time engaging in exploratory behavior.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to investigate the effects of available shaded area on behavioural characteristics of lactating cows during the warm season in the subtropics. Twelve Holstein cows were divided into groups, with 2 (SH2) or 10 m2 (SH10) of available shade per cow (six cows per treatment). The behaviour was recorded when animals were grazing from 09.00 to 16.00 h (GMT −02.00 h) throughout the trial. Data considered in the statistical analysis were restricted to the five days when the maximum temperature was ≥ 25 °C. Cows in the SH10 group had lower panting score, but higher proportions of time in shade and lying down and stayed more time per visit in the shaded area than cows in the SH2 group. Cows in the SH10 group had less events of competition near the water trough and in the shaded area than cows in the SH2 group. The solar radiation threshold that triggered the use of the shade was lower in SH10 than in SH2 group. Hourly proportion of time spent grazing or ruminating differed between shaded areas at specific times. The 2 m2 of available shaded area per cow is sufficient for all cows to enter the shaded area at the same time. In spite of that, 2 m2 of available shaded area per cow negatively affects the proportion of time spent lying and in the shaded area; in addition, it enhances agonistic behaviours between cows when compared with 10 m2 of shade per cow.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of AAT-deletion mutation at codon 248 of the BCO2 gene on the content of lutein, β-carotene, retinol, and α-tocopherol in the liver and fat of crossbred rabbits. The experimental animals comprised 90 rabbits, produced by reciprocal crossing between ins/del heterozygous parents of Flemish Giant, New Zealand Red, and Termond White breeds. All rabbits in the litter were genotyped, given the same diet, and finally slaughtered at 140 d of age. It was found that regardless of the mating scheme employed, all del/del homozygotes had the yellow fat trait, whereas heterozygous and homozygotes animals without the AAT deletion (ins/ins) developed white fat. Lutein concentration in fat was over 13-fold higher in rabbits carrying a homozygous AAT-deletion than in the remaining animals. A codon deletion in the BCO2 gene also contributes to an increase in the concentrations of β-carotene and α-tocopherol in the adipose tissue of rabbits. However, no differences were observed in the content of the analyzed components between heterozygous and homozygous rabbits without the deletion.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was intended to estimate the genetic associations between growth traits and visual scores with possible changes in mature weight (MW) in 397,900 Nellore animals. A bi-character analysis was performed to estimate the (co)variances and genetic parameters for MW, which comprises the following traits: conformation, finishing precocity, musculature at weaning (WC, WP, and WM) and yearling (YC, YP, and YM), birth weight (BW), weight from birth to weaning (WG), weight from weaning to yearling (YG), and final index (FIND). The observed mean MW was 417.6±56.2 kg, and the direct genetic effect mean estimated heritability (h2a1) of MW was 0.45. Overall, the BW was 31.0±3.7 kg, and the estimated h² was 0.34. The heritability estimate of the maternal additive genetic component (h2m2) of BW was 0.07. We calculated the mean WG to be 144.1±26.3 and estimated the h2a2 as 0.18 and h2m2 as 0.07. The value for h2a YG (0.17) and YW (0.26) were also estimated. The heritability of the weaning WC (0.17), WP (0.19), and WM (0.17) and yearling YC (0.25), YP (0.27), and YM (0.25) were estimated using visual scores. The h2m values for weaning WC, WP, and WM (0.06) with visual scores were estimated. The genetic correlations between body weight (BoW) at YC and WC (0.62) were considered moderately high and positive. In addition, YP (0.18), YM (0.15), WP (0.13), and WM (0.14) were considered moderately low compared with MW. The genetic correlation between BW and FIND (0.38) was considered positive and moderate. The heritability estimation indicates that growth traits, visual scores, and weight of adult cows could be changed by selection. Cows that presented the highest h2a values for live weight responded rapidly to selection based on growth characteristics, visual scores, and FIND and might result in increased final MW.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the genetic variability of the broodstocks of tambaqui hatcheries in the Brazilian state of Pará. Samples were obtained from the caudal fin of 110 broodstocks from one hatchery in each of four municipalities (Santarém, Peixe-Boi, Breu-Branco, and Ulianópolis), representing all the individuals of each hatchery stock. The samples were genotyped using the multiplex system microsatellite markers. Data were used to calculate observed and expected heterozygosity, number of alleles per locus, and allelic richness. The effective population size and inbreeding coefficient were also calculated. The genetic differentiation between populations was evaluated by using FST, and population structuring by the most likely number of genetically homogenous populations and Unweighted Pair Group Method (UPGMA); the arithmetic means were based on Nei's. The indices indicated a loss of genetic variability in the broodstocks from Ulianópolis, Peixe-Boi, and Breu-Branco in comparison with wild tambaqui populations, although this was not apparent in the Santarém stock. A moderate level of genetic differentiation was found among the tambaqui broodstocks based on the FST estimates, which were reinforced by the structuring found in the Bayesian analysis and UPGMA. This reflects the domestication process, given that no such structuring is found in natural tambaqui populations. This moderate genetic differentiation associated with the loss of genetic variability found in the four tambaqui broodstocks from the state of Pará provides important insights for the development of future programs of genetic improvement, as well as the conservation of the genetic diversity of these stocks.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to evaluate the phenotypic diversity between fighting cocks; roosters of the naturalized ecotypes Graúna Dourada, Brejeira, Teresina, and Nordestina; roosters of the Sertaneja genetic (synthetic) group; and family-farmed roosters via descriptive and multivariate analyses. The qualitative traits evaluated by descriptive analysis indicated a prevalence of single comb in the Graúna Dourada, Teresina, Nordestina, and Sertaneja ecotypes, whereas the Brejeira ecotype, fighting cocks, and family-farmed roosters have a pea-type comb, which can be viewed as a sign of introgression of the fighting cock in flocks of the region. Dark plumage prevailed across the groups. The quantitative traits subjected to multivariate analysis by clustering criteria placed the four ecotypes and the synthetic type in a single group, the family-farmed animals were allocated to another group, and, lastly, the fighting cocks were placed in a third group. These results were similar to those generated by principal component analysis, which indicated body length, wingspan, and body weight as the traits of greatest variability to discriminate the different groups. It is important to stress the risk of genetic erosion to which naturalized chicken populations are exposed as a consequence of the introgression of fighting cocks in naturalized-chicken rearing facilities.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic evolution of milk production, udder morphology, and animal behavior of Gir dairy cattle. Data were obtained on the predicted breeding values for milk yield of 60,226 cows born from 1968 to 2015 and standardized predicted breeding values for udder conformation and milking behavior of 7,635 cows born from 1987 to 2015. The influence of tested bulls on genetic trends was discussed, with special focus on the period after 1993, the year when the predicted breeding values of the first group of tested bulls were released. The traits of interest were 305-d milk yield, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, rear udder width, teat length, teat thickness, ease of milking, and reactivity. Significant genetic evolution was observed for 305-d milk yield, with increasing annual growth observed from 1993, as the number of cows sired by the best proven bulls increased. Before 1993, no genetic evolution was observed for any of the studied traits. From 1993 onward, all traits showed genetic gains, except fore udder attachment. The use of genetically-tested bulls since 1993 has led to important genetic gains in the Brazilian Dairy Gir population. Before the identification of genetically superior bulls began, many traits showed no improvement. Selection for milk yield has modified the conformation traits of the Gir mammary system. The longevity of the mammary glands of high-yield cows may be impaired due to poor fore udder attachment. Regarding behavioral traits, this population has evolved to less-reactive animals that are easier to milk.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene on plumage coloration in mule ducks. PCR-high-resolution melting analysis (PCR-HRM) and DNA sequencing were used to identify the SNP variability of the MC1R gene in white common ducks. Three non-synonymous SNP (MC1R gene exon 1, c.52G>A, c.376G>A, and c.409G>A) were identified in white Tsaiya ducks. Mating test (white Tsaiya ducks × white Muscovy drakes) in combination with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to investigate the effect of non-synonymous SNP of different maternal lines on plumage coloration in mule ducks. Genotyping results from 58 white Tsaiya ducks revealed the significant associations between genetic variations (c.52G>A, c.376A>G, and c.409G>A) and plumage color in two maternal populations. After genotyping of 266 mule ducks, these three non-synonymous SNP identified in white Tsaiya ducks were significantly associated with plumage color of mule ducks. Therefore, the polymorphisms of MC1R gene at c.52G>A, c.376A>G, and c.409G>A in white Tsaiya duck could be used in marker-assisted selection to improve the plumage color of mule ducks.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of farrowing and mortality rates on inbreeding levels and genetic gain through data simulation. Data came from two real populations A and B, composed of Pietrain and Landrace breed pigs, respectively. To generate the simulated populations, a Fortran-language simulator was developed using the (co)variances of the breeding values and productive and reproductive information obtained from populations A and B, as well as restrictions on mating and animals selected per generation. Two data files were created. The first contained the pedigree of the previous 10 years, with 21,906 and 251,343 animals in populations A and B, respectively. The second included the breeding values for age, backfat thickness, and feed conversion, all of which were adjusted for 110 kg live weight, for both populations; longissimus dorsi muscle depth adjusted for 110 kg live weight, for population A only; and number of live piglets at the fifth day of life per farrowing, for population B only. Three scenarios were simulated by varying the farrowing and mortality rates during the lactation period. Ten generations were simulated, with 30 replicates for each generation and scenario. Inbreeding levels in closed production units increase with productive and reproductive losses, and these reduce the variances of breeding values, selection intensity, and genetic gains by reducing the number of animals available for selection. Actions that maximize farrowing rates are more important than those that minimize mortality rates during the lactation period, since a reduction in simulated farrowing resulted in greater losses of genetic gains.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate inbreeding depression in Holstein cows in Brazil, considering their 305-day milk production (MP), age of first calving (AFC), and calving interval (CI). The effects of inbreeding depression on the traits were determined using four regression models (linear, quadratic, exponential, and Michaelis-Menten) about the errors generated by the animal model. The linear model was significant for CI, and the quadratic model was significant for CI and AFC. The Michaelis-Menten and exponential models were significant for MP, AFC, and CI. Inbreeding depression affected MP and CI. Cows with inbreeding coefficient of 15% produced approximately 260 kg less milk than non-inbred cows. A 1% increase in the inbreeding level resulted in an unfavorable increase of CI of 1.88 days. The quadratic and exponential models showed no variations for CI with increasing inbreeding level; however, the Michaelis-Menten model showed a positive effect of inbreeding on CI. Despite of the small number of inbred Holstein cows, the inbreeding negatively affected milk production and calving intervals. Therefore, breeders should monitor their cattle inbreeding levels. The Michaelis-Menten and exponential non-linear models are best suited to fit inbreeding data of Holstein cows.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and genetic trends and perform principal component analysis for the following traits: body weight adjusted at 210 days of age (W210), one year (W365), and yearling or 450 days of age (W450); weight gain from birth to weaning or 210 days of age (WGBW), from weaning to 365 days of age (WGW365), and from one year to yearling (WGY); and scrotal circumference adjusted at 365 (SC365) and 450 (SC450) days of age of Guzera beef cattle. Variance components were estimated under a two-trait animal model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The fixed effects included in the model were birth season, contemporary group, and covariable age of dam at calving as linear and quadratic effects. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.10 (WGY) to 0.41 (W450 and SC450). The studied traits could be used as selection criteria because of their sufficient additive genetic variability to respond to the selection process. However, lower selection efficiency is expected for WGBW and WGY. Genetic trends studied were significant for all traits, except WGY. The W365 and W450 traits belonged to the “Genetic Merit Total” index and responded to selection with favorable genetic gain per year. The traits that were not included in the selection index showed favorable positive genetic correlations attributed to the indirect selection processes. The principal component analysis identified two groups of traits. The first group related to body weight and weight gain and the second related to the scrotal circumference, indicating that selection could be applied to one group of traits within each observed group. The genetic gains were attributed in the same direction for the other traits belonging to the groups. Thus, we recommend selecting animals for W365 based on first group, and SC365 based on second.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In this study, our goal was to clarify the role of proteasomal subunit α-1 (PSMA1) in both the differentiation of preadipocytes and the accumulation of lipids in adipocytes. Preadipocytes from healthy one-day-old calves were collected, isolated, and cultured in vitro. The expression pattern of the PSMA1 gene was explored during the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes firstly. Then, the expression of the PSMA1 gene was inhibited by transfection of a chemically synthesized small interfering RNA (siRNA) before differentiation. After induction of differentiation, the mRNA levels of key regulating genes involved in preadipocyte differentiation and the lipid content of mature adipocytes with and without inhibition of PSMA1 were detected by qRT-PCR and oil red O staining, respectively. The data showed that PSMA1 mRNA was differentially expressed during the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes under normal culture conditions in vitro. The expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were significantly decreased in the transfected PSMA1-siRNA group compared with those in the control group, and the mRNA levels of the preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) were significantly upregulated in the transfected PSMA1-siRNA group compared with those in the control group. In addition, significantly fewer lipid droplets were formed by adipocytes transfected with PSMA1-siRNA than by the negative control group (adipocytes transfected with NC-siRNA). Therefore, PSMA1 plays an important role in differentiation and lipid deposition.