Abstract in English:ABSTRACT With the objective of identifying the concerns, attitudes, and opinions of meat buyers and their relationship with their choice of place of purchase (supermarkets, free fair, or butchers), 381 consumers in the city of Garanhuns, Brazil, were interviewed. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and discriminant analysis, complemented by stepwise regression, Wilks’ Lambda test, and Fisher’s linear test. Most of the respondents expressed that inadequate commercialization of meat occurred in free fairs, and the lack of hygiene and the fact that meat was exposed in the environment without refrigeration were the main preoccupations. They also reported that meat consumption without inspection could lead to disease transmission, with pork being considered the most dangerous. Based on the theory of planned behavior, buyers agreed that their attitudes toward the purchase of meat (concern with food safety, price, animal welfare, environment, and slave labor) influenced their purchasing decisions. Regarding the subjective norms, the results indicated that purchase intention could be modulated by the opinion and judgment that other people exercise on the buyer’s choice decision. Regarding perceived control, the respondents said that they were confused at the time of purchase and got irritated after making a purchase that did not satisfy their desires. The factors that differentiated consumers who prefer to buy meat in supermarkets from those who prefer butchers and free fairs are mainly the price of the product, custom/tradition, customer service, and hygiene of the establishment. Buyers who have a lower level of schooling and live in rural areas also tended to buy meat in free fairs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize 24 representative sheep production farms from five mesoregions in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil, so that economic and productive improvement strategies could be proposed. The representative farms for each region were defined at meetings with sheep farmers and technicians via the rapid appraisal methodology and represent 65% of the state’s flock. The information of each representative farm was collected between March 2015 and February 2016. Principal component analysis was used to verify the relationships among the different variables that characterized the farms. These characteristics were: number of ewes (V1), total cost per kilogram of revenue-generating product (V2), feeding costs (V3), labor costs (V4), facility and equipment depreciation costs (V5), and gross margin in the production cycle (V6). Cluster analysis was performed, resulting in three distinct groups: one including eight, another seven, and the third, nine farms. The results aided in classifying the farms into groups with similar characteristics, such as production scale, reproductive efficiency, technical and managerial control, appreciation of cooperatives, and availability of continuous technical assistance. The production scale, reproductive and productive efficiency, adoption of technologies, and cooperative organizational structure can be emphasized as positive performance benchmarks and were the most important aspects to achieve positive economic results.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of associated glutamine and glutamic acid on growth performance and intestinal development of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings. Five isoproteic (~344.70 g kg−1 crude protein) and isocaloric diets (~3,925 kcal kg−1 gross energy) were developed containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 g kg−1 of associated glutamine and glutamic acid in extruded diets. Fish (n = 2,000, mean body weight of 2.12±0.53 g) were distributed into twenty 1-m3 floating net cages in an entirely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates, and each replicate comprised one floating net cage with 100 fish. Fish were hand-fed seven days per week, three times a day until apparent satiety for 45 days. There was a quadratic effect on final body weight, body weight gain, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein retention efficiency, net protein utilization, and intestinal villi height with optimized values for supplementation of associated glutamine and glutamic acid at 10.77, 10.67, 10.00, 8.85, 9.85, 10.15, and 10.98 g kg−1, respectively. There was no effect of associated glutamine and glutamic acid supplementation on feed intake, survival, and body composition. We conclude that 10.67 g kg−1 of associated glutamine and glutamic acid is adequate for growth performance optimization, and supplementation at 10.98 g kg−1 exerts trophic action and improves intestinal morphometry in cage-farmed Nile tilapia fingerlings.