Dieta de um grupo de mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae), na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo

Diet of a black lion tamarin group, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae), in Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo

In this study carried out in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, a wild group of black lion tamarins was accompanied during 1989 to 1991, to analyse the dietary habits of the species. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. A total of 961 behaviors were recorded, of which feeding occupied 23.3% of the time involved in the behaviors. The major dietary components observed in the black lion tamarins were fruits, tree exudates and animal preys (67.9%, 22.8% and 8.9% respectively). Fruits varied monthly from 47.4 to 97.1 %, being consumed more during the rainy season, while tree exudates varied from 0 to 54.7%, and were consumed mainly during the dry season. The animal prey accounted for 0 to 15.8% of the diet. The most important dietary resource for the black lion tamarins was the fruit of Syagrus romanzoffiana Glass., representing 29.9% of the foraging observations. The diet exhibited pronounced differences among dry and rainy seasons, presumably as a consequence of the food shortage of fruits during dry season.

Callitrichidae; diet; feeding behavior; seasonal variation; black lion tamarin


Callitrichidae; diet; feeding behavior; seasonal variation; black lion tamarin

Dieta de um grupo de mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae), na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo1 1 Contribuição número 1150 do Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná.

Diet of a black lion tamarin group, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae), in Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo

Fernando de Camargo Passos

Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. Caixa Postal 19020, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. E-mail: fpassos@bio.ufpr.br

ABSTRACT

In this study carried out in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, a wild group of black lion tamarins was accompanied during 1989 to 1991, to analyse the dietary habits of the species. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. A total of 961 behaviors were recorded, of which feeding occupied 23.3% of the time involved in the behaviors. The major dietary components observed in the black lion tamarins were fruits, tree exudates and animal preys (67.9%, 22.8% and 8.9% respectively). Fruits varied monthly from 47.4 to 97.1 %, being consumed more during the rainy season, while tree exudates varied from 0 to 54.7%, and were consumed mainly during the dry season. The animal prey accounted for 0 to 15.8% of the diet. The most important dietary resource for the black lion tamarins was the fruit of Syagrus romanzoffiana Glass., representing 29.9% of the foraging observations. The diet exhibited pronounced differences among dry and rainy seasons, presumably as a consequence of the food shortage of fruits during dry season.

Key words: Callitrichidae, diet, feeding behavior, seasonal variation, black lion tamarin

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AGRADECIMENTOS. Agradeço ao Instituto Florestal de São Paulo e ao IBAMA por possibilitar que este estudo fosse realizado, a Cory Teixeira de Carvalho pela orientação e suporte sempre contínuo, a José Carvalho pela assistência no campo, a Hermógenes de Freitas Leitão-Filho pela identificação das espécies vegetais, a Anthony B. Rylands, Eleonore Setz, Ivan Sazima, Wagner A. Pedro, Wesley R. Silva pelos comentários e sugestões, a James J. Roper pela revisão do abstract, ao apoio da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia) e ao financiamento da Capes e Fundação MB.

REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS

ALTMANN, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.

CARVALHO, C.T. de & CF. de CARVALHO. 1989. A organização social dos sauís-pretos, (Leontopithecus chrysopygus Mikan), na reserva de Teodoro Sampaio, São Paulo (Primates, Callithricidae). Revta bras. Zool. 6 (4): 707-717.

CARVALHO, C.T.; A.L.K. ALBERBAZ & C.A.T. LUCCA. 1989. Aspectos da bionomia do mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae). Rev. Inst. Flor., São Paulo, 1 (1): 67-83.

COIMBRA-FILHO, A.F. 1970a. Considerações gerais e situação atual dos micos-leoes escuros, Leontideus chrysomelas (Kuhl, 1820) e Leontideus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823) (Callitrichidae, Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 30 (2): 249-268.

______. 1970b . Acerca da redescoberta de Leontideus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823)e apontamentos sobre sua ecologia (Callitrichidae, Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 30 (4): 609-615.

______. 1976. Leontopithecus rosalia chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823), o mico leão doEstado de São Paulo. Silvicultura 10: 1-36.

______. 1981. Animais predados ou rejeitados pelo sauí-piranga, Leontopithecusr. rosalia (L., 1766) na sua área de ocorrência primitiva (Callitrichidae, Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 41 (4): 717-731.

COIMBRA-FILHO, A.F. & R.A. MITTERMEIER. 1977. Conservation of the brazilianlion tamarins {Leontopithecus rosalia), p. 59-94. In: Prince Rainier & G.H. Bourmne (Eds). Primate Conservation. New York, Academic Press.

DIETZ, J.M.; CA. PERES & L. PINDER. 1997. Foraging ecology and use of space inwild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Amer. Jour. Primatol. 41:289-305.

EGLER, S.G. 1992. Feeding ecology of Saguinus bicolor bicolor (Callitrichidae, Primates) in relict forest in Manaus, Brazilian Amazônia. Folia Primatol. 59: 61-76.

FONSECA, G.A.B. & T.E. LACHER Jr. 1984. Exudate-feeding by Callithrixjacchus penicillata in semideciduous woodland (Cerradão) in central Brazil. Primates 25 (4): 441-450.