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the roles of miRNA in the development of ovarian follicles in sows with high ovulation rate. The miRNA expression profiles in middle-size ovarian follicles between Meishan and Duroc sows were characterized by Affymetrix miRNA GeneChip. Seven differentially expressed miRNA were identified. KEGG pathways analyzed the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNA by using the DAVID website. The MAPK signaling pathway may affect the process of ovarian follicle development. Our study suggested that miR-21, miR-199a, miR-708, and miR-4334 might play a vital role in the development of ovarian follicles of sow.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) AF159246:g.2959A>G (CAST/DdeI) and AF248054.2:g.6545C>T (CAPN4751) in beef cattle by PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), using the restriction enzyme DdeI for both SNP, and describe the use of these genotyping methodologies for the first time. For the SNP located in the CAST gene, new primers were designed, and for the SNP of the CAPN1 gene, the same primers previously described in the literature were used. Bonsmara, Caracu, Senepol, Nelore, and Angus bulls were chosen from among the most used bulls in breeding programs according to their genealogy and the lowest possible degree of parentage between them to ensure an experimental sample representative of the genetic variability in each breed. For the CAST and CAPN1 genes, respectively, the following number of animals were analyzed: Bonsmara (n = 25/22), Caracu (n = 25/26), Senepol (n = 25/24), Nelore (n = 26/26), and Angus (n = 25/24). The accuracy of these methodologies was confirmed by direct sequencing of PCR products generated for the two polymorphisms. The new primers developed for CAST/DdeI SNP detection and the use of DdeI enzyme for CAPN4751 SNP detection were effective in genotyping, since no inconclusive genotypes were observed for these genes. Thus, the genotyping of beef cattle using the PCR-RFLP technique for CAST and CAPN1 genes is robust, relatively inexpensive, and easy to perform in any basic molecular biology laboratory. If the association of these markers with traits of economic interest in beef cattle is confirmed in new studies, these methodologies may contribute to the selection of animals with superior genetics, i.e., with the potential to produce better-quality meat, either by marker-assisted selection or by the inclusion of these polymorphisms in high-density marker panels.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effect of three stocking rates (2, 3.9, and 5.8 animal units ha−1) and three fertilization levels (0, 150, and 300 kg N ha−1 yr−1) on herbage mass and nutritive value of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) cv. IRI-381. The experiment was conducted from May to August of 2009 and 2010 in Itambé, PE, Brazil, during the rainy season. Treatments were allocated in a split-plot arrangement in a completely randomized block design. The variables measured included leaf mass (pre- and post-grazing), botanical composition, soil cover, leaf area index, light interception, leaf angle, and concentrations of dry matter, organic matter, N, and in vitro digestible dry matter. When fertilized with 300 kg N ha−1 yr−1, leaf mass reached 18,560 kg ha−1. Leaf area index decreased with increasing stocking rate. The relationship between sward height and light interception was R2 = 0.0126. Increased stocking rate resulted in greater contribution of signalgrass [Brachiaria decumbens (Stapf.) R.D. Webster] in the botanical composition, with a contribution up to 29% in 2010. Elephantgrass nutritive value is directly affected by the fertilization levels and stocking rate, with highest nutrient concentrations observed with 2 AU ha−1 and 300 kg N ha−1 yr−1.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate dry matter production, fermentative parameters, and nutritional value of the silage of corn intercropped with Paiaguas palisadegrass in different forage systems and maturity stages, in the off-season. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with four replications, in a 5×3 factorial arrangement consisting of five forage systems: corn monocropped; Paiaguas palisadegrass monocropped; corn intercropped with Paiaguas palisadegrass in the row, inter-row, and oversown; and three corn maturity stages (milky, soft dough, and hard dough with 80, 90, and 110 days after sowing, respectively). The results showed that the silage of corn intercropped with Paiaguas palisadegrass in the row and inter-row at the hard dough stage presented greater productivity per area and better fermentative and nutritional characteristics. They can, therefore, be recommended as suitable sowing systems for silage production. Silages produced from intercropping systems proved to be an alternative feed supply technique, allowing the intensification of production systems, maximizing nutrient production per area, in a sustainable manner.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to estimate the genetic parameters, genetic correlations, genetic dissimilarity, and predicted gains with the selection of interspecific apomictic Paspalum plicatulum × Paspalum guenoarum hybrids in relation to seed yield traits. Nineteen genotypes that showed increased forage yield in previous studies were planted in a randomized complete block design with ten blocks. Traits evaluated in this study were: number of tillers/plant, number of reproductive tillers/plant, number of racemes/inflorescence, number of seeds/inflorescence, weight of a thousand seeds, and seed yield. Data were analyzed using a mixed model approach. The genotypes evaluated in our study showed improvement potential in relation to high heritability (Ha2>0.50), high precision (Acgen> 90%), and genetic dissimilarity (forming three groups) for seed yield traits. Seed yield showed high correlation to reproductive tillers that can be used as indirect selection tools for genetic improvement of seed yield.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this paper was to investigate the availability of betaine present in fine wheat bran (FWB) in diets for growing pigs. We used thirty crossbred intact males, housed individually in metabolic cages and distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates. Blocks consisted of two periods of 15 days. Average initial body weights were 32.00±1.30 and 44.90±1.32 kg, in the first and second periods, respectively. Treatments were modified only at the level of methionine plus cysteine (Met+Cys) required and the Met+Cys sources, consisting of a negative control (NC), formulated with 80% of Met+Cys requirements, and four positive controls (PC): PCMet - NC supplemented with 1.2 g kg−1 of DL-methionine; PCBet - NC supplemented with 0.9 g kg−1 of anhydrous betaine; PCFWB - diet formulated with FWB; and PCFWB+Met - PCFWB supplemented with 1.0 g kg−1 of DL-methionine. No differences were observed on performance-related variables or on the digestibility coefficient of dry matter. Conversely, the digestibility coefficient of crude energy was lower when pigs were fed FWB and could be associated to the higher fiber content of FWB feeds. Digestible energy of feeds was higher for FWB diets, while the metabolizable energy of FWB diets did not differ from PCMet and PCBet. Nitrogen intake and apparent absorption were lower when pigs were fed FWB, but nitrogen retention, protein utilization, and biological value of the feed protein were the same among PC treatments, indicating that nitrogen from diets was used by pigs with the same efficiency, and is supported by no differences in performance-related variables. The FWB composition showed 12 g of betaine kg−1, which is available to maintain nitrogen retention and performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of groups of organic minerals with different chemical characteristics on the performance, egg quality, biometry of digestive organs, and bone quality of laying hens in the first and second laying cycles. In the first cycle, 180 layers at 72 weeks were used in a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments and five replicates with nine birds each. In the second cycle, 216 layers at 94 weeks of age were used in a CRD with four treatments and six replicates with nine birds each. Birds were fed the following diets: treatment 1 - basal diet (inorganic minerals); treatment 2 - basal diet + amino acid chelated minerals (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) + selenium yeast; treatment 3 - basal diet + mineral-amino acid complex (Mn, Zn, and Cu); and treatment 4 - basal diet + metal chelate (Mn, Zn, and Cu) + methionine hydroxy analogue. The following performance variables were evaluated: feed intake (g/bird/day), egg production (%), egg weight (g), egg mass (g/bird/day), conversion per mass (kg/kg), and conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz). In the egg, the percentages of albumen, yolk, and shell; eggshell thickness (mm); and specific gravity (g/cm3) were determined. The relative weights (%) of the proventriculus, gizzard, liver, pancreas, and intestines were also measured. Lastly, in the tibiae, the weight (g), length (mm), resistance (kgf/cm2), deformity (mm), Seedor index (mg/mm), and mineral matter content (g/kg) were measured. The variables were not influenced by the groups of organic minerals used. Groups of organic minerals with different chemical characteristics can be used in layer diets without affecting their performance, egg quality, digestive organs, or bone quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated the nutritional value of glycerin added to diets of weaned piglets and its effects on animal performance and urinary losses. Weaned piglets were individually housed in metabolic cages and fed diets in which a basal diet containing lactose (Gly0) was replaced by 50 (Gly50), 100 (Gly100), or 150 g kg−1 (Gly150) of glycerin; or a diet in which 100 g kg−1 of the lactose in the basal diet was replaced by glycerin (Gly100Lac0). Diets were offered for two periods of 12 days (phase I and phase II). Performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention (NR), and urinary production were measured. Digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) of glycerin were calculated using substitution method and compared to iso-nutritional diets formulated with or without glycerin. No significant differences on average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were found. Glycerin inclusion caused a linear increase in urinary production. Piglets fed Gly100Lac0 diet had higher urinary production, compared with piglets fed Gly0. Glycerin had no significant effects on total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) coefficients of dry matter (DM), crude protein, and gross energy (GE). Also, no significant effects were found in total tract apparent metabolizability (TTAM) coefficient of GE, NR coefficient, DE, ME, and fecal GE losses. Urinary production and GE in urine increased linearly and quadratically, respectively, with increased levels of glycerin in diets. The Gly100Lac0 diet resulted in lower DM TTAD and GE TTAM and higher GE losses in urine and feces compared with Gly0. The nutritional value of glycerin allows its inclusion at up to 100 g kg−1 in diets of weaned piglets without impairing animal performance and metabolism. Also, glycerin can replace 100 g kg−1 of lactose without impairing performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of inclusion of an enzyme complex (EC) in corn- and soybean meal-based diets for laying hens on the digestibility of nutrients and energy. A metabolism trial was conducted using 75 Dekalb Brown laying hens at 26 weeks of age, which were distributed into five treatments with five replicates in a completely randomized design. The ingredients used in the diets received an additional (enriched) 3% methionine, lysine, cysteine, threonine, tryptophan, and metabolizable energy and 33.3% phosphorus. Treatments consisted of diets including 0, 150, 200, 250, or 300 mg.kg‒1 EC. We determined apparent metabolizable energy (AME); nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn); apparent metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (DMAM), crude protein (CPAM), gross energy (GEAM), and phosphorus (PAM); digestible crude protein (CPD); and intake, retention, and excretion of phosphorus. No effects of EC levels were detected on the metabolizable energy values or digestibility coefficients, except for CPAM, which showed a quadratic response (maximum coefficient at 89.0 mg.kg‒1EC). A quadratic effect was also observed for CPD (minimum at 115 mg.kg‒1 EC), P excretion (maximum at 173.2 mg.kg‒1 EC), and P retention (maximum at 122.4 mg.kg‒1 EC) when EC was used. The use of the EC in corn- and soybean meal-based diets for laying hens improves their ileal digestibility of protein and apparent digestibility of phosphorus. However, EC addition to the diets does not affect AME, AMEn, or their metabolizability coefficients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to ascertain the influence of different dietary fiber sources and the usage of xylanase on diet of commercial layers and their influence on productive performance, egg quality, and digestive organ biometry. A total of 864 Lohmann® White hens was fed diets with three different fiber sources (wheat bran, soybean hull, or coffee husk) with or without xylanase inclusion (concentration of 160,000 BXU/g) in a 3×2 factorial arrangement, with six replicates of 24 birds each, from 25 to 44 weeks of age. There were no interactions between dietary fiber and xylanase inclusion. The enzyme supplementation did not influence any parameters evaluated. There were dietary fiber effects on body weight gain, viability, egg weight, eggshell quality, yolk pigmentation, and liver and gizzard relative weights. Wheat bran, soybean hull, and coffee husk can be used in laying hen diets without detrimental effect on productive performance. The enzyme used had no effect on the performance and eggshell quality of laying hens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate the kinetics of acute phase proteins and cytokines in the serum of immunized or naive pigs following infection with a field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Five-month-old SPF pigs were intramuscularly immunized with or without the 146S antigen (7.5 μg per head) purified from FMD virus (O/Andong/SKR/2010) and were subsequently challenged 30 days post-vaccination (dpv) with FMD virus on each footpad. Serum samples were obtained at 28 dpv and on days 1, 3, and 5 post-infection (dpi). At 28 dpv, the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were higher in the immunized pigs compared with the non-immunized control pigs. Upon challenge, the levels of all measured acute phase proteins (i.e., C-reactive protein, major acute phase protein, S-amyloid A, and haptoglobin) plateaued at 1 dpi in the immunized pigs whereas they gradually increased up to 5 dpi in the non-immunized control pigs. Levels of serum TNF-α remained higher in the immunized challenged pigs compared with the non-immunized challenged pigs. The serum concentration of interleukin (IL)-6 in the immunized challenged pigs was undetectable at all time points, but moderately increased upon challenge in the non-immunized challenged pigs. IL-1β was not detected in any of the pigs at any of the observed time points. Collectively, these findings show that the immunized pigs exhibit a rapid serum acute phase protein response following subsequent challenge with the field FMD virus compared with the non-immunized pigs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In the present study, we examined the growth parameters of Bacillus licheniformis in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and evaluated the effects of Bacillus licheniformis-fermented products on Clostridium perfringens-challenged broilers. During four and six days of SSF, the highest viable biomass was observed at 5% glucose, 10% soybean meal, 3% yeast, and 50% initial moisture content. The Bacillus licheniformis SSF products were heat- and acid-resistant. Furthermore, the fermented products were able to inhibit the growth of Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. In feeding experiments, in a similar manner to the antibiotic treatment group, dietary supplementation of Bacillus licheniformis-fermented products significantly improved intestinal morphology and necrotic lesions under Clostridium perfringens challenge, accompanied by increased IFN-γ mRNA expression in the spleen and bursa of Fabricius. These results together suggest that Bacillus licheniformis-fermented products have potential for development as feed additives and use as possible substitutes for antibiotics to treat Clostridium perfringens in the poultry industry.