Abstract in English:ABSTRACT With the objective of identifying the concerns, attitudes, and opinions of meat buyers and their relationship with their choice of place of purchase (supermarkets, free fair, or butchers), 381 consumers in the city of Garanhuns, Brazil, were interviewed. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and discriminant analysis, complemented by stepwise regression, Wilks’ Lambda test, and Fisher’s linear test. Most of the respondents expressed that inadequate commercialization of meat occurred in free fairs, and the lack of hygiene and the fact that meat was exposed in the environment without refrigeration were the main preoccupations. They also reported that meat consumption without inspection could lead to disease transmission, with pork being considered the most dangerous. Based on the theory of planned behavior, buyers agreed that their attitudes toward the purchase of meat (concern with food safety, price, animal welfare, environment, and slave labor) influenced their purchasing decisions. Regarding the subjective norms, the results indicated that purchase intention could be modulated by the opinion and judgment that other people exercise on the buyer’s choice decision. Regarding perceived control, the respondents said that they were confused at the time of purchase and got irritated after making a purchase that did not satisfy their desires. The factors that differentiated consumers who prefer to buy meat in supermarkets from those who prefer butchers and free fairs are mainly the price of the product, custom/tradition, customer service, and hygiene of the establishment. Buyers who have a lower level of schooling and live in rural areas also tended to buy meat in free fairs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize 24 representative sheep production farms from five mesoregions in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil, so that economic and productive improvement strategies could be proposed. The representative farms for each region were defined at meetings with sheep farmers and technicians via the rapid appraisal methodology and represent 65% of the state’s flock. The information of each representative farm was collected between March 2015 and February 2016. Principal component analysis was used to verify the relationships among the different variables that characterized the farms. These characteristics were: number of ewes (V1), total cost per kilogram of revenue-generating product (V2), feeding costs (V3), labor costs (V4), facility and equipment depreciation costs (V5), and gross margin in the production cycle (V6). Cluster analysis was performed, resulting in three distinct groups: one including eight, another seven, and the third, nine farms. The results aided in classifying the farms into groups with similar characteristics, such as production scale, reproductive efficiency, technical and managerial control, appreciation of cooperatives, and availability of continuous technical assistance. The production scale, reproductive and productive efficiency, adoption of technologies, and cooperative organizational structure can be emphasized as positive performance benchmarks and were the most important aspects to achieve positive economic results.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to typify smallholders’ dairy systems using quali-quantitative measures of feeding practices and detect the main discriminatory elements identifying the systems. We collected data from 30 farms distributed in 10 municipalities in the eastern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using a survey with semi-structured questions, in addition to bimonthly observations of milking and feeding practices. Multivariate analysis based on principal factors and cluster analysis were performed. Multiple linear regressions were made between the principal factors scores and variables of milk production and composition. Three principal factors with eigenvalues ≥1.0 explained 58.9% of the total variance. The original variables with the highest factor loading values were production scale and feeding practices involving greater quantities of byproducts; use of corn silage and sugarcane; and commercial and farm-made concentrate for principal factor 1, principal factor 2, and principal factor 3, respectively. Milk yield and concentrations of lactose and solids non-fat increased linearly with principal factor 1 and principal factor 3 but decreased linearly with principal factor 2. Observations were grouped into three clusters. Farm area and quantity of corn silage and byproducts were the most important variables to set the clusters. The use of quali-quantitative feeding practices criteria to characterize dairy systems is effective to identify the opportunities for improving milk production and composition. Whereas high inclusion of sugarcane as roughage was detrimental for milk production, moderate supply of concentrate and byproducts enhanced milk yield without compromising milk composition.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This survey aimed to provide a current outlook of nutritional recommendations and management practices adopted by feedlot nutritionists in Brazil. The survey questionnaire consisted of 96 questions that included general information on nutritionists, animals, ingredients utilized in finishing diets, management and formulation practices, feeding management, and challenges associated with applying nutritional recommendations in practice. Thirty-six nutritionists, responsible for 4,671,062 animals in Brazil, responded our questionnaire. An increase in the percentage of nutritionists (38.9%) recommending 66% or more grain inclusion in the diets was observed. Fine grinding remained the preferred grain processing method by nutritionists (44.4%); however, more than 50% of nutritionists recommended high-moisture harvest and storage as the secondary grain processing method of choice. The average level of concentrate in the diets was 83.3%, which is higher compared with past surveys. The preferred fiber analysis method by 80.6% respondents was physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF), and corn silage remained the main roughage source in finishing diets (69.4%). Improvements in diet mixing and distribution were also noted. While 79.0% of nutritionists’ clients use a truck-mounted mixer and 69.5% of them also use programmed delivery per pen, 44.4% of the nutritionists reported that their clients use clean-bunk management. Respiratory diseases and acidosis (reported by 71.4 and 27.6% of the respondents, respectively) are among the main health problems. The present survey provides an overview of nutritional practices currently adopted by feedlot nutritionists, who played an important role on the improvement of feeding management in Brazil over the last 10 years.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to develop selection indexes for Nellore cattle raised in full-cycle production system in the Brazilian Pantanal. The resulting offspring are retained as replacements or sold at two years of age. Preliminary analyses explored effects of scale on economic values (EV). However, given the available data, these effects were very small. Presented herein are results from a simulated system consisting of 5,000 cows with all animals maintained on pasture as is typical in Pantanal. The EV were determined by approximating the partial derivatives of the profit function, changing one trait at a time, by one unit, while keeping the other traits constant. Traits in the breeding objective were mature cow weight, direct and maternal weaning weight, postweaning average daily gain, subcutaneous fat depth, longissimus muscle area, and stayability. Economic values were calculated on the basis of number of animals (per head), number of animal units, and arroba of carcasss weight. Regardless of the basis, maternal weaning weight and subcutaneous fat depth made negligible contributions to the breeding objective. Proportions of variation in the breeding objectives (per head, per animal unit, per arroba) explained by cow weight, direct weaning weight, postweaning average daily gain, stayability, and longissimus muscle area were: 13, 13, 17; 6, 1, 5; 3, 3, 4; 67, 67, 61; and 11, 17, 13, respectively. These indexes may aid Nellore breeders in their selection decisions, thus facilitating the genetic progress and increased productivity and profitability of Pantanal herds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to survey and analyze milking practices of commercial Holstein-Friesian farms. A total of 43 Hungarian dairy farms with 31,430 cows was surveyed by using a questionnaire via personal interviews. Furthermore, seven in-depth, individual interviews were conducted with farm managers. In the statistical analysis, we used ANOVA models. The results showed that 57.8% of the milking parlors had a herringbone design, followed by parallel (20.0%) and rotary (17.8%) milking systems. For the interviewed farm managers, gentle (71.4%) and quick milking (57.1%) as well as herd size (57.1%) were the most important factors in determining the milking system design. In 62.8% of the farms, cows were milked twice a day, and the average milking time was 5.0 h with an average of 3.1 laborers. The average daily milking time per cow was 15 min and the average daily walking time per cow to the milking parlor and back was 24 min. Furthermore, 85.4% of the farms used traditional elastic milk liners, whereas 14.6% used silicone ones. In total, 57.1% of the interviewed farm managers said that the ideal teat liner should fit the teats correctly and provide gentle milking. Prior to milking, 65.1% of the farms used disinfectant dip and 11.6% used a disinfectant wash, whereas 23.3% still washed the udder with water. The udder was wiped with paper towels in 73.8% of the herds and with cloth in 26.2% of the herds. Forestripping was performed in all herds: 51.2% onto the floor, 46.5% into a cup, and in 2.3% into a paper towel. Further, 85.7% of the interviewed farm managers considered the use of a cup to be the ideal method, but 57.1% deemed a dark-colored piece of rubber/flooring to be similarly acceptable. Cows with mastitis were milked separately in 91.9% of the farms.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of associated glutamine and glutamic acid on growth performance and intestinal development of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings. Five isoproteic (~344.70 g kg−1 crude protein) and isocaloric diets (~3,925 kcal kg−1 gross energy) were developed containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 g kg−1 of associated glutamine and glutamic acid in extruded diets. Fish (n = 2,000, mean body weight of 2.12±0.53 g) were distributed into twenty 1-m3 floating net cages in an entirely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates, and each replicate comprised one floating net cage with 100 fish. Fish were hand-fed seven days per week, three times a day until apparent satiety for 45 days. There was a quadratic effect on final body weight, body weight gain, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein retention efficiency, net protein utilization, and intestinal villi height with optimized values for supplementation of associated glutamine and glutamic acid at 10.77, 10.67, 10.00, 8.85, 9.85, 10.15, and 10.98 g kg−1, respectively. There was no effect of associated glutamine and glutamic acid supplementation on feed intake, survival, and body composition. We conclude that 10.67 g kg−1 of associated glutamine and glutamic acid is adequate for growth performance optimization, and supplementation at 10.98 g kg−1 exerts trophic action and improves intestinal morphometry in cage-farmed Nile tilapia fingerlings.