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Continuous illumination has been known to exert positive effects by stimulating growth and delaying unwanted maturation in seasonal-temperate farmed fish species like salmonids. However, in tropical fish like Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ), some studies exist showing inconsistent results and even fewer data is available regarding the effects of light intensity. To clarify some of the inconsistent results in literature and evaluate the effect of different light intensity levels on growth and sexual maturation in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ), we reared twenty days post-hatch Nile tilapia larvae under continuous illumination at three different light intensities and compared against a control photoperiod (12L:12D) up to 118 days post-hatch. A total of 600 fry were used using 75 fry per experimental unit in a previously tested experimental aquarium setup. Fish exposed to high and medium intensity continuous illumination treatments were significantly heavier (13-20%) and longer (6-8%) than fish exposed to the control photoperiod. Importantly, however, the degree of growth enhancement did not vary significantly according to the light intensity used. Feed intake was also higher in all continuous illumination treatments than in the control photoperiod, suggesting that growth benefits might be due to an increase in feed intake, which is not affected by the light intensities used. Gonadal development on the other hand, presented differences between sexes with a delay in spermatogenesis, while an advancement towards ovarian maturation occurred compared with the control fish. These results suggest that continuous illumination can influence both growth and gonadal development in Nile tilapia with no apparent differences between the light intensities tested in this study.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to estimate the breed, heterosis, and recombination effects on different components of the lactation curve of Girolando cattle. The dataset used consisted of 12,121 purebred cows of Holstein (H) and Gyr (G) breeds, and six H×G crossbred cows (Girolando). The model used presents random effects of herd and cow, regression coefficient associated with linear effect of proportion of H breed, regression coefficient associated with the linear effect of heterosis between H and G breeds, regression coefficient associated with the linear effect of recombination between H and G breeds, and random effect of residual. Dijkstra's (DJ), Nelder's (ND), Wilmink's (WL), and Wood's (WD) models were tested to fit production records of these different genetic groups. These models were then tested according to evaluation criteria of quality of fit (AIC, BIC, and RMSE), and the two best models (WD and WL) were chosen for estimation of 305-day milk yield (MY305), peak yield, time to peak, and persistency of milk yield. The breed effect was significant for all traits and components of the lactation curve. The heterosis effect was significant for all traits, and was more significant for MY305 (945.62±79.17 kg). Peak yield was the component of lactation curve that presented the most significant heterosis effect, partially explaining the heterosis effect (12 to 21%) found for MY305. The recombination effect was positive only for lactation period and time to peak of lactation in Girolando cows.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to simulate the genetic gains expected comparing random mating strategies and mate selection by optimum contribution with different penalty levels in the inbreeding rate of Santa Inês sheep. The optimum contribution theory was thus applied to optimize genetic gain in the long term in twelve selection groups by selectively mating 500 females with the respective males, increasingly penalizing the increase in inbreeding in the objective function. Genetic algorithms were used to find the optimum contribution. Optimization was achieved via EVA software. Selection candidates had their contribution defined into four treatments, using different values to weigh the genetic merit and penalize increases in inbreeding. This made it possible to measure the degree of control over those parameters that can be obtained with this methodology. This selection offers different levels of genetic gain, which are achievable from restrictions on the coancestry. The number of males selected and their distribution into selection groups varied according to the penalty attributed to inbreeding in the objective function. Mate selection using optimum contribution should be adopted when aiming to limit the increase in inbreeding. Increasing the exchange of genetic material between groups is recommended to elevate genetic gain and maintain control over inbreeding.