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objectives of this investigation were to examine the impact of the dietary inclusion of rapeseed and soybean oil and the length of their feeding before slaughter on growth performance, quantitative and qualitative carcass traits, and fatty acid composition in longissimus lumborum muscle (LLM) of pigs. The experiment was conducted with 72 pigs (36 barrows and 36 gilts), divided into six oil-containing diet groups and one control group. Diets of the experimental groups were supplemented with 4% rapeseed (ROD) or soybean (SOD) oil for six, four, and two weeks before slaughter. Diet of the control group had no oil supplement. Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at average body weight of 115.8 kg. The oil supplement and feeding duration had a significant effect on fatty acid composition in intramuscular fat of LLM. The diet with both rapeseed and soybean oil significantly increased the content of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid (ALA) in intramuscular fat. Both types of oil significantly increased total PUFA, n-3 PUFA, and the PUFA:SFA ratio. The significant decrease of n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was observed in groups fed rapeseed oil for four and six weeks. Dietary addition of oils did not have any significant effect on average daily gain, carcass traits, and physical characteristics of LLM of pigs. However, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were reduced in the groups with soybean oil supplement. The results show that rapeseed oil supplementation (two weeks before slaughter) has positive effect on n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio and increase of ALA without negative effect on meat and fat quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to measure the water disappearance in the drinker and the pattern of daily water intake and estimate the amount of water wasted in pig production. The study will also generate information about the daily behaviour of water intake of pigs in the growing and finishing phases. Sixty male pigs with an average initial weight of 44.43 kg subjected to immunocastration were used. Animals received feed and water ad libitum. The animal-performance data, temperature and humidity, and feed and water intake behaviour were collected in real time during the entire experimental period, while water volume consumed was measured daily. The average water disappearance (WD) was 7.98 L, which increased during the studied period, and 29.07% of this corresponds to the estimated water wasted. The daily WD behaviour revealed an increasing pattern throughout the day for growing and finishing periods, with the registered peak at 16:00 and 15:00 h and intake of 6.24 and 9.48 L, respectively. The time spent drinking (TSD) and number of drinker visits (NDV) also showed a peak in the afternoon: 13:00 and 17:00 h for growing and finishing phases, respectively. The TSD was 282.73 and 268.36 s, and the NDV values were 16.13 and 13.84 for growing and finishing phases, respectively. The results demonstrated an increasing pattern during the animal housing period in WD that is proportional to dry matter intake and body weight, and the water wasted represents a significant portion of WD. The daily pattern of WD, TSD, and NDV increase during the total and growing periods, presenting peak activity at 13:00 h. During the finishing phase, TSD and NDV present a pattern similar to the growing phase, but the peak occurs in the last hour of the day.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of two xylanases in the diet of meat-type quail on performance, morphology of the intestinal mucosa, metabolization of nutrients, and carcass yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized 2×3+1 factorial arrangement [two metabolisable energy reductions (70 and 140 kcal/kg), with or without the inclusion of two xylanases (A and B), plus a control treatment without xylanase), totalling seven treatments with five replicates and 42 quail each. Total excreta were collected at 28 days of age to determine the metabolisable coefficients of dry matter, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), and gross energy (GE). There was no interaction between the energetic reductions and inclusion of xylanases on performance variables of the birds. The 70 kcal/kg reduction led to better results for feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion, while the 140 kcal/kg reduction led to worse results. In terms of jejunum morphometry, there was no interaction between energy reductions and inclusion of xylanases, although xylanases increased villi height and villus:crypt ratio. There was an interaction between energy reduction and inclusion of enzymes for the metabolisability coefficients of CP, NDF, and GE, leading to improvements in these coefficients. Xylanases A and B are effective in energy-reduced corn and soybean meal diets for 15 to 35-day-old quail.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The influence of fasting and vaccination against infectious bronchitis (IB) on growth, gastrointestinal development, and morphometric parameters of the small intestine of newborn broiler breeders was investigated. Weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), gastrointestinal visceral growth, residual yolk sac, and morphometric parameters of the small intestine were measured in chicks aged up to 21 d. We showed that WG was lowest in chicks exposed to longer fasting periods (72 h), although compensatory gains with increasing age were also observed. Unvaccinated chicks performed better at seven days; however, at 21 d of age, a compensatory response led to better FCR in vaccinated birds. Allometric growth of the gastrointestinal tract was affected following longer fasting periods, but this effect occurred predominantly in younger birds (three days). Compared with non-fasted, birds fasted for 72 h had lower villus height and crypt depth along the small intestine at three days and lower villus height in the duodenum and jejunum at seven days. However, at 14 and 21 days of age, the previous changes in intestinal morphology imposed by fasting had been offset. The IB vaccine, applied in the first day of life, does not affect the allometric growth of the gastrointestinal organs, but causes momentary loss in the intestinal morphometry, which contributes to the reduction of WG at seven days. Our results suggest that long fasting periods after hatching (48 and 72 h) should be avoided in broiler breeders due to the resulting delay in gastrointestinal organ development and growth impairment up to 21 d of life.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effects of morphometric measurements on race performance (m/sec) of Thoroughbred horses. Data of morphometric measurements (withers height, rump height, chest girth, chest width, front chest width, chest depth, neck length, shoulder length, length of withers to rump, rump length, body length, head width, head length, and cannon circumference) were taken from 244 Thoroughbred horses chosen at random. A total of 2888 racing records were considered for race performance. The effects of environmental factors on morphometric measurements (stallion, gender, age, and mother age) and race performance (gender, age, mother age, year, hippodrome, race distance, racetrack, and race type) were analyzed using the least squares method. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for morphometric measurements, and then the factor loadings were rotated by Varimax method. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied for the significance of the obtained factors on race performance. Significant effects for stallion on all morphometric measurements, except head length and width, and for gender on withers height, cannon circumference, and head width were determined. Race performance was significantly influenced by stallion, gender, age, year, hippodrome, race distance, racetrack, and race type. After PCA, four factors with eigenvalues >1 were attained. The effects of factors on race performance were not significant, according to the results of multiple linear regression analysis. Therefore, the effects of the morphometric measurements examined on the race performance were not significant in Thoroughbred horses.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of including whole corn germ (WCG) on the performance; diet metabolizability; yields of carcass, cuts, and offal; and quality of meat of broilers. A total of 648 chicks were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design with six replicates, with 18 birds in each. Treatments consisted of a corn- and soybean meal-based control diet (0 g kg−1 WCG) and five test diets including WCG at the levels of 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 g kg−1. Birds and diets were weighed at each seven days to determine feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The partial collection methodology was employed to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn), and the apparent metabolizability coefficients of gross energy (AMCGE), dry matter (AMCDM), crude protein (AMCCP), and ether extract (AMCEE) of the diets. In the evaluation of meat quality, we analyzed the pH, cooking losses, shear force, water-holding capacity, color, and peroxide index of the meat. There was a difference for BWG and FCR in the total rearing period (1 to 42 days), for which optimum BWG was estimated as 2921 g/bird, with 118 g kg−1 inclusion of WCG. There was no difference for the AME, AMEn, and AMCCP of the diets, although AMCGE, AMCDM, and AMCEE declined as WCG was included. The increasing levels of WCG did not influence the yields of carcass and cuts or the meat quality. There was an increase in the yield of gizzard and proventriculus. Whole corn germ can be used at low levels in the diet of broilers without compromising their productive rates.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the trainer and the adopted daily work on the behavior and performance of horses of the Mangalarga Marchador breed on a horse farm and in racetracks in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Twenty equines and nine trainers from four farms and three competition events of the breed were observed. The experiment was divided into two stages. In the first stage, the animals were observed together with their trainer on the farm, during the daily work, and the behavior reactions were recorded based on scores. The duration of training and the behavior told by the trainer of the animal were recorded in scores. The second stage happened in three competitions of the breed in agricultural fairs. The same observations were made on horse farms, including the behavior of the animal, before and after the trial, as well as the emotional state in the same period. For data analysis, multivariate statistics were used based on the principal components and factor analysis, using the statistical software R (version 3.3.2). From the data analyzed, it was verified that the variables embouchure, behavior and voice of the presenter, and reward and incentive in the competition influenced the reactivity of the animal. Variables of human behavior in training influenced the animal behavior variables in training. The behavior of the trainer and the form of the training, as well as the fact that the trainer is the presenter, interfered in the behavior of the horses on the horse farm and in the competitions, resulting in safer animals. However, the need for time adaptation and training management is necessary for the whole man × animal relation to get better rankings in the race competitions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Curcuma longa on the growth performance, intestinal integrity, and antimicrobial activity of chicks colonized by Salmonella Typhimurium. The study included 672 one-day-old male chicks of the CobbTM lineage, which were divided into eight treatment groups with 14 birds per group and six repetitions, for a total of 48 experimental units per treatment. A randomized 4×2 factorial design scheme (C. longa levels × inoculation by Salmonella Typhimurium) was used. Chicks were orally inoculated with 1.2×104 cfu/mL of Salmonella Typhimurium in 0.5 mL of 0.85% buffered saline solution. Curcuma was added to the feed of chicks at 0, 1, 2, and 3% for 35 days. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Optimal feed conversion was observed in chicks given feed supplemented with 1% C. longa, regardless of infection, and 1% C. longa prevented intestinal colonization by Salmonella Typhimurium. Supplementation and bacterial infection influenced the histomorphometry and pH of the intestine. Bacterial infection reduced the intestinal pH, whereas C. longa supplementation increased the pH, but only in infected chicks. Thus, supplementation with 1% C. longa favors feed conversion, inhibits intestinal colonization by Salmonella Typhimurium, and does not alter intestinal integrity. In contrast, supplementation with 3% Curcuma longa decreases feed intake, affecting the performance of 35-day-old chicks.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We evaluated the technical feasibility of purified glycerin inclusion in balanced diets of broiler chickens treated from 1 to 42 days of age. A total of 240 broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design into four treatments (0, 2, 4, and 6% purified glycerin inclusion), with six replicates of 10 broilers each. We evaluated productive performance (at 7, 21, and 42 days), edible viscera (heart, liver, and gizzard), carcass yield and cuts, color, chemical and physical composition, as well as protein and fat deposition in the breast muscle. Dietary inclusion of purified glycerin reduced feed conversion and increased feed intake, weight gain, and weight at seven days. From 1 to 21 days, there was a decrease in feed conversion and a linear increase in weight gain, with no effect on feed intake. Considering the total experimental period, increasing glycerin levels increased weight gain and weight at 42 days, with no effects on feed conversion or feed intake. Similarly, there was no effect on carcass and cut yields, liver and gizzard yields, and weight or length of the intestine, while heart yield was decreased. There was a linear increase in crude protein, ether extract, protein, and fat deposition and a reduction in moisture percentages, with no effect on ash content. Purified glycerin levels did not affect a*, b*, L*, pH, temperature, shear force, or weight loss by cooking in breast meat. The dietary inclusion of purified glycerin of up to 6% proved to be technically feasible in the diets of broilers from 1 to 42 days.