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Continuous illumination has been known to exert positive effects by stimulating growth and delaying unwanted maturation in seasonal-temperate farmed fish species like salmonids. However, in tropical fish like Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ), some studies exist showing inconsistent results and even fewer data is available regarding the effects of light intensity. To clarify some of the inconsistent results in literature and evaluate the effect of different light intensity levels on growth and sexual maturation in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ), we reared twenty days post-hatch Nile tilapia larvae under continuous illumination at three different light intensities and compared against a control photoperiod (12L:12D) up to 118 days post-hatch. A total of 600 fry were used using 75 fry per experimental unit in a previously tested experimental aquarium setup. Fish exposed to high and medium intensity continuous illumination treatments were significantly heavier (13-20%) and longer (6-8%) than fish exposed to the control photoperiod. Importantly, however, the degree of growth enhancement did not vary significantly according to the light intensity used. Feed intake was also higher in all continuous illumination treatments than in the control photoperiod, suggesting that growth benefits might be due to an increase in feed intake, which is not affected by the light intensities used. Gonadal development on the other hand, presented differences between sexes with a delay in spermatogenesis, while an advancement towards ovarian maturation occurred compared with the control fish. These results suggest that continuous illumination can influence both growth and gonadal development in Nile tilapia with no apparent differences between the light intensities tested in this study.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of citric acid in plant protein based-diets offered to juvenile tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing different levels of citric acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 g.kg−1) were formulated. Fish (n = 160; 27.56±1.03 g) were randomly distributed in 310-L water tanks (n = 16), with four replicates per treatment. After the experimental period (80 days), animals were anesthetized, and blood was collected for cell count. They were euthanized and dissected to remove livers for subsequent oxidative stress analyses. No significant differences were observed in the levels of thrombocytes, total leukocytes, lymphocytes, positive granular leukocytes, and immature leukocytes among the experimental treatments. However, there were fewer monocytes and neutrophils in fish fed the diet containing 30 g.kg−1 of citric acid. All citric acid diets increased glutathione concentration and reduced lipid peroxidation levels in livers. Therefore, citric acid acts as a potent antioxidant in juvenile tambaqui fed plant protein-based diets and, thus, can improve their maintenance conditions in production systems.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to fully describe the protocol with standardized modifications and evaluate the lysozyme activity, an indicator of innate immunity in tilapia, to compare lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with Streptococcus agalactiae injections. Lysozyme was determined in serum using the turbidimetric method, in which lysozyme activity was evaluated by Micrococcus lysodeikticus lysis, with modifications for microplate assay. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Juvenile tilapia was divided in the following six treatments: challenged with phosphate buffer PBS (control) and 100, 250, 500, and 600 μg kg−1 LPS and S. agalactiae. All treatments were challenged for 72 h and seven days and then sampled to determine lysozyme activity. After 72 h or seven days, concentrations of LPS promoted changes in lysozyme production, either lesser or equal, depending on concentration when compared with fish injected with S. agalactiae. It was possible to standardize the analysis and determine that the treatment with LPS promotes immunomodulation at a concentration of 250 μg kg−1 LPS, this response being similar to challenge with S. agalactiae.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to estimate the breed, heterosis, and recombination effects on different components of the lactation curve of Girolando cattle. The dataset used consisted of 12,121 purebred cows of Holstein (H) and Gyr (G) breeds, and six H×G crossbred cows (Girolando). The model used presents random effects of herd and cow, regression coefficient associated with linear effect of proportion of H breed, regression coefficient associated with the linear effect of heterosis between H and G breeds, regression coefficient associated with the linear effect of recombination between H and G breeds, and random effect of residual. Dijkstra's (DJ), Nelder's (ND), Wilmink's (WL), and Wood's (WD) models were tested to fit production records of these different genetic groups. These models were then tested according to evaluation criteria of quality of fit (AIC, BIC, and RMSE), and the two best models (WD and WL) were chosen for estimation of 305-day milk yield (MY305), peak yield, time to peak, and persistency of milk yield. The breed effect was significant for all traits and components of the lactation curve. The heterosis effect was significant for all traits, and was more significant for MY305 (945.62±79.17 kg). Peak yield was the component of lactation curve that presented the most significant heterosis effect, partially explaining the heterosis effect (12 to 21%) found for MY305. The recombination effect was positive only for lactation period and time to peak of lactation in Girolando cows.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to simulate the genetic gains expected comparing random mating strategies and mate selection by optimum contribution with different penalty levels in the inbreeding rate of Santa Inês sheep. The optimum contribution theory was thus applied to optimize genetic gain in the long term in twelve selection groups by selectively mating 500 females with the respective males, increasingly penalizing the increase in inbreeding in the objective function. Genetic algorithms were used to find the optimum contribution. Optimization was achieved via EVA software. Selection candidates had their contribution defined into four treatments, using different values to weigh the genetic merit and penalize increases in inbreeding. This made it possible to measure the degree of control over those parameters that can be obtained with this methodology. This selection offers different levels of genetic gain, which are achievable from restrictions on the coancestry. The number of males selected and their distribution into selection groups varied according to the penalty attributed to inbreeding in the objective function. Mate selection using optimum contribution should be adopted when aiming to limit the increase in inbreeding. Increasing the exchange of genetic material between groups is recommended to elevate genetic gain and maintain control over inbreeding.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate genetic trends over 26 years for morphometric traits in Mangalarga Marchador horses. Twelve morphometric traits were evaluated (withers and croup heights; length of head, body, shoulder, croup, neck, back, and loins; width of head and croup, and cannon bone and thorax perimeters). These traits were evaluated in 38,341 animals born between 1987 and 2012 and with a relationship matrix of 77,719 animals. Gibbs sampler was used to obtain samples of the posterior distributions of genetic parameters under animal models. Genetic trends were estimated by regression of estimated breeding values in function of birth year. The heritabilities of all traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.27 to 0.48. However, the additive genetic coefficients of variation were low, ranging from 1.23 to 3.82%. The genetic trends of all the studied traits were significant, but of low magnitude. Negative genetic trend was observed for body length, while positive genetic trends were estimated for the other 11 traits. Although additive genetic differences accounted for a significant part of the phenotypic differences, genetic gains in the population were limited by low phenotypic variability. Therefore, it is necessary to develop data collection strategies to increase phenotypic and genetic variability in the population, such as the inclusion of animals that do not meet breed standard, but which have parents registered in the breeders’ association, in the database.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Estimation of genetic variability and genetic correlations between production traits (milk yield, fat yield, fat content, protein yield, and protein content) and selected type traits (angularity, fore udder height, rear udder height, front teat placement, teat length, and udder depth) was done using data sets of 10,860 first-calving Holstein-Friesian cows raised in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. Genetic variance and covariance were obtained using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) method, VCE v6 software, and the multi-trait mixed model. To enable more precise estimates of values for genetic variances and covariance, a relationship matrix was formed for the individual model (animal model), encompassing 21363 animals. The highest heritability values were obtained for milk yield (0.182), fat yield (0.134), and protein yield (0.170). The lowest heritability estimates were for teat length, front teat placement, rear udder height, and udder depth, all being under 0.110. Genetic correlations between production traits and linear type traits were between −0.131 (fat content and front teat length) and 0.307 (protein yield and fore udder attachment). The largest number of traits shows a positive genetic correlation with the traits of milk yield, which thus indicates possibility of genetic improvements of milk yield in cattle without jeopardizing the type traits or vice versa.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the effects of sex and the linear and quadratic components of age of dam at calving, as well as apply a mixed model including maternal effect for the genetic evaluation of weaning (WW) and yearling (YW) weights. The phenotypic database was composed by Charolais, Caracu, Aberdeen Angus, and Canchim purebred and crossbred animals. Single-trait analyses were performed using models that included the maternal effect for WW and YW traits, and a model ignoring this effect on YW (YWNM). The Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), model posterior probabilities (MPP), accuracy of breeding values (ACC), and Spearman’s rank correlation were applied to compare the models including and ignoring the maternal effect on YW. Sex and age of dam at calving had significant effects on WW and YW. The direct heritability estimates were 0.21±0.03 and 0.05±0.02, and the maternal heritabilities were 0.11±0.02 and 0.02±0.01 for WW and YW, respectively. The heritabilities estimated for YW may have been influenced by the several genetic groups in the population and by used conventional animal model, which may not have been the better fit model to evaluate YW in this population. The DIC, MPP, and ACC values indicated that YW outperformed the YWNM model, but the rank correlation and percentages of individuals selected in common suggested that the best animals would be selected independently of the model chosen.