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate genetic trends over 26 years for morphometric traits in Mangalarga Marchador horses. Twelve morphometric traits were evaluated (withers and croup heights; length of head, body, shoulder, croup, neck, back, and loins; width of head and croup, and cannon bone and thorax perimeters). These traits were evaluated in 38,341 animals born between 1987 and 2012 and with a relationship matrix of 77,719 animals. Gibbs sampler was used to obtain samples of the posterior distributions of genetic parameters under animal models. Genetic trends were estimated by regression of estimated breeding values in function of birth year. The heritabilities of all traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.27 to 0.48. However, the additive genetic coefficients of variation were low, ranging from 1.23 to 3.82%. The genetic trends of all the studied traits were significant, but of low magnitude. Negative genetic trend was observed for body length, while positive genetic trends were estimated for the other 11 traits. Although additive genetic differences accounted for a significant part of the phenotypic differences, genetic gains in the population were limited by low phenotypic variability. Therefore, it is necessary to develop data collection strategies to increase phenotypic and genetic variability in the population, such as the inclusion of animals that do not meet breed standard, but which have parents registered in the breeders’ association, in the database.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Estimation of genetic variability and genetic correlations between production traits (milk yield, fat yield, fat content, protein yield, and protein content) and selected type traits (angularity, fore udder height, rear udder height, front teat placement, teat length, and udder depth) was done using data sets of 10,860 first-calving Holstein-Friesian cows raised in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. Genetic variance and covariance were obtained using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) method, VCE v6 software, and the multi-trait mixed model. To enable more precise estimates of values for genetic variances and covariance, a relationship matrix was formed for the individual model (animal model), encompassing 21363 animals. The highest heritability values were obtained for milk yield (0.182), fat yield (0.134), and protein yield (0.170). The lowest heritability estimates were for teat length, front teat placement, rear udder height, and udder depth, all being under 0.110. Genetic correlations between production traits and linear type traits were between −0.131 (fat content and front teat length) and 0.307 (protein yield and fore udder attachment). The largest number of traits shows a positive genetic correlation with the traits of milk yield, which thus indicates possibility of genetic improvements of milk yield in cattle without jeopardizing the type traits or vice versa.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effects of maturity at harvest and row spacing on fermentative profile, aerobic stability, and nutritional value of biomass sorghum (BRS 716) silage. The experiment was conducted using a split-plot completely randomized block design with three row spacings (45, 70, and 90 cm) and four maturities at harvest (70, 100, 130, and 160 days) and eight replications. Polyvinyl chloride silos of known weight measuring 50 cm length and 10 cm diameter were used for silage production. Dry matter and total carbohydrate contents of the silage increased linearly, whereas crude protein and ash decreased linearly with maturity at harvest. Row spacing did not influence pH, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3), gas and effluent losses, and dry matter recovery of silage. The concentrations of malic, succinic, and acetic acids and ethanol responded quadratically to maturity at harvest. The levels of neutral detergent fiber, lignin, and indigestible neutral detergent fiber increased linearly with maturity at harvest. Ruminal degradation kinetics of dry matter of biomass sorghum silage was not influenced by row spacing. BRS 716 biomass sorghum should be planted at 70-cm row spacing and harvested at 160 days for silage production based on fermentative profile, dry matter losses, and nutritional characteristics.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This work evaluated the productive and structural characteristics of the BRS Zuri and BRS Quênia cultivars under rotational stocking management. The evaluations were divided into five periods according to rainfall regime (high, medium, and low rainfall) during 16 months of the years 2016-2018. Pastures were grazed when canopies intercepted 95% of incident light to stubbles corresponding to 50% of the pre-grazing height. The pre- and post-grazing heights varied as a function of cultivar, with higher values for BRS Zuri (89 and 49 cm) than for BRS Quênia (78 and 45 cm). No differences in canopy lowering percentage, forage mass, and stem and dead material dry masses between cultivars were observed, with averages of 41.3%, 5,856, 1,835, and 841 kg ha−1, respectively. The post-grazing canopy height was lower in the second year, which resulted in higher values of canopy lowering percentage (51%). The highest value for leaf:stem ratio for both cultivars was observed in the high rainfall period of the second year. Higher average tiller population density was observed for BRS Quênia (477 tillers m−2) than for BRS Zuri (260 tillers m−2) for all the rainfall periods. Forage bulk density was similar between cultivars and varied according to the periods evaluated, with the highest value observed during the dry period of the year. Forage mass, as well as its component fractions, did not vary between cultivars, but was influenced by the studied periods. The cultivars showed high leaf mass in the pre-grazing forage mass with an average value of 3,174 kg ha−1. The cultivars are similar in morphological composition and offer high yield potential when managed under a rotational grazing system.