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and net energy (NE) levels on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, and faecal microbiota of growing-finishing pigs. Eighteen crossed barrows were randomly allocated into one of three dietary treatments: high protein + high NE diet, low protein + high NE diet, and low protein + low NE diet. The whole experiment lasted 90 days and was divided into three phases (phase I: 25-50 kg; phase II: 50-75 kg; phase III: 75-105 kg). All pigs were individually housed in a metabolism cage and subjected to four-day total faeces and urine collection period at the end of each phase. There was no significant difference in growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum total protein, and albumin concentrations of pigs among the dietary treatments. Compared with the high protein + high NE diet, pigs fed low protein + high NE and low protein + low NE diets had lower N intake, urine N, and total N excretion in each phase. At the end of the experiment, pigs fed the low protein + high NE and low protein + low NE diets had lower blood urea nitrogen, serum NH3-N concentrations, faecal pH value, faecal NH3-N concentration, and faecal Escherichia coli count than those fed the high protein + high NE diet. However, there was no significant difference in all of the above indexes between low protein + high NE and low protein + low NE diets. Decreasing the dietary protein content by 3.5 percentage units has no adverse effects on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of pigs while significantly reduces N excretion and faecal Escherichia coli count. Moreover, further decreasing dietary NE level in the low-protein diet by 0.35-0.5 MJ/kg does not affect growth performance, nutrient digestibility, N excretion, blood profiles, and faecal Escherichia coli count of pigs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed at establishing the morphological characteristics and morphometric indexes of Pêga donkeys, utilizing 47 animals, of which 22 were adults and 25 were growing donkeys. Prior to taking their measurements, the animals were restrained and made to stand squarely. The morphological data were measured, and the following morphometric indexes were determined: body index (BI), meloscopic index (MI), dactylothoracic index (DTI), weight in cannon index (WCI), conformation index (CFI), and real live weight (RLW). The experimental design was subdivided into plots and repeated in time, in which the animals represented the plot and the data collection times were the subplots. No sex effect was noted for the morphological measurements and morphometric indexes of growing donkeys. The effect of growth period was observed for all the variables. At birth, donkeys weighed around 14.86% of the weight of dams, and at six months they reached up to 40.37%. For the height taken at the withers, the animals at birth were 67.77% of the height of dams, and at six months they achieved up to 84.45%. Based on the morphometric indexes, it is suggested that adult and growing Pêga donkeys can be classified as being suited for both saddle and draft activities and possess a higher load capacity when compared with horses. A few indexes including BI, MI, and RLW need to be adjusted to be suitably used in rating the donkeys.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the hematological profile, hepatic function, and histopathology of mixed-sex broilers fed rations supplemented with microencapsulated essential oils from Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) and Lippia rotundifolia (chá-de-pedestre). One hundred and fifty Cobb chicks were housed in cages from 1 to 42 days of age in a completely randomized design, with six replicates with five chickens in each of five treatments (150 total chicks): basal diet without antibiotic growth promoter (negative control), diet with enramicina and salinomycin (positive control), diet with lemon grass essential oil, diet with L. rotundifolia essential oil, and diet with a mixture of lemon grass and L. rotundifolia essential oils. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were significantly lower in untreated broilers (negative control group). Gender was not associated with erythrogram values, but aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST) was higher in females. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was higher in chicks in the group that received rations with lemon grass oil. Broilers that received L. rotundifolia oil developed more hepatic lesions, although no effect of sex was observed related to the lesion score. Biliary hyperplasia and fibroplasias were observed in all groups, with higher histopathology scores in broilers that received diets containing L. rotundifolia oil. Mixed-sex broilers fed rations supplemented with lemon grass and L. rotundifolia essential oils have normal complete blood counts and unspecific hepatic lesions and are characterized by lipidosis, hyperplasia of the bile ducts, and fibroplasia.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of transformed Lactobacillys reuteri on intestinal pH and morphology, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and serum biochemical indexes of broiler chickens. A total of 480 broilers were assigned to six treatment groups and fed a phosphorus-adequate diet, a phosphorus-deficient diet, or a phosphorus-deficient diet containing different L. reuteri recombinants. The results showed that transformed L. reuteri decreased the pH in the duodenum and jejunum of chickens at day 21, decreased drip loss and cooking loss of muscles, and improved muscle tenderness of chickens at days 21 and 42, but did not affect carcass characteristics and only slightly decreased abdominal fat. Transformed L. reuteri also significantly increased calcium, phosphorus, and glucose levels, decreased the uric acid level of serum at day 21, and significantly increased the glucose level and decreased the triglycerides of serum on day 42. L. reuteri pLEM4159-cel/phy increased the villi height in the duodenum of chickens at days 21 and 42. The transformed L. reuteri decreased the crypt depth in the duodenum and jejunum of chickens at day 21 and also decreased the crypt depth in the ileum and increased the villi height in the duodenum at day 42. L. reuteri pLEM4158 (phy) and L. reuteri pLEM4159-cel/phy improved the villi height in the ileum at day 42. Taken together, transformed L. reuteri can improve blood calcium, phosphorus, and glucose metabolism and intestinal development in broilers, but does not affect carcass characteristics.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal dietary intake on the amino acid and fatty acid contents in eggs during the laying period. An experiment with a 2×2 factorial design was conducted with two maternal dietary intake levels (100 and 75% of dietary intake recommended by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture) and two broiler lines (fat and lean line). A total of 384 hens of fat line and 384 hens of lean line at 23 weeks of age were included in the experiment. Each line was randomly divided into two treatments (n = 192 in each treatment, with 12 replications), and each replication included 16 birds. The treatments were LN (lean line and normal maternal dietary intake, n = 192), LL (lean line and low maternal dietary intake, n = 192), FN (fat line and normal maternal dietary intake, n = 192), and FL (fat line and low maternal dietary intake, n = 192). The amino acid and fatty acid contents in eggs were tested (50 weeks of age). The fat line had higher levels of arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, methionine, and threonine in the egg albumen than the lean line. Low maternal dietary intake increased the cystine deposition in egg yolks. There were interactions between maternal dietary intake and line on the deposition of trans-oleic acid, docosanoic acid, and total fatty acid in egg yolks. Low maternal dietary intake increased the deposition of tetradecenoic and linolenic acids and the ratio of total polyunsaturated fatty acids to total saturated fatty acid in egg yolks but decreased the deposition of docosanoic acid. Maternal dietary intake and line affect the amino acid and fatty acid profiles in eggs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional and energy compositions of cottonseed meal (CM), with or without enzyme supplementation, for broilers at different ages. A total of 672 male Cobb 500 chickens were distributed into four metabolism and ileal-digestibility trials. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates. The following treatments were tested: a corn- and soybean meal-based control diet without enzymes; control diet with enzyme addition; control diet with 25% replaced by CM; and control diet with enzyme addition and 25% replaced by CM. The following variables were investigated: apparent metabolizable energy (AME); nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn); apparent metabolizability coefficients of dry matter, gross energy, phosphorus, and calcium; apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, calcium, and phosphorus; and digestible protein of CM. Enzyme supplementation did not affect the energy values of CM. The average values obtained in the pre-starter, starter, grower, and finisher phases were 2,958; 2,554; 1,676, and 1,963 kcal kg-1 for AME and 2,519; 2,282; 1,423, and 1,680 kcal kg-1 for AMEn, respectively. Enzyme addition improves the apparent digestibility coefficients of phosphorus and calcium of cottonseed meal in the grower phase. However, enzyme supplementation does not affect the ileal digestibility coefficients of these ingredients in broilers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study investigated the impacts of additional feeding (AF; containing 16% excess feed than control diet in the last two weeks of gestation) during late gestation period and different backfat thickness (BFT) including low (<20 mm) and high (≥20 mm) backfat on reproductive performance, litter size, blood metabolites, hormonal profiles, colostrum, and milk composition of sows from day 90 of gestation to farrowing, and from farrowing to weaning during summer (average 28.3 °C). Fifty-four crossbred sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) were allotted to one of four treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement. There was no AF×BFT interaction for any of the measured variables. The body weight change of sows was decreased for <20 mm in BFT and AF treatments during late gestation and farrowing to weaning periods. The BFT change of sows was higher in AF during late gestation and higher in ≥20 mm BFT during late gestation and farrowing to weaning periods. There were no effects of AF and BFT on the average daily feed intake and weaning-to-oestrus interval; however, sows in AF groups had a greater litter uniformity at birth and initial litter weight. Hormone profiles, colostrum, and milk composition of sows were not different among the treatments. Additional feeding during the last two weeks of gestation increases initial litter size in summer; however, final litter weight is not affected.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of the present research was to study the incidence of broiler carcass condemnations over eleven years and identify the productive phase that causes greater loss in slaughter process. The origin of these condemnations was determined before and after fasting. Evaluated broilers were reared in positive pressure warehouses and slaughtered between 28 and 34 days old with carcass weight ranging from 0.7 to 1.4 kg. Fasting occurred, on average, 9 h before the slaughter. Condemnation and slaughter data were collected from 2004 to 2014 in a slaughterhouse with slaughter capacity of 120,000 broilers/day. The causes of rearing condemnations were airsaccullitis, arthritis, abscess, ascites, cachexia, cellulitis, colibacillosis, dermatosis, salpingitis, hemorrhagic syndrome, and neoplasia; and the causes of pre-slaughter and slaughter condemnations were bruising, fracture, inadequate bleeding, excessive scaling, contamination, dehydration, death at the platform, disgusting appearance, and delayed evisceration. The mean values of total and partial condemnations per year, occurrence and proportion of condemnations index (OCI) for every thousand broilers slaughtered, and rates of pre and post-fasting condemnations were calculated. Condemnations rates (%) and OCI were higher after fasting; partial and total contamination stood out, with a frequency of 77% and 30%, respectively, after fasting. Long fasting, uneven lots or unbalanced equipment may cause extravasation of the gastrointestinal contents and contaminate broiler carcasses. Practices such as monitoring fasting and equipment adjustment to broiler carcass size may reduce carcass condemnation incidence.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We evaluated the effects of a protease supplementation on the growth performance and intestinal health of broilers. Cobb chicks (392; 1-42 d) were divided into four treatments (seven replicates of 14 birds each). There were two feed formulations: a standard diet (SD) and a low crude protein and digestible amino acids diet (Low CP&AA). The two diets were either supplemented (+P) or not (−P) with a protease (Jefo Protease; 1.25 g kg−1). Performance was evaluated by feeding phases (1-7, 8-21, 21-35, and 35-42 d). On day 28, ileum samples were analyzed by a morphometric index for histological alterations (I See Inside Scoring System – ISI). Broilers fed the Low CP&AA had a poor feed conversion ratio (FCR); however, the addition of the protease to the Low CP&AA positively affected FCR and body weight gain and promoted a performance similar to the group fed SD−P. Birds fed diets supplemented with the protease presented the best ISI morphological index, mainly as a result of the low number of alterations regarding the lamina propria, epithelial thickness, and enterocyte proliferation. It is possible to conclude that the enzyme improves feed conversion and lamina propria, epithelial thickness, and proliferation of enterocytes index of broiler chickens when added to a standard diet or with a low crude protein and digestible amino acids diet.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was designed to evaluate the effects of adding kefir on body measurements, giblet weight, and gut morphological patterns of geese through drinking water. A total of 54 birds were divided into three groups, each comprising 18 birds, and each group was further divided into three subgroups containing six birds each. One group served as the control group, while the other two groups were given kefir-treated drinking water at the ratios of 2.5 and 7.5%, respectively. No significant effects of kefir supplementation on body measurements, spleen weight, bursa weight, and gut morphology were observed. It is concluded that kefir may be used in poultry feed with an inclusion rate of 7.5% without imposing any adverse effect on the measurements of body structures, weights of visceral organs, and gut morphology.