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This short-term study evaluated the effect of non-lethal high CO2 concentration on the transcriptional response of immune-related genes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Two experimental groups were created: high CO2 (47.67±2.04 mg L−1) and low CO2 (2.0±1.93 mg L−1). Shrimp of 8.85±1.20 g were placed randomly at a density equivalent to 100 individuals m−3 and were monitored at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h. The transcriptional response of immune-related genes was analyzed by qPCR. Gene expression of hemocyanin, prophenoloxidase, and heat shock protein 60 was downregulated at 24 h, suggesting affectations on oxygen transportation, melanization, and protein functioning of L. vannamei under high CO2 concentrations. Also, gene up-regulation of lipopolysaccharide- and β-glucan-binding protein and cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase can impair the bacterial recognition and antioxidant defense of shrimp exposed to high CO2 concentrations. These results suggest that concentration at about 47 mg L−1 of CO2 can significantly influence the transcriptional response modulation of immune-related genes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate genomic information inclusion in genetic parameter estimation of standardized body weight at birth and at 240, 365, and 450 days of age, and visual scores for body structure, precocity, and body muscularity, measured as yearlings in Nelore cattle. We compared genetic parameters, (co)variance components (estimated from Bayesian inference and Gibbs sampling), breeding value accuracies, genetic trends, and principal component analysis (PCA) obtained through traditional GBLUP and ssGBLUP methods. For all traits analyzed, part of the phenotypic variation was explained by the additive genetic effect, thus indicating the capacity of traits to respond to the selection process. Estimates of genetic correlation, in both methodologies, between body weights and visual scores were, in general, high and positive, showing that the selection for visual scores can lead to heavier animals. Genetic trends showed genetic progress, both when estimated breeding values and genomic estimated breeding values were used. The PCA, genetic trends, and accuracy estimates on breeding values showed that inclusion of single nucleotide polymorphism information contributed towards slightly better estimates of the genetic variability of evaluated traits. Genomic information did not bring greater gains in genetic estimates, due to redundancy of kinship information from the pedigree, which already had complete animal kinship data.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to assess the association between the inbreeding coefficient (F) of German Spitz dogs (litter, sires, and dams) and number of live newborn dogs for this breed. Records of dams and sires of a breeding system were used to calculate the F of 105 litters and their sires and dams and the number of live newborn dogs. The analysis performed through the GLM procedure showed a negative influence of F of litter and mother on litter size. This influence was investigated through models that considered linear and quadratic influences. Although the model that considered quadratic effect of F of the litter achieved the best adjustment, only linear coefficients were significant in both analyses. According to these results, the studied sample of German Spitz dogs exhibits inbreeding depression for litter size, which is an important information for breeders and professionals that assist in dog breeding. In addition to all the known effects of inbreeding on canine health, the results indicate that monitoring inbreeding through F is important for the reproductive success of the breed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of macrophages and serum in laying hen (MM, CC, and CCc) and broiler chicken lineages (TT and LL). Macrophages were evaluated for phagocytic and antimicrobial activity. Microbicidal serum activity was evaluated by the resistance test for serum and the agar test. The results showed that phagocytic activity was higher in males of the MM strain, with 13% of macrophages presenting phagocytosis, while the other lineages studied, and even female MM, presented a rate of 6% of phagocytic cells. However, antimicrobial activity in macrophages from males of CCc lineage and females of TT lineage were higher, eliminating more than 30% of the Salmonella enterica inoculum, while in the other strains, the results were similar, with inoculum reduction below 30%. In the serum resistance assay, female laying lines presented higher antibacterial activity than female broiler lines. In the trials to evaluate the microbicide activity of the serum, females of both broiler and laying lineages presented higher performance when compared with males of the same lineage. Females of laying hen lines (MM and CC) present a greater antibacterium activity than males. These results can contribute to a better understanding of the immune response in broiler chicken and laying hen lineages, to aid development of lineages of birds more resistant to pathogens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Our objective was to evaluate whether the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BIEC2-808543, identified in some horse breeds, also occurs in the Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH) breed. In addition, we verified if this SNP is related to the growth curve profile of these animals for the variables body mass, height at withers, and height at croup, using nonlinear mixed models. For the DNA isolation, we collected blood samples from 167 young BH horses. We obtained the genotypes of these animals using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. For the association studies of this polymorphism with the growth curve in foals, we selected three traits: body mass, height at withers, and height at croup. Polymorphism C/T exists in BH horses and is significantly associated with the evaluated traits. Animals that presented the TT genotype were smaller and lighter when compared with animals of the CT and CC genotypes. By the Akaike information criterion, the model that best described the growth curve for the body mass variable is the Brody model associated with the power of the mean variance function. For the height at withers variable, the best-fit model was von Bertalanffy, adjusted without polymorphism effect in parameter b, associated with the asymptotic variance. For the height at croup trait, the model that best described the growth curve was Brody model, associated with asymptotic variance. This polymorphism represents a good molecular marker. Nonlinear models are promising for describing growth curves in horses, particularly by the possibility of associating SNP effects to model parameters.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effects of maturity at harvest and row spacing on fermentative profile, aerobic stability, and nutritional value of biomass sorghum (BRS 716) silage. The experiment was conducted using a split-plot completely randomized block design with three row spacings (45, 70, and 90 cm) and four maturities at harvest (70, 100, 130, and 160 days) and eight replications. Polyvinyl chloride silos of known weight measuring 50 cm length and 10 cm diameter were used for silage production. Dry matter and total carbohydrate contents of the silage increased linearly, whereas crude protein and ash decreased linearly with maturity at harvest. Row spacing did not influence pH, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3), gas and effluent losses, and dry matter recovery of silage. The concentrations of malic, succinic, and acetic acids and ethanol responded quadratically to maturity at harvest. The levels of neutral detergent fiber, lignin, and indigestible neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with maturity at harvest. Ruminal degradation kinetics of dry matter of biomass sorghum silage was not influenced by row spacing. BRS 716 biomass sorghum should be planted at 70-cm row spacing and harvested at 160 days for silage production based on fermentative profile, dry matter losses, and nutritional characteristics.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This work evaluated the productive and structural characteristics of the BRS Zuri and BRS Quênia cultivars under rotational stocking management. The evaluations were divided into five periods according to rainfall regime (high, medium, and low rainfall) during 16 months of the years 2016-2018. Pastures were grazed when canopies intercepted 95% of incident light to stubbles corresponding to 50% of the pre-grazing height. The pre- and post-grazing heights varied as a function of cultivar, with higher values for BRS Zuri (89 and 49 cm) than for BRS Quênia (78 and 45 cm). No differences in canopy lowering percentage, forage mass, and stem and dead material dry masses between cultivars were observed, with averages of 41.3%, 5,856, 1,835, and 841 kg ha−1, respectively. The post-grazing canopy height was lower in the second year, which resulted in higher values of canopy lowering percentage (51%). The highest value for leaf:stem ratio for both cultivars was observed in the high rainfall period of the second year. Higher average tiller population density was observed for BRS Quênia (477 tillers m−2) than for BRS Zuri (260 tillers m−2) for all the rainfall periods. Forage bulk density was similar between cultivars and varied according to the periods evaluated, with the highest value observed during the dry period of the year. Forage mass, as well as its component fractions, did not vary between cultivars, but was influenced by the studied periods. The cultivars showed high leaf mass in the pre-grazing forage mass with an average value of 3,174 kg ha−1. The cultivars are similar in morphological composition and offer high yield potential when managed under a rotational grazing system.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Based on previous reports, our study aimed to obtain the first estimate on the contribution of termite mounds to CH4 emissions in Brazilian Cerrado pastures. We estimated that termite mounds occupy an area larger than 200,000 ha in degraded pastures, an important loss of grazing area considering the current scenario of land-use change of pastures to other crops in Brazil. Moreover, mound-building termites in degraded pastures may be responsible for CH4 emissions greater than 11 Mt CO2 eq. yr−1, which would notably affect the greenhouse gases (GHG) balance of grass-fed cattle production in Brazil. In this sense, it is urgent to conduct field-scale studies about the CH4 emissions by mound-building termites in pastures and its contribution to the C footprint of Brazilian beef.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The goal of our study was to evaluate the nutritional potential of dented corn hybrids for silage production. We performed a two-location trial in which 19 dented corn hybrids and five corn controls grew in four randomized blocks within two experimental areas located in the Northern (Campos dos Goytacazes) and Northwestern (Itaocara) Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. We recorded yields of fresh and dry forage matter and yields of fresh and dry grain matter, as well as chemical composition variables. We interpreted variables by assuming a Normal distribution for yield variables and a Beta distribution for chemical composition and ratios. The SAS GLIMMIX procedure fitted the linear model under those assumptions. Dual-pool models fitted the gas production profiles generated by in vitro anaerobic fermentations. We used the nlme of R software to fit the dual-pool models and the information-theoretic approach to evaluate their quality of fit. We did a cluster analysis (NbClust of R) to group corn hybrids based on fresh and DM yields and kinetic parameters of in vitro gas production. Three clusters of corn hybrids stood out, their basic differences relied on fresh and DM yields. Nonetheless, the least-squares means for gas production characteristics among groups did not present disjoint confidence intervals. Therefore, we can infer that dented corn hybrids rank by forage yield, but not by forage quality, and recommend the most productive ones that consistently outstand in both locations (hybrids UENF-2203, UENF-2192, UENF-2193, and UENF-506-11).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wilting times and application of an enzymatic-bacterial inoculant on the fermentative profile and nutritional characteristics of BRS capiaçu grass silage in a semi-arid region. Four wilting times treatments (control, 6, 24, and 30 h), with or without the addition of an enzymatic-bacterial inoculant, were analyzed as a split-plot completely randomized design with eight replications. Parameters of the rumen degradability test were analyzed using a split-plot completely randomized block design with four replications. There was no interaction between wilting times and inoculant application on pH, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), and aerobic stability of BRS capiaçu silage. Aerobic stability was reduced by 1.2 h for every 1-h increase in wilting time. Inoculant application reduced the pH values by 2.59% and extended the aerobic stability of the silage by 19 h. There was a significant interaction of wilting times and inoculant application on the levels of malic, succinic, lactic, and acetic acids. Inoculant application increased the contents of dry matter, ash, crude protein, insoluble neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates by 3.63, 6.13, 7.73, 6.39, and 9.97% compared with non-inoculated silages, respectively. Wilting times for up to 30 h and application of enzymatic-bacterial inoculant improves the fermentative profile and chemical composition and reduces dry matter losses of silage of BRS capiaçu grass harvested at 100 days of regrowth.