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Based on previous reports, our study aimed to obtain the first estimate on the contribution of termite mounds to CH4 emissions in Brazilian Cerrado pastures. We estimated that termite mounds occupy an area larger than 200,000 ha in degraded pastures, an important loss of grazing area considering the current scenario of land-use change of pastures to other crops in Brazil. Moreover, mound-building termites in degraded pastures may be responsible for CH4 emissions greater than 11 Mt CO2 eq. yr−1, which would notably affect the greenhouse gases (GHG) balance of grass-fed cattle production in Brazil. In this sense, it is urgent to conduct field-scale studies about the CH4 emissions by mound-building termites in pastures and its contribution to the C footprint of Brazilian beef.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The goal of our study was to evaluate the nutritional potential of dented corn hybrids for silage production. We performed a two-location trial in which 19 dented corn hybrids and five corn controls grew in four randomized blocks within two experimental areas located in the Northern (Campos dos Goytacazes) and Northwestern (Itaocara) Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. We recorded yields of fresh and dry forage matter and yields of fresh and dry grain matter, as well as chemical composition variables. We interpreted variables by assuming a Normal distribution for yield variables and a Beta distribution for chemical composition and ratios. The SAS GLIMMIX procedure fitted the linear model under those assumptions. Dual-pool models fitted the gas production profiles generated by in vitro anaerobic fermentations. We used the nlme of R software to fit the dual-pool models and the information-theoretic approach to evaluate their quality of fit. We did a cluster analysis (NbClust of R) to group corn hybrids based on fresh and DM yields and kinetic parameters of in vitro gas production. Three clusters of corn hybrids stood out, their basic differences relied on fresh and DM yields. Nonetheless, the least-squares means for gas production characteristics among groups did not present disjoint confidence intervals. Therefore, we can infer that dented corn hybrids rank by forage yield, but not by forage quality, and recommend the most productive ones that consistently outstand in both locations (hybrids UENF-2203, UENF-2192, UENF-2193, and UENF-506-11).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wilting times and application of an enzymatic-bacterial inoculant on the fermentative profile and nutritional characteristics of BRS capiaçu grass silage in a semi-arid region. Four wilting times treatments (control, 6, 24, and 30 h), with or without the addition of an enzymatic-bacterial inoculant, were analyzed as a split-plot completely randomized design with eight replications. Parameters of the rumen degradability test were analyzed using a split-plot completely randomized block design with four replications. There was no interaction between wilting times and inoculant application on pH, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), and aerobic stability of BRS capiaçu silage. Aerobic stability was reduced by 1.2 h for every 1-h increase in wilting time. Inoculant application reduced the pH values by 2.59% and extended the aerobic stability of the silage by 19 h. There was a significant interaction of wilting times and inoculant application on the levels of malic, succinic, lactic, and acetic acids. Inoculant application increased the contents of dry matter, ash, crude protein, insoluble neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates by 3.63, 6.13, 7.73, 6.39, and 9.97% compared with non-inoculated silages, respectively. Wilting times for up to 30 h and application of enzymatic-bacterial inoculant improves the fermentative profile and chemical composition and reduces dry matter losses of silage of BRS capiaçu grass harvested at 100 days of regrowth.