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the digestibility and energy of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from corn and sorghum with or without xylanase enzyme in diets for pigs. The values of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), mineral matter (MM), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), gross (GE), digestible (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), and digestibility coefficients (DC) were determined. In the experiment 1, we used eight barrows of 26.15±3.45 kg with repeated measures in three periods of five days of collection. The treatments consisted of a reference diet (RD); RD with 200 g kg−1 corn DDGS or sorghum DDGS; and RD with 400 g kg−1 corn DDGS or sorghum DDGS. Corn DDGS showed higher values of DE, ME, and DC of EE, GE, and CP. Inclusions of 400 g kg−1 of the test ingredients resulted in higher values of DE and ME and trend for higher DC of DM, OM, and CP. In experiment 2, nine barrows weighing 34.91±1.46 kg were fed RD, 200 g kg−1 corn DDGS or 200 g kg−1 corn DDGS plus xylanase enzyme. The inclusion of xylanase did not influence the digestibility and energy values in diets containing corn DDGS. Values of DE and ME of corn DDGS were 3,477 and 3,277 kcal kg−1, respectively, for the substitution of 200 g kg−1 and 3,761 and 3,068 kcal kg−1 for the substitution of 400 g kg−1 RD. For sorghum DDGS, DE and ME values were 3,030 and 2,863 kcal kg−1, respectively, for replacement of 200 g kg−1 and 3,398 and 3,296 kcal kg−1 for substitution of 400 g kg−1 RD. Levels of up to 400 g kg−1 do not influence the DE and ME of the diets but impair the digestibility coefficient of DM, OM, CP, EE, MM, and NDF. The use of xylanase enzyme in diets containing 200 g kg−1 of corn DDGS does not affect the digestibility of the diets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the participation frequency and competitive performance of Campolina and Mangalarga Marchador horses in national shows concerning marcha type, sex, and age. To that end, the trial results of national horse shows between 2007 and 2017, comprising 1,781 Campolina and 5,239 Mangalarga Marchador animals, were extracted from the databases of the breeders’ associations of each breed. The results regarding participation frequency in these events and the performance achieved by horses were grouped by breed, marcha type, sex, and age group and then subjected to frequency distribution tests. In both breeds, most animals attended only one national show. However, when the specimens were separated by marcha type, sex, and age, it was observed that 54.39% of marcha batida Campolina males competed twice, with greater participation of adult horses (41.41%) than of young ones (22.22%). For Mangalarga Marchador, irrespective of gait type, the proportion of adult horses (67.22%) that competed was higher than that of young ones (25.63%). For marcha picada competitors, the proportion between young (13.97%) and adult (81.91%) was even higher. It was concluded that, over their competitive careers, most horses of either breed attended only one national show, that marcha picada animals usually compete only when adults, and that marcha batida females compete more often when young. In addition, the age group in which competitors achieve their best performances varies according to the specimen.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of including 200 g kg −1 dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to xylanase- and protease-supplemented diets for dogs on kibble properties, digestibility, fecal characteristics, and palatability. Experimental diets consisted of: 0 g kg −1 DDGS without enzymes (0WE), 0 g kg −1 DDGS with xylanase and protease (0XP), 200 g kg −1 DDGS without enzymes (200WE), 200 g kg −1 DDGS with xylanase (200X), 200 g kg −1 DDGS with protease (200P), and 200 g kg −1 DDGS with xylanase and protease (200XP). Kibbles were evaluated for density, extruded size, expansion index, hardness, and uniformity. Six beagle dogs were distributed in a 6×6 Latin square design for analysis of digestibility and fecal characteristics. A palatability assay was also conducted in 16 beagle dogs, comparing the following treatment groups: 0WE vs. 200WE and 0XP vs. 200XP. The results showed that DDGS inclusion had no influence on kibble physical properties and reduced digestibility of dry matter (DM), ether extract after acid hydrolysis, gross energy, and organic matter, regardless of enzyme addition. Moreover, dietary addition of DDGS reduced fecal pH and increased total short-chain fatty acid, acetate, and propionate productions. Fecal odor was increased in dogs fed diets containing DDGS. Regarding palatability, animals preferred diets supplemented with enzymes and without DDGS, and no difference was observed when comparing 0WE and 200WE diets. No changes in the physical properties of kibbles were caused by DDGS inclusion; therefore, it can be used in diet formulation without interfering with the industrial process. Increased production of SCFA and a possible modulation of digestive tract microbiota promoted by DDGS addition may benefit animals. However, at the tested levels, enzymes had no positive effects on diet digestibility. Despite reducing digestibility, DDGS can still be included without enzyme supplementation in low-cost diets for dogs, as nutrient digestibility of the diet remains within acceptable limits for some pet food categories.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate sequential digestible phosphorus levels for gilts from 30 to 100 kg. Sixty gilts were used, with an initial weight of 29.98±3.37 kg and final weight of 100.66±8.82 kg, distributed in a randomized block design, with five nutritional digestible phosphorus levels: 2.19-1.88-1.68, 2.69-2.38-2.18, 3.19-2.88-2.68, 3.69-3.38-3.18, and 4.19-3.88-3.68 g kg−1, respectively, for the growth phases 30 to 50 kg, 50 to 70 kg, and 70 to 100 kg, with six replicates and two animals per pen. The nutritional plans did not influence the final weight, days to reach 100 kg, total and daily weight gain, total and daily feed intake, crude protein intake, digestible lysine intake, or metabolizable energy intake. An increase in digestible phosphorus and calcium intake was observed according to the increase in the digestible phosphorus level in the diet. There was a significant effect on feed conversion. No effect of nutritional plans was observed for backfat thickness, muscle depth, loin eye area, lean meat percentage, or carcass bonus index. There was no difference in the production of dry and natural matter or the residue coefficient. The effect of the nutritional digestible phosphorus levels in the contents of total solids and volatile solids was verified. There was a difference in the concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the manure. The nutritional plan with 3.19-2.88-2.68 and 3.69-3.38-3.18 g kg−1 of digestible phosphorus results in better feed conversion than the basal diet. For a lower excretion of phosphorus in the manure, the recommended nutritional plan is 2.19-1.88-1.68 g kg−1 of digestible phosphorus.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This experiment aimed to discover the effect of reducing dietary protein supplemented with lysine, methionine, and threonine on growth performance, volatile fatty acid profile, and intestinal villus height and crypt depth of broilers, as well as the microflora counts isolated from broiler chicken faeces. A total of 288-day-old broilers were allocated to eight treatments with six replicates consisting of 36 birds per treatment. The diets contained dietary protein from 21 to 18% in starter diet and 18 to 16% in finisher diet supplemented with L-lysine, DL-methionine, and L-threonine at the same ratio for all dietary treatments. Body weight and feed intake were determined, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. Blood, intestine, and digesta samples were collected at 21 and 42 days for further analysis. Dietary protein supplemented with amino acids improved growth performance, reduced pathogenic bacteria, and increased beneficial bacteria counts, small intestine villi height and crypt depth, and ileal-digesta volatile fatty acid concentrations of broiler chickens. However, reducing 2% of dietary protein supplemented with lysine, methionine, and threonine showed the best results, especially in growth performance, feed conversion ratio, microflora count, duodenal and jejunal villi height, and ileal-digesta volatile fatty acid concentrations, such as butyric and valeric acids. It is believed that by reducing the level of dietary protein in broiler diet while supplementing with synthetic amino acid may enhance the intestinal morphology, nutrient digestibility, and absorption in broiler chickens and will simultaneously result in better performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT An experiment was carried out to verify the response to the Ca reduction levels of diets with different vitamin D sources on performance, bone mineral deposition, serum concentrations, digestibility, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of broiler chickens in the period from 1 to 42 days reared in thermoneutral environment. A total of 504 male broilers with one day of age and average weight of 43.27±1.08 g were housed in climatic chambers and distributed in a completely randomized design. The study consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial, with four Ca reduction levels (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and two vitamin D sources (2760 IU of D3 or 25-OH-D3). The performance of animals at 21 and 42 days of age was not affected by Ca reduction by up to 30%, regardless of the vitamin source used. Dietary reduction from 10% decreased serum Ca concentrations. The use of vitamin D3 provided a serum P level greater than the 25-OH-D3. Calcium reduction decreased serum 25-OH-D3 levels. No effect of vitamin source or Ca levels on broiler carcass characteristics was observed at 42 days. The vitamin source did not influence meat quality, while Ca reduction of the diet provided lower losses by thawing and cooking and higher initial pH values. The b* color was reduced in diets with lower Ca levels of the diet. Reducing Ca up to 30% does not affect the performance and carcass characteristics, regardless of the vitamin D source used. The quality of broiler meat is improved with the Ca reduction in the diet, but the vitamin used has no effect on such characteristics. We can conclude, based on the results of performance, blood, and bone, that the performance variables are not adequate to determine the actual requirement of Ca, since as it is a priority to maintain performance, bone mineral mobilization occurs, which may compromise the carcass quality of the birds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to use different parts of the Tithonia tubaeformis plant in feed for fattening rabbits and then observe the effects on carcass and meat quality. Forty-eight weaned rabbits (35 days of age) were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 12 by treatment). Animals were fed ad libitum a control diet as well as three experimental diets, with addition of Tithonia tubaeformis leaves, whole plant, and stems. Rabbits were slaughtered after 63 days of age without fasting. Results indicate that live weight (0.917), skin (0.79), feet (6.679), and lumbar circumference of the carcass (0.707) have higher positive correlations with hot carcass. There were no significant differences between treatments for all variables measured, except for kidneys and kidney fat. pH and color values were different among treatments. The results indicate that Tithonia tubaeformis leaves or the whole plant could be added to feed for growing rabbits.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of Artemisia apiacea Hance supplementation on growth performance, cecal opportunistic bacteria, and antimicrobial defense using 120 rabbits. There were four experimental diets containing a control and A. apiacea Hance added at doses of 25, 50, and 75 g kg−1 of feed. The trial lasted for 70 days. The results showed that diets supplemented with A. apiacea Hance improved feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency. Linear and quadratic responses were found between feed intake and herbal meal doses. For cecal opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, compared with the control treatment, the herb decreased cecal C. perfringens, Gram-negative bacteria, and Salmonella spp. by 9.5 to 56.8%. Linear responses of herb doses were found on the four bacteria and a quadratic response on Salmonella spp. In addition, the herb increased the mRNA levels by 12.6 to 57.8% of cecal defensive peptides, including neutrophil peptide defensing-3a, regenerating family member-3 gamma defensin beta-1, and galectin-4. These genes linearly responded to the herb doses. The obtained data suggest that A. apiacea Hance is effective to improve animal growth by beneficially regulating gut opportunistic bacteria and microbicidal peptide activity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of canola and coconut oils to diets of European quail (Coturnix coturnix) over performance and carcass yield. One hundred and ninety-two quail (eight-days old) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments with six replicates of eight birds each. The treatments were arranged in a factorial 2×2 scheme with two sources of dietary oil containing two levels of canola and coconut oils (1 and 2%). For performance variables, the final weight was evaluated, and the carcass variables were feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion. A significant difference was observed between treatments for feed intake, with the inclusion of 2% canola oil providing higher intake. There was also significant effect for carcass characteristics on weight at fasting, eviscerated carcass, liver and gizzard weights, as well as liver, heart, and gizzard yields. The inclusion of vegetable oil such as canola and coconut oils in diets for European quail at the levels of 1 and 2% can be performed with no negative effect on performance from 8 to 42 days of age.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with 500 Ross 308 broiler chickens to investigate the effect of three different sources of selenium on performance and characteristics of immune system. Chickens were arranged in 10 treatments and five repetitions (10 chickens for each repetition). Ten treatments of experimental diet were considered in the study, including a basal diet (control); 0.5, 0.8, and 1.2 mg nano-selenium + basal diet (three treatments); 0.5, 0.8, 1.2 mg selenomethionine + basal diet; and 65, 80, and 100 mg vitamin E + selenium + basal diet. Findings suggested that adding selenomethionine (1.2 mg) to the basal diet resulted in a significant effect on feed conversion ratio and weight of broilers. In fact, weight and bursa of Fabricius were significantly under influence of the diets containing nano-selenium. Moreover, a significant difference was observed in the antibodies produced against Newcastle and influenza as well as the total immunoglobin and IgG produced against sheep red blood cell at two stages in the group treated with nanoselenium. Finally, results indicated that nano-selenium can better improve performance and immune system of broilers compared with diets containing selenomethionine and vitamin E.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We evaluated the effect of some environmental factors on age at first lambing (AFL) and lambing to conception interval (LCI) of Pelibuey ewes under the humid tropical conditions of Mexico. Ewes grazed on Tanzania (Panicum maximum), Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon), and Brachiaria grass (Brachiaria humidicola) and received hay in the corral in the months of grass scarcity. Reproduction was continuous during the year. Data of 839 lambings from 334 ewes registered from 2009 to 2017 were analyzed using survival analysis procedures. The statistical model for AFL included the effects of year, season, and litter size at lambing, whereas that for LCI included year and season plus parity number of ewe and litter size at weaning. The overall means ± SD for AFL and LCI were 551.6±144.8 and 145.4±113.1 days, and their medians were 510 and 98 days, respectively. Only year of lambing had a significant effect on AFL, whereas LCI was affected by year, parity number, and litter size at lambing (P<0.05). Both AFL and LCI means did not show any trend with advancing years. The largest AFL and LCI means and medians corresponded to the first-parity ewes. In addition, single birth ewes had the longest LCI means and median. Therefore, year of lambing affects AFL, whereas year of lambing, parity number, and litter size at weaning affect LCI of Pelibuey ewes, indicating that these factors should be considered in the development of sound strategies to improve sheep production.