First report of the digenetic trematode Psilochasmus oxyurus (Creplin) in the domestic goose, Anser anser (Linnaeus) in South America

Primeiro registro do trematódeo digenético Psilochasmus oxyurus (Creplin) no ganso doméstico (Anser anser (Linnaeus) na América do Sul

Abstracts

The digenetic trematode Psilochasmus oxyurus (Creplin, 1835) Lühe, 1909, although with a large geographical distribution, is referred in geese (Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758) for the first time in South America, on the basis of specimens parasitizing Brazilian domestic geese, with a prevalence of 20%. Brief morphometric data on the parasites are included. Clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions were not observed in the birds.

Anatidae; Anseriformes; birds; Brazil; digeneans; Psilostomidae


O trematódeo digenético Psilochasmus oxyurus (Creplin, 1835) Lühe, 1909, embora de ampla distribuição geográfica, é referido em gansos (Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758) pela primeira vez na América do Sul, com base em espécimes coletados em gansos domésticos no Brasil, com prevalência de 20%. Dados morfométricos gerais dos parasitos são incluídos. Não foram observados sinais clínicos, macro lesões ou alterações histopatológicas nas aves.

Anatidae; Anseriformes; aves; Brasil; digenéticos; Psilostomidae


SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION

First report of the digenetic trematode Psilochasmus oxyurus (Creplin) in the domestic goose, Anser anser (Linnaeus) in South America

Primeiro registro do trematódeo digenético Psilochasmus oxyurus (Creplin) no ganso doméstico (Anser anser (Linnaeus) na América do Sul

Berenice M. M. FernandesI; Rodrigo C. MenezesI; Rogério TortellyII; Dely NoronhaI; Roberto M. PintoI, II

IDepartamento de Helmintologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz. Avenida Brasil 4365, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

IIDepartamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense. 24220-900 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

ABSTRACT

The digenetic trematode Psilochasmus oxyurus (Creplin, 1835) Lühe, 1909, although with a large geographical distribution, is referred in geese (Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758) for the first time in South America, on the basis of specimens parasitizing Brazilian domestic geese, with a prevalence of 20%. Brief morphometric data on the parasites are included. Clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions were not observed in the birds.

Key words: Anatidae; Anseriformes; birds; Brazil; digeneans; Psilostomidae.

RESUMO

O trematódeo digenético Psilochasmus oxyurus (Creplin, 1835) Lühe, 1909, embora de ampla distribuição geográfica, é referido em gansos (Anser anser Linnaeus, 1758) pela primeira vez na América do Sul, com base em espécimes coletados em gansos domésticos no Brasil, com prevalência de 20%. Dados morfométricos gerais dos parasitos são incluídos. Não foram observados sinais clínicos, macro lesões ou alterações histopatológicas nas aves.

Palavras-chave: Anatidae; Anseriformes; aves; Brasil; digenéticos; Psilostomidae.

In despite of the great economic importance geese [Anseranser (Linnaeus, 1758)] have overseas, considering the production of pâtés (foigras), meat, eggs, the market of ornamental feathers, the condition of weeders in agriculture, (BUCKLAND & GUY 2002), the role as experimental models in scientific research (CHVALA et al. 2006), and also the use of these birds for warning, they are poorly investigated for helminths, mainly in South American countries.

In Brazil the economic importance of geese has been underestimated may be due to cultural reasons and rising is restricted to backyard flocks generally maintained under poor sanitary conditions. To the date, in despite of the harmful action induced by parasites to the host, data on helminths of geese are restricted to those referred by VICENTE et al. (1995) in a survey of nematodes of Brazilian birds in which Capillariacontorta (Duj., 1845) Travassos, 1915 and Syngamustrachea(Montagu, 1811) Chapin, 1925 from A. anser were included.

This paper deals with the first report of the digenean Psilochasmusoxyurus infecting domestic geese in South America, with brief morphometric data related to the parasites.