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Forage biomass production and water storage (WS) was evaluated in cactus pear cv. Gigante fertilized with combinations of nitrogen (10, 70, 100, 130, and 190 kg ha−1 yr−1 N) and phosphorus (10, 70, 100, 130, and 190 kg ha−1 yr−1 P2O5) in annual (AH) and biennial (BH) harvest frequencies, in Quixadá and Tejuçuoca, Brazil. A randomized complete block design was used in a split-plot arrangement with four replications. In Quixadá, the maximum total forage biomass (TFB) recorded in the AH was 3,522.9 kg ha−1 yr−1 for the N/P2O5 combination of 134.6/190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1, and in the BH, the maximum TFB of 1,583.2 kg ha−1 yr−1 was recorded for the N/P2O5 combination of 114.6/136.8 kg ha−1 yr−1. In Tejuçuoca, the maximum TFB recorded in the AH was 9,783.0 kg ha−1 yr−1 for the N/P2O5 combination of 137.7/190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1, and in the BH, the maximum TFB of 12,124.0 kg ha−1 yr−1 was recorded for the N/P2O5 combination of 190.0/56.8 kg ha−1 yr−1. In Quixadá, the maximum WS recorded in the AH was 39.1 kg ha−1 mm−1 for the N/P2O5 combination of 161.0/190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1, and in the BH, the maximum WS of 11.3 kg ha−1 mm−1 was recorded for the N/P2O5 combination of 113.5/158.7 kg ha−1 yr−1. In Tejuçuoca, the maximum WS recorded in the AH was 196.1 kg ha−1 mm−1 for the N/P2O5 combination of 190.0/190.0 kg ha−1 yr−1, and in the BH, the maximum WS of 265.5 kg ha−1 mm−1 was recorded for the N/P2O5 combination of 190.0/10.0 kg ha−1 yr−1. To achieve the persistence and longevity of the cactus pear cv. Gigante, the management with BH and fertilization with the N/P2O5 combination of 114.6/136.8 kg ha−1 yr−1 (in regions similar to Quixadá) and N/P2O5 combination of 190.0/56.8 kg ha−1 yr−1 (in regions similar to Tejuçuoca) is recommended.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted using direct method to determine the standardized ileal phosphorus (P) digestibility coefficient (SIPDC) of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry byproduct meal (PBM) for broilers. In the first experiment, three MBM from different batches were evaluated, with four treatments (MBMI, MBMII, MBMIII, and a P-free diet) and nine replicates of seven birds each, totaling 252 birds distributed across a completely randomized design. The P-free diet was used to determine endogenous P losses. Titanium dioxide (5 g kg−1) was used as an indigestible indicator. In the second experiment, three PBM from different batches were evaluated, with 189 birds distributed over three treatments (PBMI, PBMII, and PBMIII) and nine replicates of seven birds each. These two experiments were conducted when birds were 19-22 days old. The birds were euthanized to collect the ileal content. Using the P-free diet, endogenous P losses were determined at 94.9 mg kg−1 dry matter intake. Standardized ileal P digestibility of MBMI (0.65) and MBMIII (0.69) was higher compared with MBMII (0.49). The SIPDC determined for three PBM sources were similar and 0.96, 0.96, and 0.93 for PBMI, PBMII, and PBMIII, respectively. The present study demonstrates that P in MBM is not as available as it is believed and that the variability between batches should be considered by nutritionists, while PBM can be considered an excellent P source to broiler diets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Growth performance, organ biometrics, bone characteristics, and intestinal morphometry were evaluated in broilers fed a diet containing orange (Citrus sinensis L.) essential oil. A completely randomized design was used, with five treatments with orange essential oil (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg kg−1 diet) and six replications with 20 birds per experimental unit. In the pre-starter phase, feed intake and weight gain of all birds linearly increased, while feed conversion decreased with the addition of orange essential oil in the feed. At day 21, bone density (Seedor Index) and body weight were higher in the birds that received the maximum level of essential oil (400 mg kg−1) compared with those not treated with essential oil. The observed effects resulted from the better functioning of the physiological mechanisms of digestion and absorption of nutrients, characterized by the increase in villus height. Glycemia and weights of gastrointestinal tract organs of broilers at 21 days of age were not influenced by the evaluated essential oil. The results show that the addition of phytogenic additives to the diet does not cause any physiological impairment in birds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of chromium yeast (Cr yeast) and two apparent metabolizable energy (AME) levels on productive performance, egg quality, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in laying hens. A total of 192 Bovans White laying hens at 47 weeks of age were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments (six replicates each) in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement: four levels of supplemental Cr (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm as Cr yeast) and two AME levels (2,780 and 2,900 kcal AME kg−1). No significant effect of Cr yeast supplementation on feed intake, egg weight, egg production, intact