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to study the effect of immunocastration on the morphometric characteristics of sex glands in male Swallow-bellied Mangalitsa pigs. The study included 24 animals (13 entire and 11 immunocastrated males). The research focused on the following traits: age at slaughter (days), live weight at slaughter (kg), growth rate (kg day−1), and morphometric testicle traits (volume, cm3; weight, g; length, width, thickness, and circumference, mm). The efficacy of immunocastration was determined based on androstenone and skatole levels in adipose tissue. The group of immunocastrated animals had higher body weight at slaughter (+18.8 kg) due to higher average daily live gain (+87 g). Immunocastration resulted in reduced morphometric measures of testes. The volumes and weight of testes/epididymes were reduced by 28.9-54.4 and 32.1-53.3%, respectively. Testis length and other size-related traits were significantly reduced by 17.4-27.6%. The linear regression effect of live body weight at slaughter within the immunocastrated group on testis measurements was not significant. Within the entire group of males, the increase of live body weight at slaughter by 1 kg had an effect on the increase of volume and weight of testes/epididymes by 0.55-2.24 cm3 and 0.52-2.28 g, respectively. Other size-related testis traits increased by 0.04-0.55 mm for each kg of body weight. Immunocastration also resulted in 79.6% decrease in the weight of accessory sex glands. The present study is the first to demonstrate that immunocastration could be a method of choice for castration of the local fatty pig breed, Mangulica (Swallow-bellied Mangalitsa).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effect of the addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to in vitro culture on viability, lipid content, and cryoresistance of bovine embryos at different in vitro culture times. Cumulus oocyte complexes (N = 974) were maturated in vitro for 22 h. In vitro fecundation ensued for 18 h. Viable zygotes were cultivated in vitro in medium supplemented with CLA (100 mM) in the first 72 h (CLA-F), last 72 h (CLA-L), or throughout the culture period (CLA-T). Control embryos (control) were cultivated with no CLA. Embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification for subsequent analysis after devitrification. Effect of CLA on cryoresistance was assessed by cultivating embryos in synthetic oviductal fluid containing 5% fetal bovine serum. Lipid content was quantified using Nile Red staining. No significant difference was observed in cleavage rate, blastocyst:total oocyte ratio, and blastocyst:cleaved oocyte ratio. Culture in CLA-L reduced survival rate 24 h after devitrification compared with CLA-F and CLA-T, although with no statistically significant difference compared with control group. However, CLA-T improved embryo hatching rate and affected lipid content of embryos. Cultures CLA-F and CLA-L increased lipid content compared with control. Yet, lipid content values decreased in embryos treated with CLA-T, but they did not differ significantly from the values observed for oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. Treatment of bovine embryos with CLA during in vitro cultivation did not affect the production of blastocysts, reducing lipid content and improving cryoresistance. However, the effects of CLA on cryoresistance and lipid content is significant only when embryos are exposed to the compound throughout the cultivation period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of ewes subjected to a short-term protocol for estrus induction using 1 mg of Norgestomet during the non-breeding season in Brazil. A total of 84 ewes were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 42 per group). Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) containing 330 mg progesterone was inserted into the vagina in the first 42 ewes, and for the other 42 ewes in the second group, 1 mg of Norgestomet was placed subcutaneously in the convex surface of the ear. Implants and devices were removed in both groups on day 6. Following the removal of implants and devices, 10 mg of PGF2α and 300 IU of eCG were injected in all the ewes. After 48 h of application, three fertile rams were added to the herd. Ewes and rams were kept together for four days. Rams were removed on day 12, and after 42 days, pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound scanning. Short-term protocols using either an intravaginal device or ear implant were similarly effective to estrus induction (95.23 vs. 92.85%), and all ewes from both groups had estrus manifestation within 72 h after implant removal (72±9 h). In addition, no significant difference in pregnancy rate was observed between ewes treated with the intravaginal device and ear implant protocols (52.38 vs. 57.14%). These results suggest that 1 mg of Norgestomet is a good alternative for short-term protocols for estrus induction/synchronization during the non-breeding season in ewes. It is possible to replace the progesterone-releasing intravaginal device by the ear implant and obtain the same reproductive effectiveness in ewes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Since few studies have addressed the embryonic development of Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), the objective of the present study was to evaluate its embryonic development in the Cerrado region of Brazil and compare the results to published descriptions of the embryonic development of other domestic bird species. The commercialized weight for Guinea fowl eggs used in the experiment was found to be 37.57 g, while egg fertility was 92%. Embryo growth rate (%) was higher on the sixth day of incubation relative to other days. The heart began beating on the third day of development, while eye pigmentation and upper and lower limb buds appeared on the sixth day. The yolk sac was incorporated on the 24th day followed by chick external pipping and hatching on the 28th day. Comparisons revealed that the embryonic development of Guinea fowl exhibits both similarities to, and differences from, the embryonic development of other domestic birds. From three days of embryonic development, differences were observed among the compared species. Despite the same incubation period, Guinea fowl embryos develop faster than turkeys. All species begin internal pecking two days before hatching and internal pecking 24 h before hatching.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of environment on follicular diameter and repeatability of the size of preovulatory follicles of mares. Temperature, rainfall, and photoperiod were measured, and their effects were evaluated on follicular dynamics. Data were studied by analysis of variance of follicular size and environment traits. During the five years, 7% double ovulations and 159 anovulatory follicles were recorded. Mean preovulatory follicle diameters of left and right ovaries were 39.3±3.8 and 39.2±3.5 mm respectively. There was no effect of evaluation year on follicular diameter. Reproduction season affected the right preovulatory follicle diameter. There was no effect of temperature and rainfall on follicular diameter. Repeatability values of the preovulatory follicular diameter were low. In the subtropical climate studied, temperature and rainfall caused no effect on follicular dynamics, and photoperiod had only a small effect on dominant preovulatory follicular diameter. Repeatability of follicular diameter was low, so this characteristic should be evaluated daily to predict ovulation and the optimal time to inseminate mares.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study analyzed the adenosine concentration on quality of ram semen in different refrigerated storage times at 5 °C. The design was in blocks with repeated-measures factorial design. Five levels of adenosine and four refrigeration times were considered as fixed effects and the animal as random effect (block). Ram semen was diluted with Andromed® diluent (control) and increasing adenosine levels (0.5, 0.75, 1, and 1.5%). The samples were taken from refrigeration after 4, 8, 12, and 16 h and evaluated for progressive rectilinear sperm motility, sperm vigor, and membrane integrity (supravital test). Data were subjected to analysis of variance with Tukey's test. The regression analysis was conducted to evaluate behavior of adenosine levels. Factor interaction for rectilinear progressive motile variable was verified. There was a quadratic effect of progressive rectilinear motility in function of adenosine levels for each cooled storage time studied, with recommended maximum adenosine concentration of 0.81 and 1.04% at 4 and 8 h, respectively. Adenosine also promoted a protective effect on the membrane integrity. Adenosine added to the diluent increases sperm motility and vigor and protects the sperm membrane integrity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Fifty-seven multiparous Awassi ewes in the breeding season were used to compare the effects of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) reuse on hormone profiles, reproductive performance, and economic production. Ewes were randomly allotted to one of three CIDR treatments: new (control), once-used, and twice-used; treatment lasted 12 days. Blood samples were collected from all groups at the time of CIDR insertion, three and six days following insertion, at withdrawal time, and at insemination. Serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured. Timed insemination was performed 48 h post CIDR withdrawal in all groups. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at day 23 post insemination. No significant differences were detected among groups in pregnancy rate/ewes in heat, twinning rate, fecundity, abortion rate, and prolificacy. However, estrus detection rate was significantly higher in control (100%) than in other groups. The P4 concentration was significantly higher in control than in other groups during treatment period; at insemination, P4 concentration was significantly higher in control than in other groups; at insemination time, E2 concentration was significantly higher in control than in the other groups; and the net profit was higher in once-used than in other groups. One-time reuse of CIDR for the long term (12 days) can synchronize estrus in ewes efficiently with higher net profit than the new or twice-used CIDR.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a blend of additives (choline, methionine, selenium, and organic zinc) on performance, feed efficiency, rumen parameters, and carcass traits of Nellore heifers finished with roughage-free diet. Nellore heifers (n = 36; average BW = 244±24.1 kg; average 24 months of age) were maintained in a feedlot system for 86 d. Heifers were separated into two groups: control and additive. Heifers in control group were fed a based diet composed of 850 g kg−1 corn grain and 150 g kg−1 of a mineral-vitamin-protein pellet. The additive group was fed a diet supplemented with a blend of choline, methionine, selenium, and organic zinc at 1,667, 4,000, 1, and 24.37 mg kg−1 of the diet dry matter, respectively. The animals were allotted to 18 pens (two heifers/pen), with nine pens per treatment. Heifers were weighed, blood samples were collected, ultrasonography examinations were performed periodically, and hot carcass and papillae samples were taken at slaughter. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design. The model included the fixed effect of treatments (control and additive). Additive supplementation did not change dry matter intake, performance, or feed efficiency. There was no effect of additives on muscle or fat tissue deposition. Consequently, no changes in hot carcass weight and dressing were found. Overall, additive inclusion did not alter blood parameters, blood electrolyte balance, and rumen traits. Nellore heifers finished with roughage-free diets have no improvement on production traits nor in their rumen health by supplementation with a blend of choline, methionine, selenium, and organic zinc.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of quantitative feed restriction level on nutrient intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance, efficiency and feeding behavior, and productive performance of F1 Holstein × Zebu cows in late lactation. Sixty F1 Holstein × Zebu cows were used at the stage of late lactation (183.0±17.5 days of lactation) and with initial body weight (BW) of 499±30 kg. The experimental arrangement adopted was the completely randomized design, with five feed restriction levels (3.39, 2.75, 2.50, 2.25, and 2.00% of BW) and twelve cows as replicates for each treatment. The roughage:concentrate ratio was of 75:25 in the total dry matter of the diet. The restriction of dietary supply from 3.39 to 2.0% of BW linearly reduced dry matter intake by 51.74%. The restriction in diet supply linearly increased dry matter digestibility in 13.76%. For each 1% BW restriction in the diet supply for the animals, there was a linear reduction of 3 h in feeding time. Restriction in diet supply of crossbred cows from 3.39 to 2.0% of BW reduced milk production by 24.84%. For each 1% restriction on supply, 2.17 L of milk were not produced. Milk production corrected to 3.5% fat was not altered with the feed restriction. Final BW decreased 41 kg for each percentage unit of diet restriction. Feed efficiency increased 28.72% with feed restriction. For F1 Holstein × Zebu cows in the late lactation, the restriction of dietary supply up to 2.0% of body weight decreases nutrient intake, nitrogen balance, rumination time, and milk production; however, it improves nutrient digestibility and feed efficiency of the animals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated lairage time effects on carcass and meat quality traits of Hereford steers. Thirty Hereford steers fed on pasture were assigned to two treatments according to lairage time: 3 h (n = 15) and 12 h (n = 15). Individual temperament was assessed using crush score and flight speed. pH decline, glycogen content, meat color, and shear force were measured. pH was not different between treatments at any time point, showing a normal decline rate. Meat color and shear force did not differ between treatments, but muscle glycogen was lower in treatment with 3 h, not enough to affect quality but suggesting a higher level of stress in 3 h lairage time. Temperament did not have any impact on carcass and meat quality traits. No differences were found in pH, color, and tenderness between treatments, but the lower muscle glycogen concentrations for the shorter lairage suggest a higher risk regarding meat quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the performance and ingestive behavior of growing goats grazing on Tanzania guinea grass and fed diets containing 40% carnauba or tucum fruits. Twenty-one male castrated goats were distributed into three groups, one exclusively on pasture and the other two on pasture and fed diet supplemented at the level of 1.5% body weight (BW) in a completely randomized design. The intake of the supplements was obtained by difference between the amount supplied and the leftovers, with weighing performed every seven days, while pasture intake was determined using titanium dioxide (TiO2) as external indicator. Ingestive behavior was evaluated for three days. The supplement containing carnauba fruit resulted in a greater intake of neutral detergent fiber (0.137 kg NDF/day), with a reduction of 8.61% in the pasture dry matter (DM) intake of goats. Associated with the intake of pasture nutrients, the tucum fruit diet met the protein (0.103 kg CP/day) and energetic (0.547 kg TDN/day) requirements of goats with intake set at 0.124 kg CP/day and 0.572 kg TDN/day, with higher weight gain (0.111 kg/day) and larger loin eye area (12.76 cm2). The supplementation with fruits influenced the grazing behavior of goats, increasing the idle time by 1 h in relation to animals not supplemented. The supplementation of growing goats grazing on Tanzania guinea grass pasture with a diet containing 40% tucum fruit, in the proportion of 1.5% BW, did not meet the nutritional requirements for gain of 150 g/day; however, it met requirements for maintenance and average gain of 111 g/day. Energy supplementation reduces the grazing time of goats; thus, it is necessary to consider the level and formulation of supplements, with the possibility of increasing the stocking rate and productivity per unit area.