From October to November 2005, five specimens (one adult male, two adult females and two young females) of geese (A. anser) weight ranging from 2,450 g (young, 3 months old) and 3,450 g (adults, 8-10 months old), obtained from backyard flocks in two localities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, namely Magé (22º39’10"S, 43º02’26"W) and Rio de Janeiro (22º54’10"S, 43º12’27"W) and of one locality in the State of São Paulo, São José do Rio Preto (20º49’11"S, 49º22’46"W) were investigated for helminths. After individual clinical evaluation, taking into account the general conditions, birds were killed in an ether chamber and submitted to necropsy in accordance to the technique of ZANDER et al. (1997). Procedures for the recovery, processing of worms for study and organs for histological analysis were described elsewhere (PINTO et al. 2004). Helminths were deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (CHIOC). Classification of the trematodes is in accordance with TRAVASSOS et al. (1969). Measurements are in micrometers (µm) unless otherwise indicated and means are in parentheses. Micrographs were obtained in a Zeiss Axyophot brightfield microscope. The development of this study has been authorized by the Committee of Ethics for the Use of Animals (CEUA/Fiocruz) no. P0095-01.

One out of the five necropsied geese (A. anser), a young female, weight 2,100 g was parasitized with digenetic trematodes with a worm burden of 23 specimens, identified as Psilochasmusoxyurus (Creplin, 1835) Lühe, 1909 (Figs 1 and 2). In accordance with MCDONALD (1969), the synonyms of Psilochasmusoxyurus are Distomaoxyurum Creplin, 1825, Psilochasmusagilis Travassos, 1921, PsilochasmuslongicirratusSkrjabin, 1913, and Psilochasmusjaponicum Ishii, 1935.


Morphometrics (based on eight adult compressed specimens)

Body 5.17-7.65 mm (6.62 mm) x 1.92-2.25 mm (2.14 mm); oral sucker 430-520 (473) x 350-450 (388); pharynx 300370 (335) x 170-320 (247); oesophagus 60-620 (267) long; ventral sucker (acetabulum) 660-860 (738) x 640-780 (713); ovary 290-400 (333) x 350-450 (394); seminal vesicle 420-960 (718) x 200-310 (251); anterior testis 950-1,200 (1,082) x 775-1,220 (977); posterior testis 750-1,500 (1,375) x 675-950 (782); eggs 87-122 (101) x 47-70 (56); tail-like process 1.02 mm long, 30 wide at the middle portion; caudal spine of the tail-like process 9-135 x 50-90 (120 x 71) long x wide.

Taxonomic summary

Host. Anseranser (Linnaeus, 1758), Anseriformes, Anatidae, common names: goose, "ganso".

Site of infection. Anterior portion of the small intestine.

Locality. Magé (22º39’10’S, 43º02’26’W), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Material deposited. CHIOC no. 36836 a-h (whole mounts); 36501 (wet material).

Birds did not present clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions.

Psilochasmus oxyurus, the type and only species of the genus, is widely distributed and occurs in several species of waterfowl. Helminth surveys of geese report to a large number of species parasitizing these hosts, mostly in Europe, where these birds are highly considered due to their commercial value. GICIK & ARSLAN (2003) refer to helminth species recovered from geese in Turkey as well in other countries. The survey includes 08 species of trematodes (with no reference to P. oxyurus) 13 of cestodes, and 12 of nematodes. Nevertheless, P. oxyurus has been often referred in other waterfowl hosts worldwide (KINSELLA & FORRESTER 1972, TURNER & THRELFALL 1975, BATHIA et al. 1979, MCLAUGHLIN & BURT 1979, FEDYNICH et al. 1996, DALIMI & MOBEDI 1998). In South America, the species was firstly reported in Brazil by TRAVASSOS (1921) as P. agilis (later considered a synonymy of P. oxyurus), on the basis of specimens recovered from Anasbahamensis Linnaeus, 1758 and in Argentina by SZIDAT (1957) during experimental studies of the life cycle of the species infecting chickens (GallusgallusLinnaeus, 1758) and by LABRIOLA & SURIANO (2001), in an investigation of the community structure of helminths in Larusmaculipennis Lichtenstein, 1823. Thus, to the date, this is the first report of P. oxyurus in a South American specimen of A. anser.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

To Rodrigo Méxas, Laboratório de Produção e Tratamento de Imagens, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, for processing the figures.

Received in 22.XII.2006; accepted in 13.V.2007.

Corresponding author. CNPq research fellow. E-mail: rmpinto@ioc.fiocruz.br

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    27 Aug 2007
  • Date of issue
    June 2007

History

  • Accepted
    13 May 2007
  • Received
    22 Dec 2006
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