FOSTER, R.B. 1982. Famine on Barro Colorado Island, p. 201-212. In: E.D. LEIGH; A.S. Rand & D.M. WlNDSON (Eds). The ecology of a tropical forest: seasonal rythms and long-term changes. Washington, D.C, Smithsonian Institution Press, 468p.

GARBER, P.A. 1988. Diet, foraging patterns, and resource defence in a mixed species troop of Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis in Amazonian Peru. Behaviour 105: 18-34.

______. 1993. Feeding ecology and behaviour of the genus Saguinus, p.273-295. In: A.B. RYLANDS (Ed.). Marmosets and tamarins: systematics, behaviour,and ecology. Oxford. Oxford University Press.

LACHER, T.E. JR.; G.A.B. FONSECA; C. ALVES JR. & B. MAGALHAES-CASTRO. 1984. Parasitism of trees by marmosets in a central brazilian gallery forest. Biotropica 16: 202-209.

MAMEDE-COSTA, AC & S. GODÓI. 1998. Consuption of Syagrus romanzoffianá(Arecaceae) fruits, by blacklion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) insouth-eastern Brazil. Mammalia 62 (2): 310-313.

PASSOS, F.C 1994. Behavior of the black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, in different forest leveis in the Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 2 (Suppl.): 40-41.

______. 1997. Seed dispersai by black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Primates, Callitrichidae), in southeastern Brazil. Mammalia 61 (I): 109-111.

PASSOS, F.C. & A. KEUROGHLIAN (prelo). Prey foraging behavior, microhabitatsand techniques used by black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus Mikan1823 (Mammalia, Callitrichidae). Revta bras. Zool. .

PERES, CA. 1993. Diet and feeding ecology of saddle-back (Saguinusfuscicollis) and moustached (S. mystax) tamarins in an Amazonian terra firme forest. Jour. Zool. 230: 567-592.

RAMIREZ, M.F.; C.H. FREESE & CJ. REVILHA. 1977. Feeding ecology of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, in northeastern Peru, p.91-104. In: D.G. KLEI-MAN (Ed.). The biology and conservation of the Callitrichidae. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution Press, 354p.

RIZZINI, C.T. & A.F. COIMBRA-FILHO. 1981. Lesões produzidas pelo sagui, Callithrix p. penicillata (E. Geoffroy, 1812), em árvores do cerrado (Callitrichidae, Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 41 (3): 579-583.

RYLANDS, A.B. 1986. Ranging behavior and habitat preference of a wild marmoset group, Callithrix humeralifer (Callitrichidae, Primates). Jour. Zool. 210 (4): 489-514.

______. 1989. Sympatric Brazilian callitrichids: the black-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix kuhli, and the golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus. Jour. Hum. Evol. 18: 679-695.

______. 1993. The ecology ofthe lion tamarins, Leontopithecus: some intrageneric differences and comparisons with other callitrichids, p.296-313. In: A. B. Rylands (Ed.). Marmosets and tamarins: systematics, behaviour, andecology. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

SEAL, U.; J. BALLOU & C. VALLADARES-PADUA. 1990. Leontopithecus Population Analysis. Apple Valley, MN: IUCN/SSC/CBSG.

SOINI, P. 1993. The ecology of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea: some comparisons with two sympatric tamarins, p.257-261. In: A.B. Rylands (Ed.).Marmosets and tamarins: systematics, behaviour, and ecology. Oxford,Oxford University Press.

TERBORGH, J. 1983. Five new world primates - a study in comparative ecology. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 260p.

______. 1986. Keystone plant resources in the tropical forest, p.330-344. In: M.E. SOULÉ (Ed.). Conservation Biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Suderland, Sinauer Associates Inc., 584p.

Recebido em 06.X.1999; aceito em 11.VI.1999.