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Forage biomass production and water storage (WS) was evaluated in cactus pear cv. Gigante fertilized with combinations of nitrogen (10, 70, 100, 130, and 190 kg ha−1 yr−1 N) and phosphorus (10, 70, 100, 130, and 190 kg ha−1 yr−1 P2O5) in annual (AH) and biennial (BH) harvest frequencies, in Quixadá and Tejuçuoca, Brazil. A randomized complete block design was used in a split-plot arrangement with four replications. In Quixadá, the maximum total forage biomass (TFB) recorded in the AH was 3,522.9 kg ha−1 yr−1 for the N/P2O5 combination of 134.6/190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1, and in the BH, the maximum TFB of 1,583.2 kg ha−1 yr−1 was recorded for the N/P2O5 combination of 114.6/136.8 kg ha−1 yr−1. In Tejuçuoca, the maximum TFB recorded in the AH was 9,783.0 kg ha−1 yr−1 for the N/P2O5 combination of 137.7/190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1, and in the BH, the maximum TFB of 12,124.0 kg ha−1 yr−1 was recorded for the N/P2O5 combination of 190.0/56.8 kg ha−1 yr−1. In Quixadá, the maximum WS recorded in the AH was 39.1 kg ha−1 mm−1 for the N/P2O5 combination of 161.0/190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1, and in the BH, the maximum WS of 11.3 kg ha−1 mm−1 was recorded for the N/P2O5 combination of 113.5/158.7 kg ha−1 yr−1. In Tejuçuoca, the maximum WS recorded in the AH was 196.1 kg ha−1 mm−1 for the N/P2O5 combination of 190.0/190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1, and in the BH, the maximum WS of 265.5 kg ha−1 mm−1 was recorded for the N/P2O5 combination of 190.0/10.0 kg ha−1 yr−1. To achieve the persistence and longevity of the cactus pear cv. Gigante, the management with BH and fertilization with the N/P2O5 combination of 114.6/136.8 kg ha−1 yr−1 (in regions similar to Quixadá) and N/P2O5 combination of 190.0/56.8 kg ha−1 yr−1 (in regions similar to Tejuçuoca) is recommended.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) associated with dry and rainy seasons on the photochemical activity of Opuntia ﬁcus-indica (L.) Mill. cv. Gigante. Combinations of N (10.0, 70.0, 100.0, 130.0, and 190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1) and P2O5 (10.0, 70.0, 100.0, 130.0, and 190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1) were evaluated in the dry and rainy seasons in semi-arid regions. A completely randomized block design with split-plot arrangement was adopted with four replications. In Quixadá, the maximum potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) was 0.82, observed in third-order cladodes (rainy season and N/P 75.6/10.0 kg ha−1 yr−1), while in Tejuçuoca, the maximum Fv/Fm was 0.81, found in 2nd/3rd order cladodes (rainy season and N/P 10.0/190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1). In Quixadá, the maximum electron transport rate (ETR) was 31.6 μmol m−2 s−1 in 2nd/3rd order cladodes (rainy season and N/P 10.0/190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1), and in Tejuçuoca, the maximum ETR was 24.1 μmol m−2 s−1, in second-order cladodes (rainy season and N/P 110.1/10.0 kg ha−1 yr−1). In Quixadá and Tejuçuoca, higher values of Fv/Fm and ETR were observed in the rainy season. In Quixadá, the maximum fluorescence decrease ratio (FDR) was 4.04 in third-order cladodes (rainy season and N/P 10.0/114.8 kg ha−1 yr−1), while in Tejuçuoca, the maximum FDR was 6.93, found in 2nd/3rd order cladodes (rainy season and N/P 190.0/10.0 kg ha−1 yr−1). In Quixadá and Tejuçuoca, there was predominance of higher FDR values in the rainy season. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and water status modulate the photochemical efficiency of cladodes of cactus pear cv. Gigante in semi-arid regions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to determine Paspalum notatum genotypes appropriate for the establishment of mixtures with temperate legumes and compare the productivity of mixtures with mineral-fertilized systems along two years. Four hybrids of P. notatum, ecotype Bagual and cv. Pensacola, were either subjected to mixtures with white clover (Trifolium repens) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) or fertilized with 0, 60, 120, 240, and 480 kg N ha−1 year−1. P. notatum leaf blades and stems and herbage accumulation denoted a management × year interaction. Herbage accumulation varied between the mixtures and fertilized systems in first year, while in the second year, herbage accumulation of mixed systems employing the B26, B43, C22, C9, and Bagual genotypes were similar to that of systems fertilized with 120 and 240 kg N ha−1. Hybrids B26 and C9 and ecotype Bagual, once made available to producers, could be indicated for mixtures with temperate legumes because they are superior to cv. Pensacola. Herbage accumulation in mixtures involving white clover plus birdsfoot trefoil and P. notatum genotypes is similar to that of mineral nitrogen-fertilized systems with 240 kg N ha−1, emphasizing the viability of mixed between these species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of N/P fertilization on the chemical, mineral composition, and in vitro degradation kinetics of cactus pear cv. Gigante. The research was conducted in Quixadá and Tejuçuoca, CE, Brazil. Nine N/P combinations were evaluated from five levels of N (10, 70, 100, 130, and 190 kg ha−1 year−1), five levels of P2O5 (10, 70, 100, 130, and 190 kg ha−1 year−1), and two harvest frequencies (annual and biannual). The experiment was performed in a split plot completely randomized block design, with four replications. The maximum CP content was obtained in biannual harvest in Quixadá and Tejuçuoca with the combined levels N/P2O5 of 190/190 and 130.03/190 kg ha−1 year−1, respectively. Calcium content was reduced by fertilization, which allowed to reduce the Ca:P ratio to 9.72:1.00 with the N/P2O5 combination at 190/10 kg ha−1 year−1 in the biannual harvest. The increase in N and P levels results in higher S and Mn content and higher digestibility. The annual harvest improves quality in Quixadá. However, it has weaker influence on quality in Tejuçuoca. In Tejuçuoca, Mg, Cu, and Mn contents are lower under annual harvest. Sulfur content is lower under annual harvest in both sites.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate 94 Paspalum notatum genotypes over two growing seasons to estimate genetic dissimilarity through agronomic traits and the distance between genotypes. This information is used to create an ideotype from the best averages obtained for the set of characteristics evaluated. Seven apomitic, three sexual, and 81 hybrid genotypes were compared with native genotypes “André da Rocha”, “Bagual”, and cultivar “Pensacola” as controls. There is genetic variability in P. notatum for the studied characteristics, and distinct genotypes with superior characteristics can be used in new combinations between apomictic and sexual plants to obtain hybrids. The characters with the greatest relative contribution to the dissimilarity between the genotypes were tiller density, stem dry mass, and leaf dry mass yield. Thus, these characteristics are suitable criteria to infer genetic distance studies in P. notatum . The selection index based on the ideotype is an auxiliary tool in the breeding process. The ideotype must be based on characteristics of interest according to the objective of the breeding program, as well as on the breeder’s prior knowledge in relation to culture.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine the effects of different supplementation strategies on production of beef cattle grazing tropical pastures during the wet and dry seasons in Brazil. The database was built with 132 studies published from 1999 to 2010, which accounted for 6,275 individual animals. The supplements assessed were classified into three groups: energy supplement containing <20% crude protein (CP), protein supplement containing ≥20% CP, and urea mineral supplement. The supplementation levels ranged from 0 to 1.6% body weight (BW), and the effects of type and level of supplementation were examined during both dry and wet seasons. The meta-analysis was performed using mixed models. Cattle grazing tropical pastures during the wet season had higher average daily gain (ADG) than that in the dry season (0.81 vs. 0.56 kg/day). In response to supplementation, cattle receiving >1.0% BW of energetic supplement in the wet season had the greatest gain per hectare (GPH; 8.16 kg/ha per day) and daily stocking rate (DSR; 2045 kg BW/ha/day). In the dry season, protein supplementation at rates >0.5% BW provided higher GPH (on average 2.33 kg/ha per day). Neither level nor type of supplement altered the DSR in the dry season (on average 883 kg/ha per day). Estimated regression showed that the ADG of beef cattle increased by 0.308 kg for each 1% of supplement intake. Increased supplementation intake by beef cattle grazing tropical pastures resulted in greater ADG in the warm season, whereas offering energy supplementation at rates >1.0% BW during the wet season as well as protein supplementation at rates >0.5% BW during the dry season increased gain per area.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the potential use of dried or ensiled paulownia (Paulownia spp.) leaves as roughage source for ruminants. Paulownia tree leaves were collected from one-year-old hybrid (C-125, CAR, and TF-33 clones) trees. Dried paulownia leaves of the clones were different in dry matter (DM), crude ash (CA), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), and nitrogen-free extract (NfE) and similar in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL); however, these values (except EE and ADL) of ensiled leaves were significantly different among the clones. Mean CP, CA, and condensed tannin contents in dried leaves were 15.36, 9.21, and 1.75%, respectively; NDF, ADF, and ADL contents were 38.35, 35.49, and 12.08%, respectively. Mean total volatile fatty acids, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), and metabolizable energy (ME) value in dried leaves were 95.26 mmol/L, 76.34%, and 10.77 MJ/kg, respectively, whereas, CO2 and CH4 production were 54.66 and 29.78 mmol/L, respectively. Buffering capacity and water-soluble carbohydrates varied among the pre-ensiled paulownia leaves, although their means were 395.66 mEq/kg DM and 86.63 g/kg DM, respectively. In ensiled leaves, the pH, lactic acid ratio, and acetic acid ratio were 4.98, 11.23, and 2.56%, respectively, and butyric acid was not detected in any of the silages. Mean values of IVOMD and ME in ensiled leaves were 72.30% and 9.93 MJ/kg, respectively. Dried paulownia leaves are a high-quality alternative forage and the ensiled form is of medium quality. Therefore, paulownia leaves could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted using direct method to determine the standardized ileal phosphorus (P) digestibility coefficient (SIPDC) of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry byproduct meal (PBM) for broilers. In the first experiment, three MBM from different batches were evaluated, with four treatments (MBMI, MBMII, MBMIII, and a P-free diet) and nine replicates of seven birds each, totaling 252 birds distributed across a completely randomized design. The P-free diet was used to determine endogenous P losses. Titanium dioxide (5 g kg−1) was used as an indigestible indicator. In the second experiment, three PBM from different batches were evaluated, with 189 