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We evaluated performance, non-carcass components, and carcass characteristics of crossbred Texel lambs in different categories of residual intake and gain (RIG). We assessed 77 crossbred (¼ Pantaneira and ¾ Texel) non-castrated animals in two study phases. The first phase included 47 lambs with an initial average weight of 29.9±5.5 kg, and the second phase included 30 lambs with initial average weight of 22.4±3.3 kg. Dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were evaluated for 70 days. Animals were divided into three groups in terms of efficiency: efficient (high RIG), intermediate (medium RIG), or inefficient (low RIG), based on the standard deviation of the mean for the RIG variable. We measured the yield of non-carcass components, carcass characteristics, and yield of meat cuts. Efficiency group had no association with DMI, nor with initial and final body weights of the animals. The ADG of efficient (0.310 kg day−1) and intermediate (0.290 kg day−1) animals was greater than observed in inefficient (0.260 kg day−1) animals. Lambs in the efficient and intermediate groups had significantly higher levels of all efficiency indicators evaluated. Efficient and intermediate animals yielded significantly more wool/skin in comparison with lambs in the inefficient group. Animals with high RIG also had lower relative weight of testicles/scrotal sac in comparison with inefficient animals. Fat deposition in the omentum and mesentery as well as total fat were decreased in efficient animals. No significant differences occurred among groups regarding carcass characteristics and yield of meat cuts. The RIG index allows for the identification of lambs with higher growth rates and greater wool/skin yield and lower proportion of visceral fat.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This research was conducted to investigate the effect of live and inactive sugarcane yeast on beef cattle voluntary intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations, and ruminal ammonia. Five rumen-cannulated Nellore heifers were distributed in a 5×5 Latin square design, with five experimental periods of 15 days, with seven days for adaptation to the additives and the remaining days for data records and sampling. Total mixed ration (TMR) was composed by corn silage (20%) and concentrate (80%) based on corn and soybean meal. Five treatments were evaluated: without additive use (negative control; NC); chemical buffer addition – 0.71% in concentrate DM of sodium bicarbonate and 0.18% of magnesium oxide (positive control, PC); 10 g/day live yeast (LY); 15 g/day of inactive yeast (IY15); and 30 g/day of inactive yeast (IY30). Sugarcane yeasts were directly infused in rumen immediately after morning and afternoon feed supply. Feed additives did not affect voluntary intake, nutrient digestibility, and sorting behavior of animals. However, heifers from all treatments presented preferential intake of fibrous fraction of diet, especially those from NC and IY15. Nitrogen balance, VFA concentrations, and blood parameters were not influenced as well. Sodium bicarbonate and magnesium oxide led to greater ruminal pH than yeast, and IY15 presented greater pH than IY30. Ruminal ammonia was increased by the use of additives. Active and inactive yeasts are not recommended as feed additives for bovines fed diets with 80% of concentrate since it allows animals to select fibrous particles from TMR, and no representative gain in ruminal parameters and digestibilities are guaranteed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the addition of antibiotic growth promoters to free-choice mineral supplement on ingestive behavior, mineral intake, and growth performance of grazing bulls. Sixty Nellore bulls [initial body weight (BW) of 219±17.8 kg and 15±2 months of age] were divided in 12 marandu grass paddocks. The treatments were: mineral supplement (control), mineral supplement + virginiamycin (VIRG), mineral supplement + lasalocid sodium (LASA) and mineral supplement + salinomycin sodium (SALI). Mineral supplements were formulated with target intake of 60 g d−1 and the growth promoters of 75 mg 100 kg−1 of BW. The experimental design was the completely randomized blocks. There was no treatment effect on ingestive behavior or mineral intake; however, the active ingredient intake differed between treatments. In the last experimental period, the intake of active ingredient LASA and SALI were higher than VIRG (0.66, 0.54, and 0.39 mg kg−1 of BW, respectively). Treatments also did not affect BW and average daily gain, which were 0.63, 0.60, 0.64, and 0.62 kg d−1 for control, VIRG, LASA, and SALI, respectively. Free-choice mineral supplementation intake by bulls has a high variability, and this impairs the regulation of the intake of antibiotic growth promoter additives. Therefore, the addition of antibiotic growth promoters to the mineral supplement does not affect ingestive behavior, mineral intake, and growth performance of grazing bulls.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with dehydrated guava (Psidium guajava L.) byproduct, at concentrations of 0.0, 8.2, 16.4, and 24.6% on the intake and digestibility of nutrients as well as on productive and economic performance of lambs. The study included 40 uncastrated feedlot Santa Inês sheep with an average age of 120 days and an average initial weight of 17.4±1.27 kg, distributed in individual stalls in a completely randomized design with four treatments and 10 replicates. Santa Inês sheep fed diets containing higher levels (16.4%) of guava byproduct showed lower weight gain and feed conversion and reached slaughter weight later. Replacing corn with guava byproduct at higher levels increased acid detergent fiber and reduced non-fiber carbohydrate intake and nutrient digestibility. The inclusion of up to 16.4% of guava byproduct in the diet of feedlot sheep is appropriate for maintaining good performance and economic viability of the system.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate milk production and ingestive behavior of Holstein cows and the structural characteristics of Mulato II, a hybrid Brachiaria grass CIAT 36087 (B. ruziziensis × B. decumbens × B. brizantha), and Marandu (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu) pastures under rotational stocking. The experiment was conducted from December 2011 to April 2012 after 10 months of adaptation to the grazing management objectives (25 cm pre-grazing height and 15-20 cm post-grazing height). An area of 4 ha was divided into 28 paddocks: 14 with Mulato II pasture and 14 with Marandu pasture. The treatments consisted of the two grasses and a completely randomized design of the grazing variables with six repetitions each (paddock of evaluation) was used. For the animal variables, a randomized matched pairs design of 20 Holstein cows forming 10 blocks of two animals with similar production each was used. The forage mass or accumulation rate did not differ between grasses. Mulato II pastures had a higher tiller population density (822 tillers m−2) and crude protein content (143.5 g kg−1) than Marandu pastures (636 tillers m−2 and 130.3 g kg−1 crude protein). Cows kept on Mulato II exhibited shorter nighttime grazing activity (234 and 246 min in summer and autumn, respectively) than animals kept on Marandu (273 and 394 min, respectively). The average milk yield during the experimental period was higher for Mulato II (15.3 kg cow−1 day−1) compared with Marandu (14.3 kg cow−1 day−1). Both grasses have potential to be used in milk production systems for the grazing management objectives evaluated.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding ground soybeans and antioxidants to diet of buffaloes on intake, ruminal microbial production, total and ruminal digestibility of nutrients, and ruminal fermentation parameters. Four crossbred buffaloes with a mean weight of 506±29 kg were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square. Four diets were tested: control; diet with ground soybeans; diet with ground soybeans and supplementation with yerba mate; and diet with ground soybeans and supplementation with yerba mate and vitamin E. The addition of ground soybeans had negative effects on intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber, as well as ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and total carbohydrates but did not influence total digestibility of nutrients. Yet, the ground soybeans diet increased the concentration of butyrate and microbial production in the rumen. The diet with ground soybeans supplemented with yerba mate decreased the concentration of acetate and increased the concentration of propionate and increased the efficiency of synthesis and the production of microbial protein in the rumen. There was a positive additive effect of vitamin E in the presence of yerba mate, enhancing the synthesis and production efficiency of microbial protein. Thus, the addition of ground soybeans and antioxidants to diet of buffaloes improves the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and increases the production of butyrate, without, in general, altering the total digestibility of nutrients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the productivity and carcass traits of unweaned Suffolk lambs finished on pasture and subjected to three strategies for endoparasite control: prophylactic treatment of all animals every 28 days; treatment of animals with a cut off number of nematode fecal egg count (FEC) ≥ 700; and treatment of animals using the FAMACHA scores ≥ 3. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and FEC were evaluated every 14 days for 112 days. Body condition scores and carcass characteristics were assessed before and after slaughter, respectively. Animal productivity was calculated based on animal stocking rate, ADG, and weight variation per area. Animal productivity, pasture, and carcass characteristics did not differ among strategies of parasite control. Parasite control strategies did not affect the productivity of lambs on pasture or carcass characteristics. Thus, the use of selective treatments can be considered advantageous due to decreased selection pressure for resistant parasite populations and lower use of drugs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate, through a meta-analysis, the effects of feeding systems and tocopherol levels found in the diet of lambs on qualitative characteristics of their meat. A search of the computerised literature in Science Direct databases, PubMed, Scopus, and SciELO virtual library was carried out to select works that evaluated the quality of lamb meat. As a first requirement for inclusion in the meta-analysis, articles were selected with the keywords “tocopherol”, “meat”, and “lamb”. The variables extracted from the articles were classified according to the type of feeding system and tocopherol level in the diet of lambs. Production systems alter the qualitative characteristics of meat. Lambs raised exclusively on pasture present a higher tocopherol concentration in their meat, a lower omega 6:omega 3 ratio, a lower omega 6 concentration, and a higher conjugated linoleic acid concentration. Regardless of the dietary systems, when we classify the tocopherol levels of lamb diet, the tocopherol concentration and fatty acid level are altered by tocopherol levels in the diet. The lower tocopherol level in the diet results in meat with lower tocopherol concentration and with greater propensity to lipid oxidation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We evaluated blood parameters of Angus and Nellore bulls fed diets with and without forage. Forty animals with initial body weight (BW) of 380±16.2 kg were housed in individual stalls. Eight bulls of each breed were fed a whole shelled corn (WSC) diet [850 g kg−1 of WCS and 150 g kg−1 of a pellet based on soybean meal, dry mater (DM) basis] or a ground corn with silage (GC) diet (300 g kg−1 of silage and 700 g kg−1 of a concentrate based on corn and soybean meal, DM basis), ad libitum, and four animals of each breed were limited-fed the GC diet [feed restriction (FR), 55% of the DM intake of bulls fed ad libitum, adjusted for the metabolic BW]. Intake was measured daily, and a metabolism trial was conducted with total collection of feces and urine to estimate the ruminally degraded and undegraded protein (intake and nitrogen balance). Blood samples for determination of hormones and metabolites were collected. The data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS adopting a significance level of 0.05. The diet affected only the serum concentrations of triglycerides, HDL, and VLDL, with limited-fed animals presenting smaller concentrations than ad libitum-fed bulls. No difference in blood parameters was observed between animals fed WSC or GC diets. Nellore bulls presented greater T4, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and serum urea nitrogen concentrations than Angus. Feeding finishing beef cattle with no-roughage diets does not alter their blood parameters. Also, our results support that Zebu cattle might have lower serum removal of nutrients due to a lesser demand for fat and protein deposition than Bos taurus taurus.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of housing density on ingestive behavior of male Santa Inês sheep housed individually and in double. Forty non-castrated males were used with an average initial weight of 21.33±2.62 kg and an average age of 120 days. The males were housed in two types of covered stalls: double stalls (two males/stall) of 3.0 m2 and individual stalls of 1.50 m2. Animals housed in individual stalls spent more time ruminating and less time eating than those in double stalls. These animals also spent more time in idleness. Sheep idled approximately 11.43 hours/day (47% of the time), which can be explained by the shorter time spent in rumination, considering that the diet used in this experiment had adequate nutritional quality. The animals in double stalls consumed more water, which resulted in increased urination. However, this activity did not interfere with total weight gain. Therefore, experiments testing stall density does not interfere with the performance of the animals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant and beet pulp (BP) on the quality of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) residue silage. Yacon silage was prepared using a small-scale system of silage fermentation, and the treatments were as follows: control silage without any additive and silages with LAB inoculant Chikuso-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum, 5 mg/kg, fresh matter basis), BP (30% fresh matter basis), and LAB+BP. Silages were opened on days 3, 5, 7, 15, 30, and 60 of fermentation. The chemical composition, organic acid content, and in vitro ruminal digestion of the 60-day silage were determined. The pH of LAB-treated silage was lower than that of the silage without LAB. Furthermore, the LAB-treated silage presented the lowest ammonia-N concentration among the four types of silages, and it inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria including molds and clostridia during the early stages of fermentation. The BP-treated silage had lower contents of crude protein and ether extract than the silage without BP. The 60-day silage inoculated with LAB had the highest in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility among the four silages, and the production of methane was lower than that of the silage treated with BP. The pH showed a tendency toward stabilization after 30 days of fermentation, although the concentration of lactic acid exhibited fluctuations during fermentation. The results suggest that the addition of LAB and BP can improve the fermentation quality of yacon silage, and the yacon silage with LAB might increase in vitro DM digestibility, but decrease in vitro ruminal methane production.