eggs, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, or egg quality was observed. Egg quality parameters and Cr content in the yolk were not affected by dietary treatments. Plasma glucose and lipid levels were not influenced by either Cr yeast or AME levels used in this study. However, Cr yeast supplementation improved yolk percentage and hepatic glycogen content. The inclusion of Cr yeast at 0.2 and 0.4 ppm induced the highest hepatic glycogen content with the energy levels 2,900 and 2,780 kcal AME kg−1, respectively. Laying hens fed 2,900 kcal AME kg−1 showed the highest abdominal fat. The results observed in the present study support the hypothesis that the lack of positive effects of Cr yeast supplementation on production performance and egg quality may be related to good management practices, as the birds were not subjected to stressful conditions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate different nutritional plans of net energy (NE) with a constant calorie:nutrient ratio on the performance of piglets from 7 to 30 kg. Sixty barrows with an initial weight of 7.11±0.89 kg were distributed among five nutritional plans: two NE-decreasing plans (A and B, starting from NE concentrations of 2.47 and 2.52 Mcal kg−1, respectively, and ending both at 2.37 Mcal kg−1) and three NE-constant plans (C, 2.37 Mcal kg−1; D, 2.42 Mcal kg−1; and E, 2.47 Mcal kg−1). The nutritional plans were composed of two decreasing plans: A, 2.47-2.42-2.37-2.37-2.37 Mcal of NE kg−1 of feed; B, 2.52-2.47-2.42-2.37-2.37 Mcal of NE kg−1 of feed; and three constant plans: C, 2.37 Mcal of NE kg−1 of feed; D, 2.42 Mcal of NE kg−1 of feed; E, 2.47 Mcal of NE kg−1 of feed, from 7 to 10, 10 to 15, 15 to 20, 20 to 25, and 25 to 30 kg, respectively, with six replicates per treatment and two animals per experimental unit. Animal performance was evaluated through the following measurements: average daily feed intake (ADFI), NE intake, standardized ileal digestible lysine intake (SID Lys intake), average daily gain (ADG), feed:gain ratio (F:G), final weight (FW), feed cost per kg of weight gain (CWG), economic efficiency index (EEI), and fecal score. Piglets’ final weight was 32.95±3.30 kg. Considering the total experimental period, there was no effect of the nutritional plan on ADG, F:G, CWG, and EEI. The final weight of piglets under plan D was higher than that recorded for those allocated to plan C, not differing from the other nutritional plans. Piglets fed under nutritional plans A and D presented higher ADFI compared with those subjected to other plans. Net energy and SID Lys intakes were significantly higher in piglets subjected to plans A, D, and E compared with those under plans B and C. Net energy nutritional plans did not influence the fecal score and the occurrence of diarrhea of the piglets. Based on our analysis, a nutritional plan containing a constant NE level of 2.42 Mcal kg−1 of feed may be recommended for piglets from 7 to 30 kg.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study used mobile bags to estimate horse nutrient digestibility of tropical grasses found in semi-arid areas of the Brazilian Northeast region. Five female mixed-breed horses with a mean weight of 400±23 kg were assigned to a 5×5 Latin square design with five periods of seven days and five grasses: Tifton 85 hay ( Cynodon spp. ), sixweeks threeawn ( Aristida adscensionis Linn.), Alexandergrass ( Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc), capim-de-raiz ( Chloris orthonoton Doell), and Sabi grass ( Urochloa mosambicensis ). The nutrient content of forages was determined prior to inoculation in horses and after recovery of mobile bags from feces. The digestibility coefficients were determined from the difference between the inoculated and recovered material. The dry matter, organic matter, mineral matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber contents of the grass species were analyzed. Digestibility data were subjected to analysis of variance using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, version 9.0) software. Higher dry matter digestibility coefficients were observed in Tifton 85 (74.61%), Alexandergrass (74.30%), and capim-de-raiz (68.88%) than in sixweeks threeawn (48.40%) and Sabi grass (52.89%). The highest crude protein digestibility coefficients were found for Alexandergrass (95.70%), Tifton 85 (93.50%), and sixweeks threeawn (93.35%). Sixweeks threeawn had lower apparent mineral matter digestibility than the other grasses. The digestibility coefficients of Alexandergrass and capim-de-raiz indicate that those grasses have potential to be used in equine feed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of microalgae Schizochytrium sp. on performance, yolk lipid profile, and egg quality of Japanese quail. A flock of 210 quail was distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g of Schizochytrium sp./kg of feed) and six replications with seven birds per cage. Performance and egg quality were not affected, except for a quadratic