birds distributed over three treatments (PBMI, PBMII, and PBMIII) and nine replicates of seven birds each. These two experiments were conducted when birds were 19-22 days old. The birds were euthanized to collect the ileal content. Using the P-free diet, endogenous P losses were determined at 94.9 mg kg−1 dry matter intake. Standardized ileal P digestibility of MBMI (0.65) and MBMIII (0.69) was higher compared with MBMII (0.49). The SIPDC determined for three PBM sources were similar and 0.96, 0.96, and 0.93 for PBMI, PBMII, and PBMIII, respectively. The present study demonstrates that P in MBM is not as available as it is believed and that the variability between batches should be considered by nutritionists, while PBM can be considered an excellent P source to broiler diets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Growth performance, organ biometrics, bone characteristics, and intestinal morphometry were evaluated in broilers fed a diet containing orange (Citrus sinensis L.) essential oil. A completely randomized design was used, with five treatments with orange essential oil (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg kg−1 diet) and six replications with 20 birds per experimental unit. In the pre-starter phase, feed intake and weight gain of all birds linearly increased, while feed conversion decreased with the addition of orange essential oil in the feed. At day 21, bone density (Seedor Index) and body weight were higher in the birds that received the maximum level of essential oil (400 mg kg−1) compared with those not treated with essential oil. The observed effects resulted from the better functioning of the physiological mechanisms of digestion and absorption of nutrients, characterized by the increase in villus height. Glycemia and weights of gastrointestinal tract organs of broilers at 21 days of age were not influenced by the evaluated essential oil. The results show that the addition of phytogenic additives to the diet does not cause any physiological impairment in birds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of chromium yeast (Cr yeast) and two apparent metabolizable energy (AME) levels on productive performance, egg quality, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in laying hens. A total of 192 Bovans White laying hens at 47 weeks of age were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments (six replicates each) in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement: four levels of supplemental Cr (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm as Cr yeast) and two AME levels (2,780 and 2,900 kcal AME kg−1). No significant effect of Cr yeast supplementation on feed intake, egg weight, egg production, intact eggs, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, or egg quality was observed. Egg quality parameters and Cr content in the yolk were not affected by dietary treatments. Plasma glucose and lipid levels were not influenced by either Cr yeast or AME levels used in this study. However, Cr yeast supplementation improved yolk percentage and hepatic glycogen content. The inclusion of Cr yeast at 0.2 and 0.4 ppm induced the highest hepatic glycogen content with the energy levels 2,900 and 2,780 kcal AME kg−1, respectively. Laying hens fed 2,900 kcal AME kg−1 showed the highest abdominal fat. The results observed in the present study support the hypothesis that the lack of positive effects of Cr yeast supplementation on production performance and egg quality may be related to good management practices, as the birds were not subjected to stressful conditions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate different nutritional plans of net energy (NE) with a constant calorie:nutrient ratio on the performance of piglets from 7 to 30 kg. Sixty barrows with an initial weight of 7.11±0.89 kg were distributed among five nutritional plans: two NE-decreasing plans (A and B, starting from NE concentrations of 2.47 and 2.52 Mcal kg−1, respectively, and ending both at 2.37 Mcal kg−1) and three NE-constant plans (C, 2.37 Mcal kg−1; D, 2.42 Mcal kg−1; and E, 2.47 Mcal kg−1). The nutritional plans were composed of two decreasing plans: A, 2.47-2.42-2.37-2.37-2.37 Mcal of NE kg−1 of feed; B, 2.52-2.47-2.42-2.37-2.37 Mcal of NE kg−1 of feed; and three constant plans: C, 2.37 Mcal of NE kg−1 of feed; D, 2.42 Mcal of NE kg−1 of feed; E, 2.47 Mcal of NE kg−1 of feed, from 7 to 10, 10 to 15, 15 to 20, 20 to 25, and 25 to 30 kg, respectively, with six replicates per treatment and two animals per experimental unit. Animal performance was evaluated through the following measurements: average daily feed intake (ADFI), NE intake, standardized ileal digestible lysine intake (SID Lys intake), average daily gain (ADG), feed:gain ratio (F:G), final weight (FW), feed cost per kg of weight gain (CWG), economic efficiency index (EEI), and fecal score. Piglets’ final weight was 32.95±3.30 kg. Considering the total experimental period, there was no effect of the nutritional plan on ADG, F:G, CWG, and EEI. The final weight of piglets under plan D was higher than that recorded for those allocated to plan C, not differing from the other nutritional plans. Piglets fed under nutritional plans A and D presented higher ADFI compared with those subjected to other plans. Net energy and SID Lys intakes were significantly higher in piglets subjected to plans A, D, and E compared with those under plans B and C. Net energy nutritional plans did not influence the fecal score and the occurrence of diarrhea of the piglets. Based on our analysis, a nutritional plan containing a constant NE level of 2.42 Mcal kg−1 of feed may be recommended for piglets from 7 to 30 kg.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study used mobile bags to estimate horse nutrient digestibility of tropical grasses found in semi-arid areas of the Brazilian Northeast region. Five female mixed-breed horses with a mean weight of 400±23 kg were assigned to a 5×5 Latin square design with five periods of seven days and five grasses: Tifton 85 hay ( Cynodon spp. ), sixweeks threeawn ( Aristida adscensionis Linn.), Alexandergrass ( Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc), capim-de-raiz ( Chloris orthonoton Doell), and Sabi grass ( Urochloa mosambicensis ). The nutrient content of forages was determined prior to inoculation in horses and after recovery of mobile bags from feces. The digestibility coefficients were determined from the difference between the inoculated and recovered material. The dry matter, organic matter, mineral matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber contents of the grass species were analyzed. Digestibility data were subjected to analysis of variance using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, version 9.0) software. Higher dry matter digestibility coefficients were observed in Tifton 85 (74.61%), Alexandergrass (74.30%), and capim-de-raiz (68.88%) than in sixweeks threeawn (48.40%) and Sabi grass (52.89%). The highest crude protein digestibility coefficients were found for Alexandergrass (95.70%), Tifton 85 (93.50%), and sixweeks threeawn (93.35%). Sixweeks threeawn had lower apparent mineral matter digestibility than the other grasses. The digestibility coefficients of Alexandergrass and capim-de-raiz indicate that those grasses have potential to be used in equine feed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of microalgae Schizochytrium sp. on performance, yolk lipid profile, and egg quality of Japanese quail. A flock of 210 quail was distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g of Schizochytrium sp./kg of feed) and six replications with seven birds per cage. Performance and egg quality were not affected, except for a quadratic effect on yolk color, which reached the maximum value with the inclusion of 40 g of Schizochytrium sp./kg. There was linear reduction in the content of saturated fatty acids and a linear increase of polyunsaturated:saturated and polyunsaturated:monounsaturated ratios and n-6. The content of n-3 showed a minimum value with the inclusion of 6.5 g of Schizochytrium sp./kg, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was maximized with the addition of 10.5 g of microalgae/kg. As for the sensory attributes color, aroma, and overall impression, there was linear increase with the addition of increasing levels of microalgae. The inclusion of up to 40 g of microalgae Schizochytrium sp./kg in the diet of Japanese quail did not present changes in the performance nor in the egg quality but accentuated the yolk color, promoted the fortification of n-3 in the eggs, and still provided excellent sensorial acceptance. The egg fortification can add value to the product, increasing the producer remuneration and improving the nutritional quality of the diet for humans.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine if in ovo feeding with 25(OH)D3 could influence the incubation parameters of bone mineral composition, mineral density, and bone breaking strength in post-hatch broilers. Fertile eggs from Cobb® broiler breeders were either non-injected or injected with 0, 1.2, 2.4, or 3.6 μg of 25(OH)D3/100 μL olive oil at eight days of incubation. The data were subjected to variance analysis using the General Linear Model procedure (GLM) of SAS®. There was a contrast-1 effect (non-injected eggs vs. injected eggs) for tibial bone mineral density and egg mass loss, with higher bone mineral density in non-injected eggs (0.836 mmAl) compared with injected eggs (0.790 mmAl) and lower egg mass loss in non-injected eggs (11.25%) compared with injected eggs (12.10%). Tibial and femur bone mineral density responded quadratically, and injections of 0.47 and 0.68 μg of 25(OH)D3 increased tibia and femur bone mineral density, respectively. Egg mass loss responded quadratically, and 25(OH)D3 injections of 2.21 μg reduced egg mass loss (11.60%). In ovo feeding of 25(OH)D3 can compromise bone mineral density of post-hatch chicken.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lysozyme on immune response, fecal microflora in sows and their offspring fed lysozyme from late gestation to the onset of lactation, and growth performance in weaned piglets. Four antibiotic-based treatments (chlortetracycline, colistin, and lysozyme) were applied in experiment 1. Lysozyme addition significantly increased final body weight, average daily gain, and average daily feed intake, improved feed:gain ratio (F:G), and decreased diarrhea rate in weaned piglets. In experiment 2, postpartum sows were fed diets either with amoxicillin and cephalosporin (SC) or lysozyme (SE). Piglets from SC sows were administered enrofloxacin and those from SE sows were administered lysozyme. Lysozyme treatment decreased serum IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10, but did not influence IL-8, TNF-α, or IFN-γ in weaned piglets. Sequencing revealed that lysozyme significantly decreased Chao-1 index in sows and weaned piglets, increased Bifidobacterium longum in sows, and Lactobacillus coleohominis, L. mucosae, L. amylovorus, and L. hamsteri in weaned piglets. The results suggest that dietary supplementation of lysozyme improved the growth performance of weaned piglets, and dietary supplementation of lysozyme for sows increased immune function and modulated the intestinal flora structure in sows and their offspring.