  • ALTMANN, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-267.
  • CARVALHO, C.T. de & CF. de CARVALHO. 1989. A organização social dos sauís-pretos, (Leontopithecus chrysopygus Mikan), na reserva de Teodoro Sampaio, São Paulo (Primates, Callithricidae). Revta bras. Zool. 6 (4): 707-717.
  • CARVALHO, C.T.; A.L.K. ALBERBAZ & C.A.T. LUCCA. 1989. Aspectos da bionomia do mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae). Rev. Inst. Flor., São Paulo, 1 (1): 67-83.
  • COIMBRA-FILHO, A.F. 1970a. Considerações gerais e situação atual dos micos-leoes escuros, Leontideus chrysomelas (Kuhl, 1820) e Leontideus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823) (Callitrichidae, Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 30 (2): 249-268.
  • ______. 1970b . Acerca da redescoberta de Leontideus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823)e apontamentos sobre sua ecologia (Callitrichidae, Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 30 (4): 609-615.
  • ______. 1976. Leontopithecus rosalia chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823), o mico leão doEstado de São Paulo. Silvicultura 10: 1-36.
  • ______. 1981. Animais predados ou rejeitados pelo sauí-piranga, Leontopithecusr. rosalia (L., 1766) na sua área de ocorrência primitiva (Callitrichidae, Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 41 (4): 717-731.
  • COIMBRA-FILHO, A.F. & R.A. MITTERMEIER. 1977. Conservation of the brazilianlion tamarins {Leontopithecus rosalia), p. 59-94. In: Prince Rainier & G.H. Bourmne (Eds). Primate Conservation. New York, Academic Press.
  • DIETZ, J.M.; CA. PERES & L. PINDER. 1997. Foraging ecology and use of space inwild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Amer. Jour. Primatol. 41:289-305.
  • EGLER, S.G. 1992. Feeding ecology of Saguinus bicolor bicolor (Callitrichidae, Primates) in relict forest in Manaus, Brazilian Amazônia. Folia Primatol. 59: 61-76.
  • FONSECA, G.A.B. & T.E. LACHER Jr. 1984. Exudate-feeding by Callithrixjacchus penicillata in semideciduous woodland (Cerradão) in central Brazil. Primates 25 (4): 441-450.
  • FOSTER, R.B. 1982. Famine on Barro Colorado Island, p. 201-212. In: E.D. LEIGH; A.S. Rand & D.M. WlNDSON (Eds). The ecology of a tropical forest: seasonal rythms and long-term changes. Washington, D.C, Smithsonian Institution Press, 468p.
  • GARBER, P.A. 1988. Diet, foraging patterns, and resource defence in a mixed species troop of Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis in Amazonian Peru. Behaviour 105: 18-34.
  • ______. 1993. Feeding ecology and behaviour of the genus Saguinus, p.273-295. In: A.B. RYLANDS (Ed.). Marmosets and tamarins: systematics, behaviour,and ecology. Oxford. Oxford University Press.
  • LACHER, T.E. JR.; G.A.B. FONSECA; C. ALVES JR. & B. MAGALHAES-CASTRO. 1984. Parasitism of trees by marmosets in a central brazilian gallery forest. Biotropica 16: 202-209.
  • MAMEDE-COSTA, AC & S. GODÓI. 1998. Consuption of Syagrus romanzoffianá(Arecaceae) fruits, by blacklion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) insouth-eastern Brazil. Mammalia 62 (2): 310-313.
  • PASSOS, F.C 1994. Behavior of the black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, in different forest leveis in the Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 2 (Suppl.): 40-41.
  • ______. 1997. Seed dispersai by black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Primates, Callitrichidae), in southeastern Brazil. Mammalia 61 (I): 109-111.
  • PASSOS, F.C. & A. KEUROGHLIAN (prelo). Prey foraging behavior, microhabitatsand techniques used by black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus Mikan1823 (Mammalia, Callitrichidae). Revta bras. Zool.
  • PERES, CA. 1993. Diet and feeding ecology of saddle-back (Saguinusfuscicollis) and moustached (S. mystax) tamarins in an Amazonian terra firme forest. Jour. Zool. 230: 567-592.
  • RAMIREZ, M.F.; C.H. FREESE & CJ. REVILHA. 1977. Feeding ecology of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, in northeastern Peru, p.91-104. In: D.G. KLEI-MAN (Ed.). The biology and conservation of the Callitrichidae. Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution Press, 354p.
  • RIZZINI, C.T. & A.F. COIMBRA-FILHO. 1981. Lesões produzidas pelo sagui, Callithrix p. penicillata (E. Geoffroy, 1812), em árvores do cerrado (Callitrichidae, Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 41 (3): 579-583.
  • RYLANDS, A.B. 1986. Ranging behavior and habitat preference of a wild marmoset group, Callithrix humeralifer (Callitrichidae, Primates). Jour. Zool. 210 (4): 489-514.
  • ______. 1989. Sympatric Brazilian callitrichids: the black-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix kuhli, and the golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus. Jour. Hum. Evol. 18: 679-695.
  • ______. 1993. The ecology ofthe lion tamarins, Leontopithecus: some intrageneric differences and comparisons with other callitrichids, p.296-313. In: A. B. Rylands (Ed.). Marmosets and tamarins: systematics, behaviour, andecology. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • SEAL, U.; J. BALLOU & C. VALLADARES-PADUA. 1990. Leontopithecus Population Analysis. Apple Valley, MN: IUCN/SSC/CBSG.
  • SOINI, P. 1993. The ecology of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea: some comparisons with two sympatric tamarins, p.257-261. In: A.B. Rylands (Ed.).Marmosets and tamarins: systematics, behaviour, and ecology. Oxford,Oxford University Press.
  • TERBORGH, J. 1983. Five new world primates - a study in comparative ecology. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 260p.
  • ______. 1986. Keystone plant resources in the tropical forest, p.330-344. In: M.E. SOULÉ (Ed.). Conservation Biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Suderland, Sinauer Associates Inc., 584p.

  • 1
    Contribuição número 1150 do Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná.

Datas de Publicação

  • Publicação nesta coleção
    25 Jun 2009
  • Data do Fascículo
    1999

Histórico

  • Aceito
    11 Jun 1999
  • Recebido
    06 Out 1999
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