effect on yolk color, which reached the maximum value with the inclusion of 40 g of Schizochytrium sp./kg. There was linear reduction in the content of saturated fatty acids and a linear increase of polyunsaturated:saturated and polyunsaturated:monounsaturated ratios and n-6. The content of n-3 showed a minimum value with the inclusion of 6.5 g of Schizochytrium sp./kg, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was maximized with the addition of 10.5 g of microalgae/kg. As for the sensory attributes color, aroma, and overall impression, there was linear increase with the addition of increasing levels of microalgae. The inclusion of up to 40 g of microalgae Schizochytrium sp./kg in the diet of Japanese quail did not present changes in the performance nor in the egg quality but accentuated the yolk color, promoted the fortification of n-3 in the eggs, and still provided excellent sensorial acceptance. The egg fortification can add value to the product, increasing the producer remuneration and improving the nutritional quality of the diet for humans.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine if in ovo feeding with 25(OH)D3 could influence the incubation parameters of bone mineral composition, mineral density, and bone breaking strength in post-hatch broilers. Fertile eggs from Cobb® broiler breeders were either non-injected or injected with 0, 1.2, 2.4, or 3.6 μg of 25(OH)D3/100 μL olive oil at eight days of incubation. The data were subjected to variance analysis using the General Linear Model procedure (GLM) of SAS®. There was a contrast-1 effect (non-injected eggs vs. injected eggs) for tibial bone mineral density and egg mass loss, with higher bone mineral density in non-injected eggs (0.836 mmAl) compared with injected eggs (0.790 mmAl) and lower egg mass loss in non-injected eggs (11.25%) compared with injected eggs (12.10%). Tibial and femur bone mineral density responded quadratically, and injections of 0.47 and 0.68 μg of 25(OH)D3 increased tibia and femur bone mineral density, respectively. Egg mass loss responded quadratically, and 25(OH)D3 injections of 2.21 μg reduced egg mass loss (11.60%). In ovo feeding of 25(OH)D3 can compromise bone mineral density of post-hatch chicken.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of the present research was to determine the effect of long synchronization protocols based on reused progesterone devices (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]) associated with different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on reproductive variables in crossbred sheep (Suffolk × Kathadin × Dorset). The CIDR were used for eleven days in a previous study in sheep from the same herd and were washed and disinfected before reusing. Sixty-four sheep, in the reproductive season, were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 16). Treatments consisted of a group with 10 d CIDR and 300 IU eCG; a group with 10 d CIDR and 400 IU of eCG; a group with 12 d CIDR and 300 IU of eCG; and a group with 12 d CIDR and 400 IU of eCG. A completely randomized design was used. There was an estrous presentation rate of 100% in all treatments. The begining of estrous, gestation rate, fertility rate, type of parturition, and prolificacy index were equal between groups. Progesterone serum concentration was higher in sheep from the 10 d CIDR groups. The CIDR, reused for the second time, associated with 300 or 400 IU of eCG for estrous synchronization in sheep, are effective to obtain good pregnancy rates and ensures higher prolificacy rates.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of Ringer’s lactate solution (RL) and RL + 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and compare them with the efficiency of Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (D-PBS). Twenty-two Wagyu female cattle were subjected to superovulation and were randomly distributed to form three groups: group 1 – uterine flushing with RL (n = 8), group 2 – uterine flushing with RL + 1% FBS (n = 7), and group 3 – uterine flushing with D-PBS (n = 7, control group). Cows received a CIDR® device containing 1.9 g of progesterone at random stages of the estrous cycle (day 0). Progesterone withdrawal occurred on day 8 in the morning. For heifers, 160 mg of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-P) was used and for cows, 200 mg. Prostaglandin F2α was also injected on the eighth day of FSH-P administration. On day 9, in the morning, hCG was administered. Females were superovulated and inseminated twice in a fixed time for embryo transfer. On the 16th day, females were subjected to uterine flushing for embryo collection. We collected 76 embryos from 22 females subjected to superovulation, of which 52 were transferable and 24 had degenerated. The total of embryos collected was 23, 16, and 23 for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The embryo recovery rates per group were 13.86±4.23, 15.39±4.61 and 27.16±13.33%, in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The means for the total structures collected per female were 2.88±0.85, 3.00±1.23, and 4.57±1.72 in groups flushed with RL, RL + 1% FBS, and D-PBS, respectively. We conclude that Ringer’s lactate solution and Ringer’s lactate solution + 1% of FBS and Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline showed no significant differences in terms of embryo quality or quantity, suggesting that Ringer’s lactate solution is an alternative for collecting embryos in cattle.