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT An experiment with 23 diets was performed to evaluate the effect of digestible lysine (Lys), digestible methionine + cysteine (Met+Cys), and digestible threonine (Thr) on egg production of H&N Brown second-cycle laying hens (SCLH) for 20 weeks (92-111 weeks of age) in cages under environmental conditions. Body weight (BW), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), number of hen-housed eggs, and livability were also evaluated during the experiment. Diets were formulated from a central composite design that combined five levels of Lys, Met+Cys, and Thr ranging from 727 to 1159, 662 to 1055, and 552 to 882 mg/kg, respectively. Egg production (EP) data were evaluated through three different modeling strategies: egg production models, multivariate polynomial models, and artificial neural networks (ANN). A cascade-forward neural network with log-sigmoid transfer function was selected as the best model according to goodness-of-fit statistics in both identification and validation data. One of the best scenarios for EP of H&N Brown SCLH under specific outdoor conditions was established at Lys, Met+Cys, and Thr levels of 1138, 1031, and 717 mg/hen·day, respectively. The ANN model may be an appropriate tool to study and predict EP of H&N Brown SCLH based on the combination of three different levels of essential digestible amino acids. The strategies included in this work may contribute to improving poultry performance based on modeling techniques to study other production parameters in terms of different nutritional requirements and productive conditions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of guava extract standardized in phenolic compounds (SGE) on broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal histomorphometry. A total of 300 one-day-old male Cobb-500® broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (basal diet supplemented with 120 mg vitamin E/kg and basal diet supplemented with 0, 600, 800, or 1,000 mg SGE/kg) and six replicates of ten birds each. Performance was evaluated at seven and 21 days of age; digestibility of nutrients was determined by total excreta collection from 18 to 21 days of age; and histomorphometry of the small intestine was assessed at 21 days of age. Broilers fed diets supplemented with SGE or vitamin E had higher body weight and weight gain and better feed conversion than those fed unsupplemented diet at seven days of age. At the same age, there was a quadratic effect of SGE levels on body weight and weight gain, with better weights for 715 and 716 mg SGE/kg, respectively; and a decreasing linear effect for feed conversion. At 21 days of age, body weight and weight gain increased linearly with the inclusion of SGE in diet. Digestibility of feed nutrients was not influenced by treatments. Broilers fed diet supplemented with 800 or 1,000 mg SGE/kg had greater villus height and villus:crypt ratio of the duodenum than those fed unsupplemented diet. Villus height in the jejunum of broilers fed diet supplemented with 600 mg SGE/kg was lower than that of broilers that received vitamin E. Guava extract standardized in phenolic compounds can be used in diets for broilers in the starter phase, considering that the extract increases weight gain, reduces feed conversion, and helps in the development of the intestinal mucosa.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the following six body weight (BW) estimation methods in Campolina (CAM) horses: A - weight tape placed at three different positions on the animal’s thorax; B - Crevat and Quetelet’s formula; C - Hall’s formula; D - Hintz and Griffiths’s table; E - Santos’s table; and F - Cintra’s formula. A total of 380 CAM horses were separated according to sex, age class, and gestational stage and evaluated. To determine their accuracy, weights measured on a scale and weight estimates of the six methods were compared by paired t-test, mean prediction error (MPE), and coefficient of determination (R2), using R software. The predictive capacity of method F was lower in the 6-12 months age class, so this formula is not indicated. The BW was overestimated compared with the actual weight by methods A (with weight tape placed in position 3) and B and underestimated by method C. Methods D and E accurately estimated BW of CAM horses. Correction factors are required to accurately estimate BW in this breed using methods B and C. Method A with the weight tape placed in position 2 is the most accurate for predicting BW, including pregnant female horses, and can, therefore, be considered the most suitable method for estimating BW of CAM horses.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effect of birth weight on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of immunocastrated male pigs. Seventy-two boars were assigned to three birth weight categories (BiW): light BiW pigs (LP: 0.98±0.083 kg BW; n = 24), normal BiW pigs (NP: 1.42±0.067 kg BW; n = 24), and heavy BiW pigs (HP: 1.85±0.096 kg BW; n = 24). For treatment design, we considered a weight range of two standard deviations (SD) in relation to the average population body weight (from 0.785 to 2.155 kg BW−1). The animals were housed in six pens with 12 animals per pen, with ad libitum access to water and feed throughout the study. In the growing and finishing phases, pigs were immunocastrated with two doses of vaccine at 112 and 161 days of age. The three BiW categories were different up to departure from the nursery (70 days). After this period, there was no difference between NP and HP in terms of BiW. Measurements showed that a low BiW reduced the loin eye area (9.4%), longissimus thoracis muscle depth (7.6%), and meat:fat ratio (21.6%). Backfat thickness (21.5%) and fat area (11.8%) were higher in LP as compared with the NP and HP categories. Light BiW pigs presented a lower weight steak (7.0%) and belly + rib (8.6%) compared with NP and HP, but did not differ within the LP group. Light BiW pigs required a greater lodging time (14 days), generating higher accumulated feed intake to reach the same slaughter BiW as the other categories. Growth performance and carcass characteristics are influenced by the birth weight (BiW) category. Light BiW pigs require more time and feed intake to reach the same slaughter weight. Birth weight has positive effects on meat quality and weight of commercial cuts.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reduction of calcium (Ca), crude protein (CP), metabolizable energy (ME), and available phosphorus (aP) in the nutritional matrix of Brazilian commercial broiler diets supplemented with both phytase superdosing (1500 FTU/kg) or conventional doses (500 FTU/kg) on the feed cost and profitability, performance, bone mineralization, and carcass yield of broiler from 1 to 42 d. A total 1200 one-day-old chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly distributed in a commercial feeding program composed of a positive control diet and three diets with reduction of Ca, aP, CP, and ME in the nutritional matrix supplemented with 500, 1000, and 1500 FTU/kg of phytase. The broilers subjected to diets with phytase superdosing presented similar performance, bone ash, and carcass yield, among the treatments. There was a linear effect in the total nutrition cost, gross margin, and estimated net margin per bird with the increase of dietary inclusion of phytase in all purposed scenarios. Thus, for each 500 FTU/kg of dietary phytase included in the diet with reduction of Ca, P, ME, and CP in the nutritional matrix, the total nutrition cost decreased R$ 0.072/bird, R$ 0.079/bird, and R$ 0.081/bird in scenarios of high, medium, and low prices of corn and soybean meal, respectively, that allowed an increase in the estimated net margin of R$ 0.20/bird, R$ 0.22/bird, and R$ 0.22/bird in the same scenarios.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of digestible valine supplementation in pre-starter and starter diets on the productivity, nutrient metabolizability coefficient (NMC), and immune response of broilers from breeders of different ages. Experiments I and II were conducted with broilers in the pre-starter (1 to 7 days of age) and starter (8 to 21 days of age) phases, respectively. Broilers were fed diets that differed in their digestible valine content. In each trial, 400 male Cobb 500® chicks were randomly housed in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with eight treatments and five replicates of 10 birds each. The main effects were breeder age (37 vs. 52 weeks) and the digestible valine level in pre-starter (9.2, 10.2, 11.2, and 12.2 g/kg) and starter (8.3, 9.3, 10.3, and 11.3 g/kg) diets. Productive performance, intestinal histology, and immune response of broilers were evaluated. Supplementation with 11.2 g/kg valine in pre-starter diets improved NMC and increased villus height and villus:crypt ratio in the duodenum, jejunum development, and lymphocyte proliferation in the spleen of broilers at seven days of age, without improving performance (body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio). In the starter phase, valine supplementation reduced feed intake but did not affect NMC, intestinal development, or immune response. The present results suggest that the same level of digestible valine should be used in the diet of broilers born to breeders of different ages, and the use of 9.2 and 8.3 g/kg digestible valine in pre-starter and starter diets, respectively, is sufficient to ensure satisfactory broiler performance. However, to improve the duodenum and jejunum development and immune response of broilers in the pre-starter phase, higher digestible valine levels are required.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the cholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol glycoside supplementation in piglet diet on organ biometry and physicochemical composition, pH of the digestive tract contents, and bone traits. A total of 128 entire male piglets (21 days-old, 6.82±0.38 kg body weight) were distributed in a completely randomized block design with eight replications and four animals per experimental unit. The treatments were composed of a diet 100/0 = 100% of the vitamin D supplemented with cholecalciferol; 50/50 = 50% supplemented with cholecalciferol + 0.25 μg of 1,25(OH)2D3 glycoside; 25/75 = 25% supplemented with cholecalciferol + 0.375 μg of 1,25(OH)2D3 glycoside; and 0/100 = 0.50 μg of 1,25(OH)2D3 glycoside. The results indicated that piglets fed 100/0 showed an increase in spleen weight compared with those fed 0/100 and greater heart dry matter than piglets fed the 50/50 diet. Phosphorus concentration in the spleen was higher in piglets that received 25/75 when compared with those that received the 100/0 and 0/100 diets. Piglets that received the 0/100 diet showed higher pH of the stomach contents, but showed reduced pH of the contents of the jejunum and ileum. The width of the epiphysis and diaphysis was greater when piglets consumed the 50/50 treatment; however, a lower epiphysis height was observed. The use of 1,25(OH)2D3 glycoside alone in piglet diets does not negatively influence the pH of the gastrointestinal tract and organ physicochemical composition. In addition, the use of diets with 1,25(OH)2D3 glycoside as a replacement for cholecalciferol reduces spleen weight and promotes improvements in bone development.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) content, in vitro digestibility of starch, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn), and apparent and apparent nitrogen-corrected coefficient of metabolizable energy (ACME and ACMEn) of three corn hybrids dried at different temperatures in the diets of broiler chickens. The energetic values were determined by the total collection of excreta method, using broilers from 11 to 21 d, placed in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme (three corn hybrids and two drying temperatures: 80 and 110 °C), totalizing six treatments, seven replicates, and four birds/replicate. The data were subjected to two-way ANOVA. There was an interaction between the two factors tested wherein the AME and AMEn were increased when using corn Hybrid 1 dried at 80 °C. As main effects, the use of corn Hybrid 3 increased ACME and ACMEn. The drying temperature of 110 °C increased amylose, resistant starch, and nitrogen bound to the fiber contents, and reduced soluble:total NSP ratio. These changes may be responsible for the differences in digestibility of nutrients. The mean values of AME and AMEn of corn dried at 80 and 110 °C were 14.03 and 13.84 MJ/kg, respectively, and 81.62 and 80.53% for ACME and ACMEn, respectively.