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the method and dose of cyclophosphamide (CPA) administration on cashmere shedding. Thirty-two castrated Liaoning cashmere goats were randomly allotted to four groups, with eight replicates in each group. Goats in the four groups were injected intravenously or intramuscularly with CPA at doses of 20 or 25 mg kg−1 body weight (BW), respectively. Feed intake and BW were recorded, and erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content, and cashmere weight were determined. It was found that the CPA administration method had no significant effect on feed intake or BW of cashmere goats. Cyclophosphamide injection can significantly decrease the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content of cashmere goats, but the effects are dependent on injection method and CPA dose. The injection method and dose did not significantly influence cashmere weight, but the method had significant effects on time to initiate shedding and regrown hair length. Regrown hair was longest by intramuscular injection with 20 mg kg−1 BW, which also caused the least erythema on the epidermis during the days after shedding. The results indicate that the CPA administration method can significantly influence cashmere shedding. Intramuscular injection of CPA at a dose of 20 mg kg−1 BW was found to be relatively beneficial for hair removal and regrowth in cashmere goats.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the milk fatty acid (FA) composition of unsupplemented dairy cows grazing on elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Pioneiro) pastures under three grazing management strategies: pre-grazing height of 120 cm with defoliation intensities of 50 and 70% of the initial height (treatments 120/50 and 120/70) and pre-grazing height of 90 cm with defoliation intensity of 70% (treatment 90/70). Treatments were repeated three times in a complete randomized block design. Tester animals were six multiparous Holsteins cows grouped into pairs according to days in milk and milk yield and allocated to blocks. Individual milk samples were collected after the first and second days of grazing (two-day occupation period) and analyzed for FA composition. Milk fat from 120/50 and 90/70 treatments resulted in higher concentrations of C4:0, C6:0, C17:0 anteiso, rumenic acid (RA), vacenic acid (VA), trans-12 C18:1, trans-13/14 C18:1, cis-11 C18:1, cis-12 C18:1, cis-9, trans-12 C18:2, trans-11, cis-15 C18:2, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids. Additionally, both SCD14 (cis-9 14:1/14:0 + cis-9 14:1) and SCDRA (RA/VA + RA) desaturase indices were reduced in milk fat from cows subjected to 120/50 and 90/70 treatments. On average, the milk fat levels of RA and VA observed in our study were greater than those reported in most studies with tropical grass-based diets and similar to levels usually found in cows grazing on temperate pastures. Overall, our results showed that milk with a desirable fatty acid composition is produced by cows grazing on a tropical grass (elephantgrass cv. Pioneiro), with the combination of a pre-grazing height of 120 cm and a defoliation intensity of 50% of the initial height, being a practical management strategy to achieve this goal.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate passive immunity transfer, health, performance, and metabolism of Holstein calves fed colostrum supplement associated with medium-quality colostrum. After birth, calves were blocked according to birth weight and date and distributed into the following treatments: high-quality colostrum (> 50 mg of Ig/mL; n = 15; 150 g kg−1 BW; positive control group); medium-quality colostrum (30-40 mg of Ig/mL; n = 14; 150 g kg−1 BW), and medium-quality colostrum (30-40 mg of Ig/mL; n = 15; 150 g kg−1 BW) + colostrum supplement (15 mL) given with the colostrum. Colostrum was given within the first 12 h of life in two meals by nipple bottle, and colostrum replacer was administered by a blister syringe. Blood samples were taken every 12 h up to 48 h of life for total serum protein (TSP) evaluation. After colostrum feeding, calves were fed 4 L of transition milking, split in two meals for a period of one to four days and received milk replacer thereafter. Calves were individually housed, with free access to water and concentrate and bucket-fed 6 L/d of milk replacer up to the sixth week of life, when they received 4 L/d until weaning, with eight weeks. Colostrum feeding protocol affected the TSP concentration in the first 48 h of life, while the concentrations of albumin, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, γ-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase were not affected. During the milk-feeding period, the concentrate and total dry matter intake were not affected by the colostrum protocol, but increased as animals aged. Colostrum-feeding protocol did not affect performance or health of calves. Feeding colostrum supplement associated with medium-quality colostrum had no effect on passive immune transfer, performance, nor on the metabolism during the liquid-feeding phase.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of pea and sunflower cake as partial replacement for soybean meal in diet, as well as to assess their effect on milk quality during lactation and on blood parameters of ewes kept in organic farming. The research was carried out with 30 ewes of Merinolandschaf breed during 75 days. Ewes were given mixtures based on soybean meal as a protein source in control group (SBM), while in experimental groups, soybean meal was partially replaced with pea grain (P) and sunflower cake (SFC). Biochemical parameters (urea, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulins, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, β-hydroxybutyrate, and non-esterified fatty acids), as well as enzyme activity (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, and CK) were determined in blood of ewes. Milk composition and concentration of fatty acids in milk fat were also determined. In comparison with control, sunflower cake as a protein source affected the increase of fat content in milk. When compared with pea grain and SBM, it decreased the urea concentration in milk. Oleic acid, total monounsaturated fatty acids, and n-6 increased, while saturated fatty acids, atherogenic, and thrombogenic indices decreased in SFC. Feeding ewes with peas increased the content of n-3 fatty acids in their milk. If compared to SFC, it also improved the n-6:n-3 ratio. Partial replacement of soybean meal with SFC reduced the blood concentration of total protein, globulin, and AST, and GGT enzyme activities and increased the β-hydroxybutyrate. Inclusion of pea grain and SFC can be adequately used as partial replacement of soybean meal in feeding of ewes kept in organic farming.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of feeding calcareous marine algae or sodium bicarbonate as rumen buffer on the performance, behaviour, in vitro diet digestibility, and meat quality of beef cattle. A total of 180 Charolaise bullocks (536±38 kg; 14±1 months of age) were divided into two homogeneous groups and fed a diet with a mineral mix containing 40% sodium bicarbonate or 20% calcareous marine algae (CMA) for the entire fattening period (130 days). Of the in vivo and in vitro parameters evaluated, CMA supplementation improved average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and reduced the prevalence of bloat and lameness. Bullocks fed CMA tended to exhibit a calmer behaviour while in the pen. Supplementation with CMA improved rumen pH and in vitro digestion. Meat from bullocks fed CMA showed a lower pH and higher lightness and tenderness. The results suggest that CMA is more effective than sodium bicarbonate in buffering beef cattle, with a positive impact on growth performance, feed efficiency, health, and meat quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of an herbal choline feed plant additive on the productive parameters and blood metabolites of finishing lambs. Forty male Hampshire × Suffolk lambs (initial body weight of 30.36±3.75 kg) were assigned according to a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of dietary inclusion of the herbal additive BioCholine at 0, 3, 6, and 9 g/kg dry matter for 56 days. A linear response for herbal choline dose was observed for daily gain, final body weight, feed conversion, blood glucose, and blood phosphatidylcholine as herbal choline level was increased in the diet. Total protein, globulins, and low-density lipoproteins showed a quadratic effect, and there were no effects on intake, Longissimus dorsi area, back fat, blood cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, or albumins. The inclusion of the herbal choline feed plant additive improved daily gain and feed efficiency of finishing lambs. The choline feed plant additive is a source that can be used to meet choline requirements in small ruminants, as demonstrated by blood phosphatidylcholine and lamb performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We evaluated the inclusion of two crude extracts produced by Streptomyces genus on in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (IVDMD; IVOMD), cumulative gas production, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and methane (CH4) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three blocks and four treatments: AMC (1.2 mg/25 mL ruminal inoculum), Caat (1.2 mg/25 mL ruminal inoculum), negative control (no inclusion of extracts), and positive control (sodium monensin, 1.7 mg/25 mL ruminal inoculum). Ruminal fluid samples were collected from three multiparous Holstein dairy cows fitted with ruminal cannula and incubated in a 24-h fermentation assay. There was no effect of crude extract inclusion in comparison with negative control on cumulative gas production in 24 h. However, cumulative gas production was lower when Caat extract was included in comparison with AMC inclusion. The Caat inclusion increased propionic acid concentration and reduced the concentration of butyric acid and acetate:propionate (A:P) ratio in relation to negative control. The CH4 concentration was lower with Caat inclusion in relation to AMC, and the ratio of CH4 concentration to digestible dry matter was lower in the negative control compared with all additives. Caat inclusion decreased the NH3-N concentration, and IVDMD was not altered compared with negative control. Additionally, the inclusion of Caat crude extract increased propionic acid concentration and reduced butyric acid concentration and A:P ratio, without reducing the IVDMD and IVOMD. Caat extract modulates rumen fermentation, increasing available energy and decreasing gas production without causing changes in dry matter and organic matter digestibility.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to quantify the flow of intestinal nutrients and nitrogen excretion and retention in sheep receiving isoproteic diets. Eight Texel x Lacaune wethers (average body weight = 25±2.5 kg) were fitted with duodenal cannula and housed in metabolic cages. Wethers were assigned to the treatments in a crossover design with two periods of 20 days each, and all feces and urine produced by the wethers were collected. The treatments consisted of two isoproteic (160 g kg−1 of crude protein on dry matter basis) diets composed of red clover (RC) or lucerne (LU; Medicago sativa) silages plus corn silage and concentrate feed. The digestible organic matter and metabolizable energy intake did not differ between treatments. The intestinal non-ammonia N (NAN) flow was 5.9 g day−1 (37%) higher in RC wethers than in those of the LU treatment. This result was a consequence of both an increase in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (12.7% higher) and a decrease in ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content (20% lower) of the diet. However, the increase in the intestinal NAN flow was accompanied by a reduction in intestinal digestibility of N, resulting in similar daily N retention between treatments. The reduction of RDP content was probably the main reason for reductions in N urinary excretion in RC wethers compared with those in the LU treatment, showing that RC silage may be a tool for mitigating the impact of N excretion in ovine production systems, without changes in N retention.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate a possible corrective measure against negative metabolic states, as occurs in the advanced stage of gestation in ewes, and that sometimes produces a disease called pregnancy toxaemia. In the present research, we found that the joint administration of i.v. lysine-vasopressin (0.08 IU/kg body weight, BW) and an oral glucose solution (50 g) produces an increase in blood glucose, which persists for some time (up to 6 h); therefore, it could be used in the treatment of pregnancy toxaemia. This therapy is based on the fact that lysine-vasopressin induces gastric groove closure in adult ruminants, enabling orally administered glucose to reach the abomasum directly, from where it rapidly passes into the intestine and is immediately absorbed. We can say that the tested treatment causes a significant increase in blood glucose in ewes affected by toxaemia caused by fasting, which, although less marked than conventional therapy with intravenous drip glucose, remains longer, regularizing other parameters indicative of energy metabolism in fasting ewes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this survey was to identify what mycotoxins were present in ingredients used in diets offered to beef cattle in feedlots and their concentrations. The survey covered 30 Brazilian feedlots located in the five major beef-producing states. Samples of total mixed ration (TMR) and ingredients were collected and analyzed for mycotoxin using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Mycotoxin concentrations were further interpreted according to known species-specific sensitivities and normalized according to the principles of toxic equivalent factors (risk equivalent quantities - REQ) expressed in µg kg−1 of aflatoxin B1-equivalent. Forty percent of the visited feedlots had apparent fungi in TMR. However, only one feedlot (3%) used a mycotoxin adsorbent. On the other hand, diets with high contamination presented no apparent fungi. One hundred percent of TMR was contaminated. All samples presented at least one mycotoxin contamination, with 65.5% considered low contamination, 27.6% medium contamination, and 6.90% high contamination. The toxins identified in TMR were fumonisins (most frequently), trichothecenes A, trichothecenes B, fusaric acid, aflatoxins, and ergot (mean concentration values: 2,330, 104.3, 79.5, 105, 10.5, and 5.5 µg kg−1, respectively). According to the contamination of TMR samples per region, Mato Grosso do Sul state presented the highest contaminations. Peanut meal was the most contaminated ingredient. One hundred percent of TMR in Brazilian feedlot is contaminated. Fumonisins were the mycotoxin most frequent and at highest concentrations in TMR samples. Moreover, mycotoxin concentrations have a distinct pattern among ingredients, TMR, and feedlots (local).