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to review the effect of ensiling on the feeding value of flint corn grain and performance of feedlot cattle. In this meta-analysis, ensiled corn grain included both high-moisture corn and rehydrated corn grain. The criteria for a publication enter in the database were: diet was offered as a total mixed ration, diet contained at least 300 g/kg dry matter (DM) of ensiled or dry corn grain, and ensiled grain contained a minimum of 280 g/kg of moisture. The final dataset included 21 paired comparisons from eight publications, from 2002 to 2019. A sub dataset of digestibility trials contained six paired comparisons for starch digestibility and five paired comparisons for DM digestibility. The outcomes were compared using the Mixed procedure of SAS, including a random effect of comparison within study (paired comparison). Ensiling corn grain increased total-tract digestibility of DM (+4.59%) and starch (+3.33%), decreased DM intake by 14.1% (10.3 and 8.85 kg/d for dry and ensiled, respectively) and metabolizable energy intake by 4.39%, but did not affect average daily gain (1.61 and 1.58 kg/d for dry and ensiled corn, respectively). Therefore, ensiling corn grain increased feed efficiency by 18.3% (0.164 and 0.194, for dry and ensiled, respectively). The feeding value was on average 25.7% higher for ensiled corn grain compared with dry corn grain. Ensiling is an efficient strategy to improve the caloric value of flint corn grain for finishing cattle.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ruminal parameters of goats fed diets supplemented with vegetable oils. Four rumen-cannulated Saanen goats were allocated to four treatments, which consisted of a control diet and diets with the inclusion of 30 g of canola, sunflower, or soybean oils per kilogram of diet dry matter (DM). The experiment lasted 40 days, which were divided into four 10-day periods. Forage intake was estimated using chromium oxide as an external marker, and supplement intake was determined as the difference between the daily amount supplied and orts. Rumen fermentation parameters were evaluated from samples of rumen fluid collected every 2 h, for 12 h. Rumen pH and short-chain fatty acid and ammonia nitrogen concentrations were measured. There was no effect of lipid supplementation on DM intake. Ether extract intake was highest in the treatments with oil inclusion, and the highest acid detergent fiber intake was obtained with the diet containing canola oil. The pH was highest in the group fed soybean oil and responded quadratically to the collection times. Total short-chain fatty acid and acetic acid concentrations also responded quadratically to the collection times. Propionic and butyric acid concentrations and acetic:propionic acid ratio showed a cubic behavior with the increasing collection times. Canola, sunflower, or soybean oils can be included at 30 g/kg of the diet DM as a strategy to increase the energy density of goat diets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils in goat kid diets on performance, carcass traits, and meat composition, quality, and fatty acid profile. Forty-eight Anglo Nubian kids were evaluated in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, namely, control diet and diets including 2.5% canola, sunflower, or soybean oils. The animals were slaughtered at 30 kg live weight and performance, carcass and meat quality, centesimal composition, and fatty acid profile were evaluated. The treatments did not influence carcass yield or meat color. Among the saturated fatty acids, only caprylic, palmitic, and heptadecanoic acids differed among the treatments, whereas total saturated fatty acids decreased in the sunflower oil treatment. Monounsaturated fatty acids were not influenced by lipid supplementation. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid was highest in the sunflower oil-treated group. Total PUFA were higher for the soybean oil-supplemented group, but similar to that achieved with sunflower oil. The highest omega-6 content was obtained with dietary inclusion of sunflower oil, whereas conjugated linoleic acid, atherogenicity index, and hypocholesterolemic:hypocholesterolemic ratio improved with the inclusion of sunflower and soybean oils. Supplementation with vegetable oils improves the fatty acid profile of kid meat without affecting animal performance. Better results are obtained with sunflower and soybean oils; therefore, it is up to the producer to choose the diet according to its cost.