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate different periods of chromium yeast (CrY) supplementation on growth performance and quantitative carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. We used eighty barrows (Duroc/Pietran × Large White/Landrace) with an initial body weight of 24.5±2.4 kg. A completely randomized block design was used within four periods of dietary CrY supplementation (control diet: CrY-free, from 25 to 110 kg; Cr25-110 kg: diet with 0.4 mg kg−1 of CrY, from 25 to 110 kg; Cr50-110 kg: diet with 0.4 mg kg−1 of CrY, from 50 to 110 kg; and Cr70-110 kg: diet with 0.4 mg kg−1 of CrY, from 70 to 110 kg), with ten replicates and two animals each. The CrY supplementation did not affect (P>0.05) either the grow performance or the carcass characteristics evaluated. The dietary supplementation of 0.4 mg kg−1 of CrY for growing-finishing pigs (25 to 110 kg) does not alter the performance neither the quantitative carcass characteristics.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of long synchronization protocols based on reused progesterone devices (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]) associated with different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on reproductive variables in crossbred sheep (Suffolk × Kathadin × Dorset). The CIDR were used for eleven days in a previous study in sheep from the same herd and were washed and disinfected before reusing. Sixty-four sheep, in the reproductive season, were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 16). Treatments consisted of a group with 10 d CIDR and 300 IU eCG; a group with 10 d CIDR and 400 IU of eCG; a group with 12 d CIDR and 300 IU of eCG; and a group with 12 d CIDR and 400 IU of eCG. A completely randomized design was used. There was an estrous presentation rate of 100% in all treatments. The begining of estrous, gestation rate, fertility rate, type of parturition, and prolificacy index were equal between groups. Progesterone serum concentration was higher in sheep from the 10 d CIDR groups. The CIDR, reused for the second time, associated with 300 or 400 IU of eCG for estrous synchronization in sheep, are effective to obtain good pregnancy rates and ensures higher prolificacy rates.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of Ringer’s lactate solution (RL) and RL + 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and compare them with the efficiency of Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (D-PBS). Twenty-two Wagyu female cattle were subjected to superovulation and were randomly distributed to form three groups: group 1 – uterine flushing with RL (n = 8), group 2 – uterine flushing with RL + 1% FBS (n = 7), and group 3 – uterine flushing with D-PBS (n = 7, control group). Cows received a CIDR® device containing 1.9 g of progesterone at random stages of the estrous cycle (day 0). Progesterone withdrawal occurred on day 8 in the morning. For heifers, 160 mg of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-P) was used and for cows, 200 mg. Prostaglandin F2α was also injected on the eighth day of FSH-P administration. On day 9, in the morning, hCG was administered. Females were superovulated and inseminated twice in a fixed time for embryo transfer. On the 16th day, females were subjected to uterine flushing for embryo collection. We collected 76 embryos from 22 females subjected to superovulation, of which 52 were transferable and 24 had degenerated. The total of embryos collected was 23, 16, and 23 for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The embryo recovery rates per group were 13.86±4.23, 15.39±4.61 and 27.16±13.33%, in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The means for the total structures collected per female were 2.88±0.85, 3.00±1.23, and 4.57±1.72 in groups flushed with RL, RL + 1% FBS, and D-PBS, respectively. We conclude that Ringer’s lactate solution and Ringer’s lactate solution + 1% of FBS and Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline showed no significant differences in terms of embryo quality or quantity, suggesting that Ringer’s lactate solution is an alternative for collecting embryos in cattle.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feed type, pH, and Cu and Zn concentration on Cu and Zn binding with different feedstuffs after in vitro incubation in water. For this purpose, six feedstuffs (wheat straw, grass hay, corn silage, dried distillers grains with solubles, ground corn, and soybean meal) were incubated in ultrapure water (pH≈6.4) with supplemental Cu concentrations equivalent to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg Cu/kg DM or supplemental Zn concentrations equivalent to 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 mg Zn/kg DM for 48 h. This experiment was repeated; however, following the 48-h incubation in ultrapure water (pH≈6.4), samples were incubated for one additional hour at a fitted pH of 2.3. Following incubation, the indigestible residue was analyzed for the presence of Cu and Zn. Copper and zinc bind to other dietary constituents at a pH similar to that of the rumen, regardless of the type of feedstuffs (concentrate or roughage). However, in a pH condition similar to that of the abomasum, part of these bonds is broken. In these pH conditions, there is greater breakdown of bonds in concentrate feedstuffs than in roughages, regardless of the mineral analyzed. Comparing these minerals, zinc forms weaker bonds than copper.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to review the effect of ensiling on the feeding value of flint corn grain and performance of feedlot cattle. In this meta-analysis, ensiled corn grain included both high-moisture corn and rehydrated corn grain. The criteria for a publication enter in the database were: diet was offered as a total mixed ration, diet contained at least 300 g/kg dry matter (DM) of ensiled or dry corn grain, and ensiled grain contained a minimum of 280 g/kg of moisture. The final dataset included 21 paired comparisons from eight publications, from 2002 to 2019. A sub dataset of digestibility trials contained six paired comparisons for starch digestibility and five paired comparisons for DM digestibility. The outcomes were compared using the Mixed procedure of SAS, including a random effect of comparison within study (paired comparison). Ensiling corn grain increased total-tract digestibility of DM (+4.59%) and starch (+3.33%), decreased DM intake by 14.1% (10.3 and 8.85 kg/d for dry and ensiled, respectively) and metabolizable energy intake by 4.39%, but did not affect average daily gain (1.61 and 1.58 kg/d for dry and ensiled corn, respectively). Therefore, ensiling corn grain increased feed efficiency by 18.3% (0.164 and 0.194, for dry and ensiled, respectively). The feeding value was on average 25.7% higher for ensiled corn grain compared with dry corn grain. Ensiling is an efficient strategy to improve the caloric value of flint corn grain for finishing cattle.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ruminal parameters of goats fed diets supplemented with vegetable oils. Four rumen-cannulated Saanen goats were allocated to four treatments, which consisted of a control diet and diets with the inclusion of 30 g of canola, sunflower, or soybean oils per kilogram of diet dry matter (DM). The experiment lasted 40 days, which were divided into four 10-day periods. Forage intake was estimated using chromium oxide as an external marker, and supplement intake was determined as the difference between the daily amount supplied and orts. Rumen fermentation parameters were evaluated from samples of rumen fluid collected every 2 h, for 12 h. Rumen pH and short-chain fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen concentrations were measured. There was no effect of lipid supplementation on DM intake. Ether extract intake was highest in the treatments with oil inclusion, and the highest acid detergent fiber intake was obtained with the diet containing canola oil. The pH was highest in the group fed soybean oil and responded quadratically to the collection times. Total short-chain fatty acid and acetic acid concentrations also responded quadratically to the collection times. Propionic and butyric acid concentrations and acetic:propionic acid ratio showed a cubic behavior with the increasing collection times. Canola, sunflower, or soybean oils can be included at 30 g/kg of the diet DM as a strategy to increase the energy density of goat diets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils in goat kid diets on performance, carcass traits, and meat composition, quality, and fatty acid profile. Forty-eight Anglo Nubian kids were evaluated in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, namely, control diet and diets including 2.5% canola, sunflower, or soybean oils. The animals were slaughtered at 30 kg live weight and performance, carcass and meat quality, centesimal composition, and fatty acid profile were evaluated. The treatments did not influence carcass yield or meat color. Among the saturated fatty acids, only caprylic, palmitic, and heptadecanoic acids differed among the treatments, whereas total saturated fatty acids decreased in the sunflower oil treatment. Monounsaturated fatty acids were not influenced by lipid supplementation. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid was highest in the sunflower oil-treated group. Total PUFA were higher for the soybean oil-supplemented group, but similar to that achieved with sunflower oil. The highest omega-6 content was obtained with dietary inclusion of sunflower oil, whereas conjugated linoleic acid, atherogenicity index, and hypocholesterolemic:hypocholesterolemic ratio improved with the inclusion of sunflower and soybean oils. Supplementation with vegetable oils improves the fatty acid profile of kid meat without affecting animal performance. Better results are obtained with sunflower and soybean oils; therefore, it is up to the producer to choose the diet according to its cost.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to determine the optimal dehydrated passion fruit pulp replacing ground corn in diets for goat kids. We used 24 crossbred castrated goat kids with initial body weight of 26.6±0.3 kg. The experimental period was 23 days, with 15 days of adjustment and acclimatization (mostly to the installation and diet). Kids were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments of 0, 80, 160, or 240 g/kg of dehydrated passion fruit residue as a supplementary inclusion in the dry matter (DM) content of the diet. The statistical model considered the fixed effect of the included amount of residue from dehydrated passion fruit. Analysis of variance was conducted using the PROC GLM of SAS. Intakes of DM and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were not affected by residue inclusion. However, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake increased linearly. The inclusion linearly decreased intake of ether extract (EE) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC). Crude protein (CP) intake was quadratically affected, with a greater value under treatment of 160 g/kg passion fruit. Dry matter and NFC digestibility decreased linearly with the amount of passion fruit included in diet. Fecal N and total N excretion values (in g/d and %N intake) increased linearly. Nitrogen balance and N retained values showed a quadratic increase, with greater values under the 160 g/kg inclusion. Time spent ruminating, DM and NDF eating efficiency, and g DM/bolus chewed were affected quadratically by inclusion of passion fruit residue. The replacement of ground corn with dehydrated passion fruit residue at a level of 160 g/kg is recommended for diets of goat kids to improve their NDF and CP intake and their N balance without affecting DM and TDN intakes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The study aimed to verify the effect of diet and environmental temperature on traits of milk fat globules (MFG) of goats. The experiment was conducted in climatic chambers, where we housed 12 Alpine goats with a mean age of 4.02±1.78 years, live weight of 41.8±4.59 kg, and average milk production of 2.16±0.59 kg. The animals were subjected to two different controlled temperatures, T1 = 26 ℃ (thermoneutral) and T2 = 34 ℃ (stress), and diets with different energy levels (low, medium, and high). A milk sample of each animal was collected at 6.00 h, coinciding with milking. The effect of temperature and diet was verified on MFG. The highest MFG was observed at 26 ℃ and medium energy diet. The MFG reached lower values with the diet of medium energy and high temperature (34 ℃). On average, 35% of MFG is smaller than 2 μm, 50% is medium in size (2-5 μm), and 15% is large (>5 μm), with a maximum size of 9.57 μm. The higher prevalence of medium-sized MFG is indicative of excellent milk digestibility. The increase in dietary energy levels promoted both the fat and diameter of fat globules. The higher fat and the larger globules would positively affect the cheese-making aptitude and make it suitable for production of hard cheeses. The increase in dietary energy levels for goats promotes an increase in the diameter of fat globules and milk fat (%), essential traits to the cheese industry.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We conducted an experiment to evaluate the effect of a polyherbal additive with metabolites such as antioxidants, vitamins, and small hydrolysable tannoids oils on productive parameters and blood metabolites in finishing lambs. Forty male Hampshire × Suffolk lambs (23.79±2.24 kg) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of dietary inclusion of a polyherbal additive based on Emblica officinalis and Ocimum sanctum at 0, 5, 10, and 15 g/kg dry matter for 60 d. There were no effects on daily gain, dry matter intake, feed conversion, back fat thickness, and Longissimus dorsi area; however, hot carcass dressing improved linearly as the level of herbal additive supplementation was increased. The antioxidants of the polyherbal additive linearly inhibited lipid oxidation of the meat (24 h; day 10) and improved its water-holding capacity (24 h). Meat lightness after 1 d was reduced linearly, but no changes were detected in other color parameters. Metabolites (glucose, urea, cholesterol) related to energy or protein metabolism were not affected by the herbal additive. Lymphocytes and basophiles were reduced linearly whereas monocytes and segmented neutrophils increased linearly for polyherbal additive. The inclusion of the polyherbal additive does not improve daily gain or feed efficiency in finishing lambs but improves the carcass dressing and antioxidant capacity of the meat.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to determine the repercussion of the metabolic changes that occur in induced subclinical pregnancy toxemia in single- or twin-bearing ewes on the duration of gestation, type and length of lambing, and placental expulsion time. Fifty-one adult Corriedale ewes with a known gestation date and fed in the wild were randomly divided at day 145 of gestation into four groups. Group A included single-bearing ewes, and C twin-bearing ewes, all of which were fed ad libitum . Group B was composed of single-bearing ewes, and D of twin-bearing ewes, all subjected to a 75% feed restriction until glycemic values were compatible with subclinical pregnancy toxemia. Metabolic parameters were determined in all ewes from day 145 of gestation to 72 h postpartum. Likewise, the duration of gestation, type of lambing (eutocic/dystocic), labor length, and placental expulsion time were recorded. Glycemia and β-hydroxybutyrate values compatible with subclinical pregnancy toxemia were achieved after 48 h of feed restriction, being 30.67±2.37 mg/dL and 1.87±0.12 mmol/L in single-bearing ewes and 28.40±3.39 mg/dL and 2.21±0.42 mmol/L in twin-bearing ewes, respectively. It is concluded that subclinical pregnancy toxemia induced by feed restriction at the end of gestation, frequent situation that occurs in flock management, produces mild metabolic changes, which return to normal values after the delivery. These metabolic changes registered before lambing do not modify the gestation length, do not increase the percentage of dystocical deliveries, nor influence labor length or placental expulsion time.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of levels of soybean meal produced from damaged soybean grains replacing normal soybean meal on in vitro and in situ digestibility of ruminant diets as well as on intake, digestibility, and animal performance of growing/finishing lambs. In trial 1, we evaluated the in vitro digestibility of each soybean meals (normal and damaged), as well as diets containing levels of the damaged replacing the normal (0, 333, 667 and 1,000 g.kg−1) soybean meal on kinetic parameters of in vitro cumulative gas production, in vitro dry matter and crude protein digestibility, in situ rumen-degradable protein, rumen-undegradable protein, and in vitro intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein. In trial 2, we used 48 growing/finishing lambs to evaluate the effects of damaged soybean meal levels (0, 333, 667, and 1,000 g.kg−1) replacing normal soybean meal in feedlot diets (20:80 roughage:concentrate ratio) on intake and digestibility of nutrients and on animal performance. The damaged soybean meal presented lower values for total gas production and in vitro dry matter digestibility than normal soybean meal. Higher rumen-undegradable protein was estimated for damaged soybean meal than for the normal and consequently lower rumen-degradable protein for damaged compared to normal. Because of the lower rumen-degradable protein, damaged soybean meal promoted lower in vitro ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations than the normal in feedlot diets. In the in vivo trial, there were no effects of damaged soybean meal levels in the diets on intake and digestibility of nutrients (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and fiber) as well as on total weight gain, average daily gain, carcass yield, or feeding efficiency. Thus, damaged soybean meal can fully replace the normal one in lamb feedlot diets (in up to of 1,000 g.kg−1 of the normal soybean meal) without causing adverse effects on intake and digestibility of nutrients and on animal performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We evaluated the association of monthly milk urea N (MUN) concentrations before conception and days open in high-producing dairy cows from commercial herds in Southern Brazil. Other herd traits were also investigated regarding their relationship with days open. A database containing 16,569 monthly test-day records (obtained from 3,926 lactations of 2,145 cows) for productive, reproductive, and milk quality data was assembled from three different herds. Maximum MUN before conception was divided into quartiles as follows: ≤15.5 mg/dL (1), from 15.6 mg/dL to 18.0 mg/dL (2), from 18.1 to 20.5 mg/dL (3), and >20.5 mg/dL (4). When cows calved in spring and winter, days open averaged (mean±SE) 171.2±2.71 and 155.4±2.31, corresponding to an increase in 12 and 2%, respectively, related to cows that calved in summer (152.7±2.44). When cows calved in fall, a 12% reduction in days open (135.5±1.79) compared with cows that calved in summer was observed. The estimated regression coefficients showed that multiparous cows are expected to have an increase of 12 and 6% in days open when compared with primiparous and secondiparous cows, respectively. Days open were positively associated with the highest MUN value obtained until conception. Cows in the highest quartile of maximum MUN (>20.5 mg/dL) had more days open (184.6±2.93) than cows in quartiles 1, 2, and 3 (123.7±2.12, 150.2±2.16, and 160.5±2.29, respectively), which represents reductions of 40, 21, and 14%, respectively. These results suggest that a maximum MUN concentration before conception higher than 15.5 mg/dL may negatively impact the fertility of high-producing dairy cows.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of the content of total mixed rations (TMR) offered to high-producing cows from 20 dairy herds of Castro, Paraná State, Brazil. The average milk yield during the sample collection period was 38.0±6.8 kg/day, with 3.47±0.25% milk fat and 3.05±0.18% milk protein. The particle size distribution of samples of fresh diet and leftovers was evaluated using the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) and chemical analysis was also conducted. The TMR homogeneity was estimated by the coefficient of variation (CV) of particles retained on the two intermediary sieves (<19 and >1.18 mm), in which a CV higher than 5% indicated a poorly mixed TMR. The TMR offered exceeded the formulated TMR only for NDF (+7.3%) and was lower than the formulated TMR for CP (−6.5%), ADF (−10.1%), and ash (−18.6%) contents. These differences are due to daily variations in feed quality, mixing equipment, and ingredient mixing order, mostly for forage. Differences between leftovers and TMR offered were substantial: −9.4% for CP, +25.1% for NDF, +31.6% for ADF, and +13.1% for ash, suggesting a feed sorting effect against long forage particles and in favor of small concentrate particles. The proportion of the offered TMR retained in the top PSPS sieve showed positive correlations with NDF (r = 0.58) and ADF (r = 0.54) contents of the refusals, which indicates that cows sort against long particles. Positive correlations were also found between the CV in the second sieve and NDF (r = 0.56) and ADF (r = 0.47) contents of refusals, suggesting that poorly mixed diets are more easily sorted by cows. Therefore, evaluating the chemical and physical properties of TMR, especially for forage, is extremely important for providing a consistent diet.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of incorporating Bacillus spp.-fermented mixture (FM; 55% soybean meal and 45% feather meal) in the starter feed of goat kids, specifically its effects on growth performance, blood profile, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal traits; the FM protein profile was also evaluated. Seventy-five four-week-old male dairy goat kids were randomly assigned to three different starter diet groups containing B, D, or J strains of 5% Bacillus spp. FM (BG, DG, and JG), a commercial starter diet group (CG), and a starter diet group without FM (NG). During the starter phase (0-6 weeks), the average daily gain was higher in JG and BG goats than in the NG, with the average daily gain and feed conversion in BG found to be best at 6-8 weeks. Furthermore, the intestinal villi and papillae height in the ventral and dorsal sac of BG goats were higher than those in the other groups. The SDS-PAGE analysis of the FM samples further indicated that low molecular weight peptides in FM significantly increased after fermentation. Thus, using a suitable Bacillus sp. to ferment soybean and feather meals can increase the available nutrients. Taken together, these results indicate that adding 5% Bacillus spp.-fermented soybean and feather meal mixture to a starter feed is a feasible option to improve the growth performance of goat kids, without negatively impacting their health.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Records of 3716 Nubian goats from the United States (US) were analyzed to estimate relationships between fourteen conformation traits (CT) with lactation average somatic cell score (ASCS). To analyze ASCS, a mixed model was implemented. Linear and quadratic effects of CT traits, days in milk (DIM), and kidding age in months (KA) were considered as fixed covariates, and herd-year (HY) of kidding as a random effect. Correlation coefficients between CT traits and ASCS adjusted for HY and linear and quadratic KA effects were also obtained. The average ± standard deviations for ASCS, DIM, and milk yield were 5.17±0.54 Log2, equivalent to 451.3 cells × 103/mL, 266.3±52.1 days, and 776.3±280.4 kg per lactation, respectively. Significant non-linear relationships with an intermediate maximum were found between ASCS with teat diameter and medial suspensory ligament, while linear relationships were observed with stature, strength, rump width, fore udder attachment, udder depth, teat diameter, teat placement, and medial suspensory ligament. The model explained 53.7% of the ASCS variability, but the contribution of each type variable to increase the coefficient of determination was low (<0.52%). Herd-year explained a large proportion of the variation of ASCS (38.4%). All estimated correlations between CT and ASCS had low values, from −0.04 to 0.11, but most were significant. The results of this study show that conformation traits have few opportunities to contribute phenotypically to assess somatic cell score in Nubian goats.